Rhaucus vulneratus Simon, 1879

García, Andrés F. & Kury, Adriano B., 2017, Taxonomic revision of the Andean harvestman genus Rhaucus Simon, 1879 (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cosmetidae), Zootaxa 4338 (3), pp. 401-440 : 405-412

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4338.3.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:0D53EB9D-2D0B-4438-851B-A98563D16DCC

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6004642

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/546E685E-9F0F-A618-9493-7BB1227AFD15

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Rhaucus vulneratus Simon, 1879
status

 

Rhaucus vulneratus Simon, 1879

( Figs 1a–b View FIGURE 1 , 2–5 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 View FIGURE 5 , 18a View FIGURE 18 , 19a–b View FIGURE 19 , 22 View FIGURE 22 )

Rhaucus vulneratus Simon, 1879: 213 ; Pickard-Cambridge, 1905: 572; Roewer, 1912a: 78; Roewer, 1923: 349, fig. 400; Mello- Leitão, 1923: 113; Mello- Leitão, 1932: 57, fig. 23; Mello- Leitão, 1933: 110; Kury, 2003: 83.

Rhaucus (Rhaucus) vulneratus: Sørensen, 1932: 355 .

Raucus vulneratus [subsequent incorrect spelling]: González-Sponga, 1992: 427.

Neorhaucus aurolineatus Pickard-Cambridge, 1905: 572 ; Roewer, 1912a: 25; Roewer, 1923: 305; Kury, 2003: 74. New synonymy

Type material. ♂♀ syntypes of Rhaucus vulneratus (MNHN, examined by photograph); ♂ holotype of Neorhaucus aurolineatus (BMNH 1891.8.1.958–959 Coll. Keyserling, examined).

Distribution and habitat. COLOMBIA, Boyacá Department: Toca. Cundinamarca Department: Bogotá, La Calera, Mosquera, San Antonio del Tequendama, Subachoque, Zipaquirá. Between 2300 and 3600 m a.s.l., especially in the Northern Andean páramo ecoregion ( Figs 22 View FIGURE 22 , 24b View FIGURE 24 ).

Diagnosis. Five orange transverse stripes on DS (sometimes divided or rarely absent, contrasting with all other species of Rhaucus ), the anterior one V-shaped and delimiting the anterior border of area I ( Figs 2a View FIGURE 2 , 18a View FIGURE 18 ); a pair of short tubercles in area III ( Figs 2c–d View FIGURE 2 ; contrasting with taller tubercles in all other species of Rhaucus ); prolateral row of tubercles of same size in legs III and IV weakly developed ( Figs 3d–e View FIGURE 3 ) (increasing in size distally in R. quinquelineatus , strongly developed in R. florezi sp. nov.).

Redescription. Male (ICN-AO-437)

Measurements: CL=2.1, CW=3.2, AL=3.8, AW=4.3, BaCh=0.7, FeL III=3.8, FeL IV=4.8, TiL III=2.8, TiL IV=3.5. Intraespecific variation of body and appendages measurements in Table 1.

Species n Measurements (max–min, in mm)

CL CW AL AW BaCh Rhaucus vulneratus 6 2.0–2.1 3.0–3.6 3.2–3.8 3.8–4.3 0.7–0.8 Rhaucus quinquelineatus 7 2.0–2.3 2.9–3.6 3.0–3.6 3.8–4.2 0.7–0.8 Rhaucus serripes 7 2.0–2.1 3.4–4.2 3.4–4.0 5.0–5.3 0.5–0.6 Rhaucus robustus 3 2.0–2.3 4.0–5.0 4.0–4.8 5.2–5.6 0.8–1.0 Rhaucus florezi 4 2.1–2.2 3.2–4.1 2.8–3.1 5.0–5.2 0.7–0.9

continued.

