Kukulcania santosi, Magalhaes & Ramírez, 2019

Magalhaes, Ivan L. F. & Ramírez, Martín J., 2019, The Crevice Weaver Spider Genus Kukulcania (Araneae: Filistatidae), Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 426, pp. 1-153: 109-115

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1206/00030090-426.1.1



persistent identifier


treatment provided by


scientific name

Kukulcania santosi

sp. nov.

Kukulcania santosi   , sp. nov.

Figures 1 View FIGURE 1 F–I, 4 View FIGURE 4 A, 5 View FIGURE 5 E, 6 View FIGURE 6 C, 8 View FIGURE 8 C, 27 View FIGURE 27 D, 28 View FIGURE 28 D, 29 View FIGURE 29 D, 31 View FIGURE 31 D, 65–68 View FIGURE 65 View FIGURE 66 View FIGURE 67 View FIGURE 68

Kukulcania brevipes: Lehtinen, 1967: 242   (misidentified); Brescovit and Santos, 2013: 302, figs. 1A–C, 2A–C, 3A, 4A–B, 5, 6, 7, 8A–C (misidentified).

Filistata brevipes: Alegre et al., 1977: 64   (misidentified).

Kukulcania hibernalis: Taucare-Ríos, 2010: 84   , figs. 1–2 (misidentified).

TYPE MATERIAL: HOLOTYPE: MEXICO. Chiapas: Tuxtla Gutiérrez   [N16.7516°, W93.10299°], C. and P. Vaurie, 7.vii.1955, 1♂ ( AMNH IFM- 1678). GoogleMaps   PARATYPES: EL SALVADOR. La Tecla: [N13.67578°, W89.28947°], N.L.H. Krauss, x.1959, 1♀ (AMNH). San Salvador: [N13.69294°, W89.21819°], 1♀ (AMNH), [N13.69294°, W89.21819°] v.1966, 1♀ (MCZ 41325); J.B. Boursot, i–iii.1954, 1♀ (AMNH IFM-1679). MEXICO. Chiapas: Tuxtla Gutiérrez   [N16.7516°, W93.10299°], R.B. and J.M. Salander, 19.vi.1955, 1♀ (AMNH). Oaxaca: 12 miles W Tehuantepec (N16.2°, W95.2°), W.J. Gertsch and W. Ivie, 29. iv.1963, 3♀ 8 imm. (AMNH); Juan García (N16.31°, W95.47°), J. and W. Ivie, 1.ix.1964, 1♂ 3♀ (AMNH IFM-1646); Salina Cruz   [N16.18428°, W95.20876°], H. Wagner, 27. viii.1947, 2♀ 2 imm. (AMNH IFM-1528). NICA- RAGUA. León: [N12.43155°, W86.87222°], B. Garcete, xi.1989, 1♀ (MCZ 41331). PERU. Arequipa: Camaná, km 842 [S16.62355, W72.71047], 28.ii.2004, L. Tejada, 1♀ (MACN- Ar 35013); Caravelí, Acarí [S15.43845, W74.61808], vi.2003, R; Gutiérrez R., 1♂ (MACN-Ar 35011); La Cano [S16.531645, W71.91511, 1350m], 27.i.2004, L. Tejada, 2♀ (MACN-Ar 35012). La Libertad: near Trujillo, Hacienda Cartavio [S8.10905°, W79.02153°], W. Weyrauch, vi–vii.1939, 2♂ 1♀ (AMNH IFM- 1403). Lima: Cañete, Lunahuana (S12.97691°, W76.16278°m, 423m), A.D. Brescovit et al., 18. vi.2012, 2♂ 3♀ (UFMG 13224), 8♂ 20♀ (IBSP 163498, 163501, 163503–163504); Chilca

(S12.5266°, W76.70336°, 135m), A.D. Brescovit et al., 18.vi.2012, 3♂ 3♀ (UFMG 13223), 6♂ 18♀ (IBSP 163512–163513); Canta, Santa Rosa de Quives (S11.66667°, W76.8°), J. Coddington, 18.vi.1988, 3♂ 7♀ (USNM), 14.VII.1985, D. Silva D., 1♂ (MUSM); 19.V.1985, D. Silva D., 1♂ (MUSM); 19.V.1984, S. Cárdenas, 1♀ (MUSM); Huaral, Reserva Nacional de Lachay (S11.35669°, W77.3285°, 230m), 15.vi.2012, A.D. Brescovit et al., 3♀ 1 imm. (UFMG 13225), 9♀ (IBSP 163505); Quebrada Verde [S12.21667°, W76.86667°], W. Weyrauch, viii.1948, 1♀ 2 imm. (CAS 9057612).

