Kukulcania utahana ( Chamberlin and Ivie, 1935 ), Chamberlin and Ivie, 1935

Magalhaes, Ivan L. F. & Ramírez, Martín J., 2019, The Crevice Weaver Spider Genus Kukulcania (Araneae: Filistatidae), Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 426, pp. 1-153: 80-86

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http://doi.org/ 10.1206/00030090-426.1.1



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scientific name

Kukulcania utahana ( Chamberlin and Ivie, 1935 )


Kukulcania utahana ( Chamberlin and Ivie, 1935)  

Figures 3B View FIGURE 3 , 27B View FIGURE 27 , 28B View FIGURE 28 , 29B View FIGURE 29 , 7E View FIGURE 7 , 49–52 View FIGURE 49 View FIGURE 50 View FIGURE 51 View FIGURE 52

Filistata utahana Chamberlin and Ivie, 1935: 5   , plate 4, figs. 26–27. Male and female types

from Utah and Colorado states (AMNH), examined.

Kukulcania utahana: Lehtinen, 1967: 242   ; Jiménez, 2004: 272 (unverified record).

EXAMINED TYPE MATERIAL: HOLOTYPE: USA: Utah: Piute Co.: N of Marysville [N38.44875°, W112.22992°], R.V. Chamberlin, 11.vi.1927, 1♂ ( AMNH). GoogleMaps   PARATYPES: USA: Colorado: Montezuma Co   .: 10 miles N Cortéz [N37.49307°, W108.58554°], W. Ivie, 17.vi.1934, 1♀ (AMNH IFM-1557). Utah: Beaver Co .: Sulphurdale [N38.56028°, W112.58111°], 7.vi.1934, 1♀ 1 imm. (AMNH IFM-1532); Washington Co .: Beaver Dam Wash [N37.10535°, W114.02501°], W. Ivie, 18.iv.1932, 1♀ 1 imm. (AMNH), 1♀ (AMNH).

DIAGNOSIS: K . utahana   and K . hurca   are likely sibling species that are very difficult to tell apart. Males are similar to K . hurca   in having a thin, corkscrew-shaped embolus with inconspicuous keel; they can be distinguished by the longer embolus with two clear coils (fig. 50) (in K . hurca   , the first coil is well defined and the second is absent or barely noticeable). Males of K . utahana   might also be darker colored (fig. 49F–G), although light variants exist (fig. 49A, D). We have not been able to find diagnostic characters for distinguishing the females of the two species unambiguously, and all records based on females only are tentative (see Discussion on species limits above); both species have medially directed, lobed membranous portions of the spermathecae whose base is embraced by the glandular portion of the spermathecae, and strongly bent, commashaped sclerotized bars. Specimens assigned to K . utahana   usually have the spermathecae widely spaced and not well projected anteriorly beyond the uterus externus, with a shorter membranous portion of the spermathecae, and with less sculpturing of the sclerotized bars (fig. 52). Female K . utahana   are also generally larger, with wider carapaces and stouter legs (fig. 51).

DESCRIPTION: Male from San Diego Co., California (AMNH IFM-1559). Coloration orangebrown. Carapace finely stippled with brown, with brown V-shaped pattern posteriorly to the eyes. Sternum with white markings. Leg coxae and femora with longitudinal light-brown stripes. Abdomen dorsum brownish gray. Clypeus short. Sternum oval, with two pairs of sigillae. Total length 10.23. Carapace length 4.76, width 4.05, clypeus length 0.31. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME‰.196; PME‰.23; ALE   ‰.291; PLE 0.265; AME–AME 0.086; PME–PME 0.274. Sternum length 2.31, width 2.29. Palp: femur length 5.6, height 0.47; tibia length 5.24, height 0.49. Leg I: femur (fe) 8.8; patella (pa) 2.28; tibia (ti) 8.83; metatarsus (mt) 10.12; tarsus (ta) 3.84. II: fe 7.56; pa 1.8; ti 6.8; mt 8.89; ta 3.37. III: fe 6.62; pa 1.89; ti 5.77; mt 8.56; ta 3.09. IV: fe 8.49; pa 2.11; ti 7.91; mt 11.07; ta 4.32. Abdomen: length 5.99, width 2.62. Palp macrosetae long, in several rows along femur ventral and dorsal faces. Leg macrosetae: fe I 6d, 12p, 19v, 10r; ti I 9d, 43p, 17v, 3r; mt I 11d, 82p, 18v, 12r; ta I 9v; fe II 6d, 5p, 13v, 3r; ti II 6d, 4p, 7v, 3r; mt II 6d, 9p, 14v, 6r; ta II 10v; fe III 5d, 3p, 12v, 5r; ti III 3d, 3p, 7v, 3r; mt III 5d, 6p, 9v, 7r; ta III 11v; fe IV 9d, 14v, 4r; ti IV 5d, 3p, 6v, 3r; mt IV 5d, 7p, 17v, 7r; ta IV 11v. Palp: cymbium long, with anterior bor- der bearing a ring of setae that end close to the embolus; bulb short, subtriangular at base; sperm duct with three tightly packed coils; embolus corkscrew shaped, with two coils, slender, with inconspicuous keel. State of the specimen: good, left palp dissected, right leg I disarticulated from tibia, right leg IV missing from tibia.