Species n Measurements (max–min, in mm)

FeL III FeL IV TiL III TiL IV Rhaucus vulneratus 6 3.2–3.8 4.4–5.2 2.3–3.2 3.1–3.6 Rhaucus quinquelineatus 7 4.1–4.6 5.3–6.1 2.5–3.0 3.4–4.1 Rhaucus serripes 7 4.2–6.0 6.0–8.0 2.8–4.2 4.0–4.6 Rhaucus robustus 3 4.0–5.5 5.0–7.5 3.0–3.7 4.0–5.0 Rhaucus florezi 4 3.6–4.1 4.7–5.0 2.2–2.9 3.1–4.0 Dorsum ( Figs 1a–b View FIGURE 1 , 2a, 2c–e View FIGURE 2 , 3a–b View FIGURE 3 , 18a View FIGURE 18 ): Dorsal scutum alpha type, granulate ( Figs 1a View FIGURE 1 , 2a View FIGURE 2 ), with five orange transverse lines that vary in length and shape ( Figs 1a View FIGURE 1 , 18a View FIGURE 18 ). Abdominal scutum widest at level of groove II; areas I–IV granulate. Carapace with a few granules on the anterolateral region ( Figs 2a View FIGURE 2 , 3a View FIGURE 3 ). Ocularium low without median depression, armed with a cluster of granules ( Figs 2c–e View FIGURE 2 , 3a–b View FIGURE 3 ). Lateral margins of DS with a few minute granules on the medial region ( Figs 2a View FIGURE 2 , 3a View FIGURE 3 ). Mesotergum faintly delimited, divided into four areas: area I with a pair of medium-sized paramedian tubercles; area II and IV with a pair of small paramedian tubercles; area III with a pair of paramedian, mammilliform, medium-sized tubercles ( Figs 2c–d View FIGURE 2 , 3a–b View FIGURE 3 ). Posterior border of scutum substraight and with a row of tubercles. Free tergites I-III with a row of granules ( Figs 2a, 2d View FIGURE 2 , 3a–b View FIGURE 3 ).

Venter ( Figs 2b View FIGURE 2 , 4h View FIGURE 4 ): Stigmatic area with a few granules. Stigmata large, oval and transverse. Coxa I with two parallel rows of tubercles increasing in size distally and with an anterior smooth space for the pedipalps to rest ( Fig. 4h View FIGURE 4 ); coxa II longer than coxa I, granulate; coxa III longer than I and II, granulate, with posterior margin sigmoid; coxa IV strongly backward, granulate ( Fig. 2b View FIGURE 2 ). Genital operculum slightly granulate.

Pedipalps ( Figs 4a–d View FIGURE 4 ): Coxa with one meso-distal granule dorsally and ventrally. Trochanter with one dorsal short tubercle and two ventral tubercles fused at base (mesal tubercle taller); femur compressed, dorsally with a row of aligned triangular setiferous tubercles of different sizes –not reaching the distal portion–, ventrally with three basal, fused large setiferous tubercles, three individual conical large setiferous tubercles, two partially fused large setiferous tubercles, and two small tubercles. Patella distally depressed, with dorsal granules; tibia depressed, spoon-shaped, dorsally granulate, with lateral borders tuberculate and some spiniferous tubercles at distal portion ( Figs 4a–b View FIGURE 4 ); inner surface slightly striated ( Fig. 4c View FIGURE 4 ). Tarsus long, conical, with some dorsal granules and ventrally with two rows of thickened setae ( Fig. 4d View FIGURE 4 ).

Chelicera ( Figs 2 View FIGURE 2 , 4e–f View FIGURE 4 ): Chelicera swollen. Basichelicerite rectangular, with dispersed granules, one group of tubercles of different sizes on the proximal border, one large ecto-distal tubercle, and one medium-sized, mesodistal tubercle. Hand with one tubercle near the joint of the movable finger. Fixed finger with the inner surface finely grooved. Movable finger with one conical, sub-basal tooth and with the inner surface at distal portion dentate ( Fig. 4f View FIGURE 4 ).