REMARKS: This species has been described by Brescovit and Santos (2013) under the name Kukulcania brevipes ( Keyserling, 1883)   . As it turns out, this was a mistaken identification— Keyserling’s description is clearly that of a prithine spider, and thus Filistata brevipes   belongs in one of the South American prithine genera (see Pikelinia brevipes   below). This means that the species described by Brescovit and Santos (2013) is actually an unnamed Kukulcania   , which is treated here. W.J. Gertsch recognized this species under the manuscript name “ Filistata tropica   ,” although he also misidentified several K . hibernalis   from Central and South America under this name. He applied the name “ Filistatoides brevipes (Keyserling)   ” (a combination never formally proposed) to a Peruvian Pikelinia Mello-Leitão   , indicating he was aware that Keyserling’s name applied to a prithine spider. The record of K . hibernalis   from northern Chile ( Taucare-Ríos, 2010) is actually this species; we did not examine the original specimen, but his photos showing a spider with stout legs and deep, reddish-brown coloration indicate it is a K . santosi   female rather than a K . hibernalis   .

ETYMOLOGY: The name is patronym in honour of our friend and colleague Adalberto J. Santos, in recognition of his contributions to the study of Neotropical arachnids and to the scientific development of the first author.

DIAGNOSIS: Males are easily distinguished from all Kukulcania   species by the presence of thick setae with spatulate apices on the prolat- eral border of the cymbium (fig. 66). Females are easily distinguished from all Kukulcania   species by the short, straight, subquadrate sclerotized bars (fig. 68).

DESCRIPTION: Male holotype from Tuxtla Gutiérrez   , Chiapas, Mexico (AMNH IFM-1678). Coloration light orange. Carapace finely stippled with brown. Labium endites, sternum, and coxae yellowish cream. Abdomen dorsum grayish brown, light yellow cardiac area. Clypeus short. Sternum oval, with two pairs of barely visible sigillae. Total length 6.39. Carapace length 2.83, width 2.43, clypeus length 0.223. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.171; PME 0.193; ALE   0.23; PLE 0.219; AME–AME 0.045; PME–PME 0.21. Sternum length 1.35, width 1.34. Palp: femur length 3.42, height 0.44; tibia length 3.28, height 0.46. Leg I: femur (fe) 5.36; patella (pa) 1.37; tibia (ti) 5.46; metatarsus (mt) 5.91; tarsus (ta) 2.87. II: fe 4.28; pa 1.14; ti 3.66; mt 4.35; ta 2.27. III: fe 3.87; pa 1.03; ti 3.06; mt 3.78; ta 2.11. IV: fe 4.98; pa 1.22; ti 4.43; mt 5.2; ta 2.48. Abdomen: length 3.69, width 2.01. Palp macrosetae long, in several rows along femur ventral and dorsal faces. Leg macrosetae: fe I 10d, 5p, 13v, 12r, all short; ti I 2p, 8v; mt I 2p, 13v, 1r; ta I 9v; fe II 10d, 1p, 12v, 4r; ti II 1d, 2p, 7v; mt II 5p, 8v, 2r; ta II 8v; fe III 6d, 4p, 10v, 1r; ti III 1d, 2p, 4v, 2r; mt III 1d, 4p, 9v, 4r; ta III 11v; fe IV 11d, 10v, 2r; ti IV 6v, 2r; mt IV 4p, 10v, 3r; ta IV 16v. Palp: cymbium about as long as bulb, with anterior border bearing a ring of setae that end close to the embolus, and a protruding prolateral edge bearing strong, thick setae with spatulate apices; bulb short, subtriangular; sperm duct with three tightly packed coils; embolus short, slightly curved, with a conspicuous keel. State of the specimen: regular, both palps dissected, right leg II and left legs I and III missing from tibia, right leg I disarticulated from tibia, right leg III disarticulated from trochanter.

Female paratype from San Salvador, El Salvador (AMNH IFM-1679). Coloration reddish brown. Carapace finely stippled with dark brown. Sternum and legs not particularly hirsute. Legs with light-brown longitudinal stripes on coxae, femora, and tibiae. Abdomen dorsum grayish brown. Anterior margin of the carapace unmodified. Sternum oval, with two pairs of sigillae. Total length 11.12. Carapace length 4.6, width 3.49, clypeus length 0.6. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.22; PME 0.285; ALE   0.324; PLE 0.3; AME–AME 0.09; PME–PME 0.3. Sternum length 1.92, width 2.07. Palp: femur length 2.39, height 1.02; tibia length 1.4, height 0.81. Leg I: femur (fe) 4.84; patella (pa) 1.71; tibia (ti) 4.51; metatarsus (mt) 4.05; tarsus (ta) 2.12. II: fe 3.74; pa 1.44; ti 3.01; mt 2.84; ta 1.58. III: fe 3.23; pa 1.31; ti 2.51; mt 2.41; ta 1.42. IV: fe 4.39; pa 1.51; ti 3.68; mt 3.3; ta 1.53. Abdomen: length 6.9, width 5.03. Palp macrosetae on ventral surface of tibia and tarsus. Leg macrosetae present on ventral surfaces of tibiae, metatarsi, and tarsi; all femora 2–4 dorsal macrosetae, metatarsus III with one dorsal macroseta. Calamistrum with three rows with 7–9 setae each. Interpulmonary fold large, rounded, covering the spermathecae dorsally. Sclerotized bars present, short and subquadrate; membranous portion of the spermathecae subrounded, positioned anteriorly to the sclerotized bars; glandular portion of the spermathecae apex positioned ventrally to the membranous portion in a small patch. State of the specimen: good, genitalia dissected.