Female paratype from Sulphurdale, Utah (AMNH IFM-1532). Carapace orange-brown, finely stippled with brown. Labium, endites orange. Sternum dark brown, very hirsute, with long setae. Legs brown, with orange longitudinal stripes on coxae, femora and tibiae, first and second femora and tibia very hirsute, with long setae. Abdomen dorsum brownish gray. Anterior margin of the carapace unmodified. Sternum oval, with two pairs of sigillae. Total length 13.9. Carapace length 5.39, width 4.83, clypeus length 0.578. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.17; PME 0.27; ALE   0.33; PLE 0.321; AME– AME 0.124; PME–PME 0.295. Sternum length 2.58, width 2.77. Palp: femur length 3.13, height 1.4; tibia length 2.01, height 1.13. Leg I: femur (fe) 6.43; patella (pa) 2.34; tibia (ti) 5.45; metatarsus (mt) 5.29; tarsus (ta) 2.52. II: fe 5.1; pa 2.01; ti 4.01; mt 4.24; ta 2.25. III: fe 4.17; pa 1.89; ti 3.24; mt 3.62; ta 1.92. IV: fe 5.48; pa 2.33; ti 4.4; mt 4.73; ta 2.39. Abdomen: length 9.13, width 7.06. Palp macrosetae on ventral surface of tibia and tarsus. Leg macrosetae present on ventral surfaces of tibiae, metatarsi, and tarsi; all femora and metatarsi II–IV with 2–4 dorsal macrosetae. Calamistrum with three rows of 7–10 setae each. Interpulmonary fold large, rounded, covering the spermathecae dorsally. Sclerotized bars present, strong, bent and comma shaped; membranous portion of the spermathecae apex short, semicircular, medially directed; glandular portion positioned ectally to the membranous portion and embracing its base.

INTRASPECIFIC VARIATION: Males (N = 5): total length 6.26–10.79 (8.71), carapace length 3.03–4.76 (3.81), femur I length 6.28–8.8 (7.62), tibia I length 6.53–8.83 (7.74), femur/carapace ratio 1.85–2.19 (2.02). Females (N = 5): total length 13.16–17.7 (14.54), carapace length 4.19– 7.33 (5.64), femur I length 4.14–6.96 (6.17), tibia I length 3.74–5.83 (5.07), femur/carapace ratio 0.95–1.28 (1.1). The number of macrosetae in the first pair of legs in males varies greatly; the male from Arizona lacks the short, numerous prolateral macrosetae (fig. 49D) that are usually present in other specimens (fig. 49B, F). Color also varies, with some males darker than the others (fig. 49). The coils of the male embolus might be looser (fig. 50J) or tighter (fig. 50G), the two coils might be subequal in size (fig. 50E), and the embolus might be downward directed (fig. 50F). The shape of the spermathecae and the sclerotized bars varies as well (fig. 52).