Legs ( Figs 2a–b View FIGURE 2 , 3c–e View FIGURE 3 , 4g –i View FIGURE 4 ): Coxae I–II each with an irregular dorsal anterior and dorsal posterior process ( Fig. 4g View FIGURE 4 ); coxa III with one sub-distal retrolateral granule; coxa IV coarsely granulate ( Figs 2a View FIGURE 2 , 3a View FIGURE 3 , 4h View FIGURE 4 ), with a prominent anterolateral clavi inguines (ci) and a posterolateral multicapitate apophysis (mca) ( Fig. 4i View FIGURE 4 ). Trochanter I–II dorsally with some minute granules and ventrally with some tubercles; trochanter III with one prodorsal tubercle and one retrolateral robust tubercle; and ventrally with a few lateral granules; trochanter IV with one group of prodorsal granules and one group of retrolateral granules (one of them larger and ventrally projected) ( Figs3d– e View FIGURE 3 ). Femora I–IV sigmoid, granulated; III–IV ventrally with two longitudinal sigmoid rows of conical tubercles all along its length, of different sizes, and one prolateral and one retrolateral row of tubercles (dorsally evident) ( Figs 3d–e View FIGURE 3 ). Patellae I–IV dorsally granulate, curved; patella IV with some distal retrolateral granules ( Fig. 3e View FIGURE 3 ). Tibiae I– IV granulate; tibiae III–IV sigmoid, with two longitudinal sigmoid rows of conical tubercles of same size all along its length (the distal-most tubercle of tibia III fused, visible in retrolateral view) ( Fig. 3d View FIGURE 3 ), tibia IV the same, slightly more granulate than tibia III ( Fig. 3e View FIGURE 3 ). Metatarsus I–IV with one ventrodistal seta. Tarsi I–II with one smooth claw; tarsi III–IV with 2 subparallel smooth claws and tarsal process ( Fig. 3c View FIGURE 3 ). Tarsal counts: 6(3)–6(3)/ 12(3)–12(3)/9–?/10–9. Intraspecific variations in Table 2.

Color (in ethanol): Carapace Dark Brown (59), reticulated in the ocularium. Lateral and posterior border of dorsal scutum and free tergites Deep Brown (56). Transverse lines of carapace Vivid Orange (48). Pedipalps, coxae I–IV, chelicera and trochanters Strong Brown (55), reticulated. Legs I–IV Strong Reddish Brown (40). This species has the darkest carapace, more evident in living specimens ( Figs 1a–b View FIGURE 1 ).

Male genitalia ( Figs 5a–e View FIGURE 5 ): VP of penis subrectangular with concave distal border; VP with two lateral, elongated, dense patches of type 4 microsetae, separated by a narrow longitudinal space ( Figs5c, 5e View FIGURE 5 ). VP with two apical MS C curved and laterally inserted; two MS D, the most distal (D1) large and straight following the same lateral row as MS C, and the other (D2) smaller, inserted dorso-laterally on the middle third of VP ( Fig. 5a View FIGURE 5 ); two MS A straight and laterally inserted, near to D2 ( Fig. 4b View FIGURE 4 ); two small MS E volcano-shaped on the ventral face ( Fig. 5e View FIGURE 5 ); one small MS B volcano-shaped inserted laterally at the base of the VP ( Fig. 5c View FIGURE 5 ). Glans mostly smooth; stylus long, falciform, papillae-like wattle barbels, finger-like dorsal process slender ( Fig. 5d View FIGURE 5 ). Remarks: Fig. 5a View FIGURE 5 shows three MS A in one individual, while Fig. 5b View FIGURE 5 shows two MS A in one side and one MS A in the other side of ventral plate of another individual. The predominant condition in other specimens of R. vulneratus and other species of Rhaucus is the presence of only two MS A.

Female. Similar to male, but differs by having anterior part of carapace narrower and coda divergent, ocularium lower, abdominal scutum more strongly convex, free tergites and posterior area of scutum wider, tubercles of area III shorter, legs III–IV and associated rows of tubercles thinner, and chelicerae not hyperthelic ( Figs2d–e View FIGURE 2 ). Female genitalia ( Figs 5f–g View FIGURE 5 ): Ovipositor with 10 straight peripheral setae (curved at top), striated ( Fig. 5f View FIGURE 5 ), divided in four rounded lobes (collapsed in photographs), the two anterior ones with more setae than posterior. Tip of setae irregular; tridentate ( Fig. 5g View FIGURE 5 ).

Rhaucus

Number of tarsomeres

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Rhaucus vulneratus

Rhaucus quinquelineatus ! Rhaucus serripes ! Rhaucus robustus " Rhaucus florezi ! " Rhaucus vulneratus # $

Rhaucus quinquelineatus $! $ Rhaucus serripes $! " Rhaucus robustus !