INTRASPECIFIC VARIATION: Males (N = 5): total length 6.39–8.66 (7.06), carapace length 2.66–3.67 (3.02), femur I length 4.97–7.62 (5.88), tibia I length 5.46–7.58 (6.27), femur/carapace ratio 1.87–2.08 (1.95). Females (N = 5): total length 9.01–12.84 (10.6), carapace length 3.39– 5.24 (4.3), femur I length 3.58–5.45 (4.43), tibia I length 3.31–4.99 (4.07), femur/carapace ratio 1–1.06 (1.03). The shape of the female genitalia is only slightly variable (fig. 68).

NATURAL HISTORY: Label data indicate that specimens have been taken in synanthropic settings such as walls and around villages and houses. Others have been collected in lush cloud forest (in Costa Rica) or dry, rocky, disturbed roadsides (in Peru). Brescovit and Santos (2013) reported that specimens collected by them were always associated with human dwellings, walls, or piles of debris. They also observed females guarding egg sacs (fig. 1G) or accompanied by immatures in their webs (fig. 1H), suggesting maternal care for the offspring. Alegre et al. (1977) studied the venom of this species. Rabbits and rats inoculated with extremely high doses (pooled venoms from 8–10 glands) presented symptoms such as rapid muscular contractions, increased salivation, urination, and rapid respiration, with eventual death of some animals. However, they concluded this species is not potentially dangerous to humans.

DISTRIBUTION: Southern Mexico, in Chiapas and Oaxaca states; eastern Central America, from El Salvador to Nicaragua and Costa Rica; Peru and northern Chile (fig. 4A). The South American populations are probably introduced.

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL EXAMINED: COSTA RICA. Cartago: Villa Mills   , lush cloud forest [N9.56451°, W83.70792°], Riechert, 12.vii.1970, 1♀ 1 imm. (AMNH IFM-1529). MEXICO. Chiapas: 5 .5 miles E Tuxtla Gutiérrez   [N16.7516°, W93.10299°], R.B. and J.M. Salander, 22.vi.1955, 1♀ 2 imm. (AMNH); Tonala [N16.0844°, W93.76151°], 2♀ 1 imm. (AMNH), 1♀ (AMNH); A. Petrunkevitch, viii.1909, female genitalia mounted on a slide, 1♀ (AMNH). NICARAGUA. Chinandega: El Viejo, Santo Thomas, Villa   Argentina, in walls in house (N12.75°, W87.396°, 38m), C. Víquez and J. Mata, 26.xi.2007, 1♀ (AMNH). León: La Paz Centro, El Papalonal, around village and houses (N12.4822°, W86.4775°, 67m), 3.xii.2007, 2♀ (AMNH). PERU. Ancash: Huárez, behind Ica Museum [S9.52612°, W77.52878°], A. Moreton, 16.i.1973, 2♀ (MCZ 40560). Libertad: Laredo [S8.08199°, W78.96276°], A.F. Archer, 7.xi.1966, 1♀ (AMNH); Trujillo [S8.10905°, W79.02153°], 1967, 1♂ (AMNH), La Floresta [S8.10905°, W79.02153°], 1965, 3♀ (AMNH). Lima: [S12.04637°, W77.04279°], P. Aguilar, iii.1965, 1♂ (AMNH IFM-1680); W. Weyrauch, 5♀ 9 imm. (AMNH); i.1939, 1 imm. (AMNH); 500m S of Bartolome, road leading out of Lima, dry, rocky, disturbed roadside, J. Palmer, 26.iii.1988, 1♀ (MCZ 40787); 8 km E Chosica [S12.00175°, W76.85485°], I.G. Rozen, 3.vii.1995, 1♀ (AMNH); Canta, Santa Rosa de Quives (S11.66667°, W76.8°), J. Coddington, 18.vi.1988, subadult♀ 3 imm. (USNM); Magdalena Vieja, Ascona Farm [S12.07876°, W77.06554°], 16.v.1920, 1♀ (AMNH); San Antonio, Mala [S12.65749°, W76.6297°], 8. ii.1965, 5♀ 4 imm. (MCZ 40903). Loreto: Iquitos   [S3.74381°, W73.25169°], xi.1962, 1♀ (AMNH). Paita: [S5.09385°, W81.09622°], W. Weyrauch, 14.xii.1953, 1♀ 5 imm. (CAS 9057596). Piura: Negritos [S4.65064°, W81.30418°], H. Exline-Frizzell, 1941, 1♂ (AMNH); 12.vi.1939, 6♀ (AMNH IFM-1404).


USA, New York, New York, American Museum of Natural History














Kukulcania santosi

Magalhaes, Ivan L. F. & Ramírez, Martín J. 2019

Kukulcania hibernalis: Taucare-Ríos, 2010: 84

: Taucare-Rios 2010: 84

Filistata brevipes:

Alegre 1977: 64

Kukulcania brevipes

: Lehtinen 1967: 242