NATURAL HISTORY: Label data indicate this species has been collected under rocks and logs, in fallen trunks, in webs in holes in the ground, and from Joshua trees ( Yucca brevifolia   ). Males and females have been collected in pitfall traps. Some specimens have been collected in houses and buildings. A female has been found with a broken piece of embolus inside one of her spermathecae; the adjacent sclerotized bar is also broken (fig. 52E). This indicates the embolus reaches the blind end of the membranous portion of the spermathecae apex during mating. Although breakage of palpal sclerites during mating commonly occurs in some spider groups (e.g., Latrodectus, Micrathena   ), we believe this case was accidental, as we have only one observation among several hundreds of Kukulcania   spermathecae dissected by us.

DISTRIBUTION: Southwestern United States, from Utah to Arizona and California, with records in neighboring areas of Colorado and Nevada; Mexico, Baja California, near the border with the United States; records from southern Baja California Sur are based on females only and could belong to K . hurca   (fig. 3B).

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL EXAMINED: MEXICO. Baja California: 3 .7 miles SW La Rumorosa [N32.49132°, W116.11945°], E.L. Sleeper, 10.v.1963, 1♀ (CAS 9060660); Rosarito [N32.36582°, W117.06165°], 9.iv.1937, subadult♀ (AMNH); Rosarito Beach [N32.3661°, W117.06176°], E.S. Ross, 5.iv.1939, 1♀ (CAS 9060637); under stone, 2.iv.1939, 2♀ (CAS 9060621); Sierra Juárez, 5 miles SW La Rumorosa [N32.48128°, W116.14218°, 1372m], S.C. Williams, iv.1969, 1♀ (CAS 9060679). Baja California Sur: Isla Ballena [N24.48235°, W110.40312°], J.C. Chamberlin, 9.vi.1921, 2♀ (MCZ 145354), 2♀ (MCZ 145353); La Paz [N24.14264°, W110.31275°], V. Roth, 1–3.ii.1965, 1♀ (AMNH). Uncertain locality: Mexico Gulf, Isla Pelican, J.C. Chamberlin, 6. vii.1921, 1♀ (MCZ 145358). USA: Arizona: Coconino Co .: 11 miles E Jacobs Lake [N36.71572°, W112.00024°], M.A. Cazier, 10.viii.1950, with egg sac, 1♀ (AMNH); 15 miles E Jacobs Lake, W.J. Gertsch, 17.vii.1940, 1♀ (AMNH); Grand Canyon [N36.10697°, W112.113°, 2134m], 25.v.1905, 1♀ (AMNH); [N36.10697°, W112.113°, 610m], W.M. Meeler, 19.iii.1919, 1♀ (MCZ 145366); [N36.10697°, W112.113°], Lutz, 31.vii.1934, 1♀ (AMNH); Grand Canyon National Park, Tsean Cho, in wall [N36.10697°, W112.113°, 1500m], R. deSaussure, 7.xii.1954, 1♂ (AMNH IFM-1656); Kaibab Forest [N35.88°, W112.00418°], W.J. Gertsch, 10.vii.1931, 1♀ (AMNH); Tusayan [N35.9736°, W112.12656°], 1♀ (MCZ 68567); Williams [N35.24946°, W112.191°], Schwarz and Barber, 10.vi.1901, 1♀ 1 imm. (USNM); Pima Co   .: 3 miles E Veil (N32.03694°, W110.66417°), D. Ubick, 1.viii.1996, 1♂ (DU 96.08.01); Yavapai Co .: Prescott [N34.54002°, W112.4685°], C. and P. Vaurie, 30.vii.1948, 1♀ (AMNH). California: Fresno Co .: Coalinga [N36.13968°, W120.36015°], W.M. Pearce, 12. ii.1950, 1♀ (AMNH); 15.i.1949, 2♀ (AMNH); Inyo Co   .: Haiwee Spring, 3 miles N Coso Hot Spring [N36.0802°, W117.7702°], W. Savary, 29.v.1997, 1♀ (DU 97.05.29); Independence, under stone [N36.80271°, W118.2001°], J.T. Doyen, 21.ix.1974, 1♀ (UCB); just W of Death Valley, Roger’s Peak [N36.21787°, W117.0854°], C. Parrish, 5.ix.1962, with a piece of broken embolus inside spermathecae, 1♀ 10 imm. (AMNH IFM-1638); Little Lake [N35.93661°, W117.90674°], W. Ivie, 6.viii.1931, genitalia mounted in a slide, original specimen not seen, 1♀ (AMNH), 1♀ (AMNH); Upper Haiwee Res. [N36.20049°, W117.95869°], S. and D. Mulaik, 17.iii.1941, 1♀ (AMNH); Kern Co .: 1 mile N Rosamond [N34.86415°, W118.16341°], E.G. Linsley and J.W. McSwain, 12.v.1956, 1♀ (UCB); 10 miles SE Tehachapi [N35.11605°, W118.60057°], J. Buttram, 2.v.1964, 1♀ (CAS 9058496); Kings, near Parejo Hill (N35.62056°, W119.91444°), D. Ubick, 18.v.1997, reached maturity in captivity, 1♂ (CAS 9025726); McKittrick [N35.30552°, W119.62262°], W.M. Pearce, 31.x.1949, 1♀ (AMNH); Los Angeles Co .: [N34.05223°, W118.24369°], collector illegible, xixii.1922, 3♀ 5 imm. (AMNH); J. Bell, iv.1920, 1♀ (AMNH); 15 miles E Palmdale, Joshua tree [N34.50336°, W117.82048°], M.H. Muma and J.O.B. Larrea, 12.vii.1975, 1♀ (AMNH); Angeles National Forest, big pines [N34.31582°, W118.00609°], M.E. Thompson, 17.vii.1966, 1♂ (AMNH IFM-1590); Burbank [N34.18084°, W118.30897°], F. Sala, 9. viii.1957, 1♂ (AMNH); Claremont [N34.09668°, W117.71978°], 1♀ (AMNH); San Gabriel Mountains, Angeles Crest Highway, near highest point [N34.37758°, W117.73847°, 2134m], W.P. Maddison, 27.vi.1985, 1♀ (MCZ 145365); Valyermo, Big Rock Creek [N34.39585°, W117.80722°, 1280m], K. Cowles, 12.vi.1943, 1♀ (AMNH); Westwood Village [N34.0635°, W118.44552°], D. Verrity, K. Cowles and D. Cowles, viii–x.1942, 1♀ (AMNH); Mono Co .: 4 miles S Coleville [N38.51467°, W119.47621°], L.M. Smith, 11.v.1959, 1♀ (AMNH); Benton Station [N37.81854°, W118.47726°], W.M. Pearce, 15. vii.1941, 1♂ (AMNH); 25.vii.1941, 1♂ (AMNH); 30.vii.1941, 1♀ (AMNH); Chalfant [N37.52937°, W118.36345°], 27.vi.1941, 1♀ (AMNH); Riverside Co .: 1 mile N Winchester, Double Butte, on building [N33.7235°, W117.12339°], W. Icenogle, 7.viii.1975, 1♂ (AMNH), 1♂ (AMNH); under rock, S. Johnson, 5.iii.1977, 1♀ several imm. (AMNH); S.C. Johnson, 25.vii.1975, 1♂ (AMNH); Idyllwind [N33.74675°, W116.71526°], W.J. and J.W. Gertsch, 7.vii.1953, 2♀ (AMNH); San Jacinto Mountains, Pine Cove [N33.81446°, W116.67918°], E.S. Ross, 2.vi.1939, 1♀ (CAS 9058480); Winchester, house, dry hillside [N33.7235°, W117.12339°], H. Levi and W. Icenogle, 22.viii.1978, 1♀ (MCZ 145362); on web in hole, W. Icenogle, 29.vii.1967, 1♀ (AMNH); San Bernardino Co .: [N35.63351°, W115.68836°], Schriede, no date, 2♂ (ZMB 1013); Fairmont, Mojave desert [N35.01099°, W115.47336°], L. Moszkowski, ix.1955, 1♀ (AMNH); Keystone Canyon [N35.27166°, W115.27554°], J. Doyen, 21.iv.1977, 1♀ (UCB); Phelan [N34.42629°, W117.57256°], W.J. Gertsch, Ivie and Schrammel, 19.iv.1960, 2♀ (AMNH); Yucca Valley   [N34.11417°, W116.43224°], L. Lilly, 28.i.1971, 1♀ (CAS 9060664); V. Roth, 15.iv.1961, 1♀ (AMNH); 3 miles NW, R.L. Langston, 10.iv.1965, 1♀ (UCB); San Diego Co .: [N32.71574°, W117.16108°], 1924, 1♀ (AMNH); M. Schulze, 7.iii.1972, 1♀ 1 imm. (USNM IFM-1545); pitfall trap, B.M.C., x.1970, subadult♀ (USNM IFM-1556); Alpine [N32.83251°, W116.76634°], W.M. Pearce, 9.v.1947, 1♀ (AMNH); 9.vi.1948, 1♀ (AMNH); El Cajón [N32.79477°, W116.96253°], 11.vi.1947, 1♀ (AMNH); Lakeside, Eucalyptus Hills   [N32.85727°, W116.92224°], M. Cox, 30.vii.1976, 1♂ (AMNH IFM-1559); Otay Mesa, Johnson Canyon [N32.55947°, W116.97347°], S.C. Johnson, 9.iv.1976, 1♀ (AMNH); San Ysidro [N32.55556°, W117.04704°], W.M. Pearce, 30.iv.1953, 1♀ (AMNH); Sunnyside [N32.66331°, W117.0325°], 26.vii.1965, 1♀ (AMNH); Sierra Co .: Peavine [N39.67769°, W120.00659°], 24.x.1946, 1♀ (AMNH); 31.v.1940, 1♂ (AMNH); 5.vii.1940, 1♂ 1 imm. (AMNH); Ventura Co .: Kern, Mt. Pinos [N34.81284°, W119.14543°], Roth and Roth, 31. vii.1961, 1♀ (AMNH); uncertain locality: high desert, fallen trunk of Joshua tree, L. Jacobson, spring/1970, 1♀ (MCZ 145361). Colorado: Montezuma Co   .: Mesa Verde National Park [N37.23087°, W108.46183°], B. Malkin, 20.viii.1952, 1♀ (AMNH). Nevada: Esmeralda Co   .: Goldfield [N37.70845°, W117.23571°, 1740m], D. Weissman and V.F. Lee, 18.iv.1998, 1♀ (CAS 9058499); Nye Co .: Mercury, can traps [N36.66051°, W115.99448°], D. Thomas, 5.vi.1971, 1♂ (CAS 9057578); Nevada Test Site, 10. vii.1963, 1♂ (AMNH); 10.viii.1964, 1♂ (AMNH); 15.vii.1961, 1♂ (AMNH); 22.iii.1962, 1♀ (AMNH); 28.vi.1961, 1♂ (AMNH IFM-1199); 9.vii.1960, 1♂ (AMNH); Nevada Test Site, CETO, 20.vii.1972, 1♂ (CAS 9058472); Washoe Co .: N. of Reno, sage brush [N39.52963°, W119.8138°], B.T. Gardner, viii.1965, 1♀ (MCZ 145364); Reno, UNLR [N39.54243°, W119.8163°], x.1939, 2♀ (AMNH). Utah: Box Elder Co .: Kosmo [N41.53801°, W113.1918°], G.F. Knowlton, 18.iv.1974, 1♀ (MCZ 145360); Salt Lake Co .: Copperton, dry sage slope [N40.56467°, W112.09744°, 1500m], H. Levi, 18.iv.1961, 1♀ (MCZ 145363); Sevier Co .: Sevier Canyon [N38.58913°, W112.40188°], B. Malkin, 25.vi.1947, 1♀ (AMNH); W.J. Gertsch, 18.vii.1940, 1♀ (AMNH); Washington Co .: 10 miles N Saint George [N37.24618°, W113.6277°], 21.vii.1952, 1♀ (AMNH); Pintura [N37.34082°, W113.27412°, 1067m], O. Bryant, 23.iv.1952, 1♀ (CAS 9060616).


USA, New York, New York, American Museum of Natural History














Kukulcania utahana ( Chamberlin and Ivie, 1935 )

Magalhaes, Ivan L. F. & Ramírez, Martín J. 2019

Kukulcania utahana

: Lehtinen 1967: 242

Filistata utahana

Chamberlin and Ivie 1935: 5