Rhaucus florezi $ $

Rhaucus vulneratus % Rhaucus quinquelineatus ! Rhaucus serripes ! Rhaucus robustus

Rhaucus florezi ! " Rhaucus vulneratus

Rhaucus quinquelineatus ! Rhaucus serripes ! Rhaucus robustus

Rhaucus florezi $ Other material examined. 43 specimens (15 males, 28 females) in 13 lots. COLOMBIA: Cundinamarca Department : Bogotá, 1♀ (ICN-AO-67), Páramo de Chisacá [4°22'N; 74°10'W], ii.1976, O. Castaño & P. Ureña leg. GoogleMaps ; 1♂ 2♀ (ICN-AO-238), Páramo Cruz Verde [4°34'N 74°1'W], 2600 m, v.2010, E. Florez & C. Mattoni leg. GoogleMaps ; 5♂ 1♀ (ICN-AO-437), Usme Vereda Corinto, Cerro Redondo, Páramo Parada del Viento [4°25'N 74°7'W], 3100 m, 17.v.2008, I. Morales leg. GoogleMaps ; 1♀ (ICN-AO-495), Usme, Páramo de Chisacá [4°17'N 74°12'W], 3600 m, 28.ii.1976, I. de Arevalo & R. Restrepo leg. GoogleMaps ; Mosquera, 1♂ 9♀ (ICN-AO-199), Desierto de Sabrinsky [4°40'50.33''N 74°14'57.74''W], 2600 m, 2.v.2002, C. Niño, J. Martínez & G. Mora leg. GoogleMaps ; 1♀ (ICN-AO-1020), Mondoñedo [4°40'N 74°14'W], 2600 m, 23.iii.2009, C. Cantor leg. GoogleMaps ; 1♂ 2♀ (ICN-AO-1034), Desierto de Sabrinzky , [4°40'N 74°14'W], 2650 m, 6.v.2012, D. Triana & S. Galvis leg. GoogleMaps ; 1♂ 1♀ ( MNRJ 9098 View Materials ), same data as ICN-AO-1034 GoogleMaps ; 2♂ 1♀ (ICN-AO- 1403), Sabrinsky [4.674983 -74.260131], 10.i.2014, J. Guerrero leg. ; La Calera, 1♀ (ICN-AO-482), E.A.A.B. Club La Aguadora - Embalse de San Rafael [4°42'N 74°0'W], 2700 m, ix.2000, P. Barriga & D. Tobar leg. GoogleMaps ; Subachoque, 7♀ (ICN-AO-990), Páramo El Tablazo [5°1'N 74°10'W], 3200 m, 9.ii.2012, J. Martínez leg. GoogleMaps ; Zipaquirá , 2♂ 1♀ (ICN-AO-1197), Vereda Ventalarga, Represa Pantanoredondo [05°2'N 74°2'W], 3000 m, 27.iv.2003, E. Florez & UN biology students leg.; San Antonio del Tequendama GoogleMaps , 1♂ (ICN-AO-1397), Los Tunos Natural Reserve [4°33'47.48''N 74°18'55.69''W], 2300 m, 28.v.2012, W. Galvis leg. Boyacá Department GoogleMaps : Toca, 1♂ (ICN-AO-1183), Vereda La Chorrera [05°33'N 73°6'W], 20.xii.2012, D. Triana leg. GoogleMaps

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Opiliones

Family

Cosmetidae

Genus

Rhaucus

Loc

Rhaucus vulneratus Simon, 1879

García, Andrés F. & Kury, Adriano B. 2017
2017
Loc

vulneratus

Gonzalez-Sponga 1992: 427
1992
Loc

Neorhaucus aurolineatus

Kury 2003: 74
Roewer 1923: 305
Roewer 1912: 25
Pickard-Cambridge 1905: 572
1905
Loc

Rhaucus vulneratus

Kury 2003: 83
Leitao 1933: 110
Leitao 1932: 57
Roewer 1923: 349
Leitao 1923: 113
Roewer 1912: 78
Pickard-Cambridge 1905: 572
Simon 1879: 213
1879