Trimma lantana Winterbottom & Villa, 2004,

Winterbottom, Richard & Hoese, Douglass F., 2015, A revision of the Australian species of Trimma (Actinopterygii, Gobiidae), with descriptions of six new species and redescriptions of twenty-three valid species, Zootaxa 3934 (1), pp. 1-102: 42-48

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3934.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:11C2A2CB-30B3-4694-B379-AE9D47332F0C

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/5519879A-B82A-F36A-FF1F-FAFF6911E840

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Trimma lantana Winterbottom & Villa, 2004
status

 

Trimma lantana Winterbottom & Villa, 2004 

Lantana  Pygmygoby

Figs 18View FIGURE 18, 21– 23View FIGURE 21View FIGURE 22View FIGURE 23, Pl. 2 B

Trimma lantana Winterbottom & Villa, 2004: 16  (Honiara, Guadalcanal, Solomon Ids); Allen & Erdmann, 2012: 940 ( Indonesia to Solomons, Australia).

Trimma caesiura: Kuiter & Debelius, 2006: 662  ( Indonesia).

Trimma  sp. 1: Kuiter, 1992: 236.

Trimma  sp.: Burgess et al., 1990: 577.

Australian Material. Queensland. Cape Melville, reef off: AMS I. 20774 -116, 2(19–21), 0– 8 m. Escape Reef: AMS I. 22575 -045, 2 (19–20), 7–9 m; AMS I. 22578 -060, 3 (20–22), 6–10 m; AMS I. 22581 -044, 7 (16–21), 10–14 m; AMS I. 22613 -045, 2 (21–23), 27 m; AMS I. 22633 -082, 9 (17–24), 2–11 m; AMS I. 22639 -029, 2 (20–21), 9 m; ROM 40539View Materials, (22), 3–11 m; ROM 40611View Materials, (24), 3– 15 m. Lizard Island: AMS I. 18739 -079, 5 (17–23), 3–10 m; AMS I. 18755 - 109, (16), 4–8 m; AMS I. 19108 -086, 15 (7–24), 1–11 m; AMS I. 20730 -010, 5 (13–20), 20– 22 m. AMS I. 20783 -008, 2 (21–22), 2–4 m; AMS I. 20994 -007, (19), 2–7 m; AMS I. 22732 -009, (19), 0–1 m; NTM S. 11444 - 0 0 1, (25); ROM 1172 CS, 2 (19 – 19), 3–15 m; ROM 39328View Materials, 2(20–21), 3– 15 m. McGillivray Reef: AMS I. 19482 - 133, 7(9–21), 3– 25 m. One Tree Id: AMS I. 20212 -021, (18), 12– 15 m. Raine Id: AMS I. 20775 -122, 2(22–23), 0– 20 m. Tijou Reef: AMS I. 20779 -143, 11(11–22), 0–25 m; AMS I. 20956 -019, 15 (15–27), 22–28 m; ROM 40551View Materials, 3(22 – 22), 3– 12 m. Yonge Reef: AMS I. 18740 -074, 6 (8–22), 9–12 m; AMS I. 19456 -072, 4 (17–20), 5–15 m; AMS I. 19481 -041, (18), 2–6 m; AMS I. 20784 -021, 19 (15–21), 1–15 m; ROM 39333View Materials, 2(16–19), 8– 13 m. Timor Sea off Western Australia: Ashmore Reef: NTM S. 12307 -022, (17), 18–20 m; NTM S. 12318 -057, 2 (19–22), 14–16 m; NTM S. 12322 -048, (20), 12–13 m); WAM P. 29044 -056, (19), 15–18 m; WAM P. 29047 -034, 2 (21–23); WAM P. 29047 -034, 2 (21–26), 11– 16 m. Cartier Reef: NTM S. 12883 -080, 3 (12–22), 13–14 m NTM S. 12884 -012, (22), 12– 13 m. Hibernia Reef: NTM S. 13427 -026, (27), 25 m. Western Australia: North Reef: NTM S. 11383 -029, (26), 20 m. North West Cape: WAM P. 25639, (25), 8–10 m; WAM P. 26631 -040, 7 (18–29), 12– 14 m. Point Quobba: WAM P. 27970 -037, 5 (17–21). Scott Reef: AMS I. 21316 -043, 2 (18–19), 7–10 m; NTM S. 11376 -040, 2 (24–25).

Other material. Indonesia: Ambon: USNM 209773, 3(16–21), 2–3 m; USNM 210256, (20), 0–8 m; USNM 298753, 6(16–22), 14– 16m. Banda: USNM 264583, 11(15–24), 0– 3 m. Liang: USNM 209664, (17), 8 m. Kai Ids: USNM 262643, (17). Raja Ampat Ids: ROM 84901View Materials, (24), 8–25 m; ROM 84929View Materials, 6(12–25), 2–5 m; ROM 85115View Materials, (19), 3–7 m; ROM 85158View Materials, (20), 20–23 m; ROM 85231View Materials, 3(20–23), 12–16 m; ROM 85284View Materials, 4(9–23), 2–28 m; ROM 85323View Materials, 2(18–21), 18–21 m; ROM 85336View Materials, 7(9–22), 3 m; ROM 85375View Materials, 2(18–20), 14–18 m; ROM 87435View Materials, 2(19–21), 18–24 m; ROM 87449View Materials, 2(22–24), 15–18 m; USNM 258775, (15), 0–6 m; WAM P. 31541 -006, 5 (9–23), 18–23 m; WAM P. 32255 -010, 5 (14–18), 8–14 m; WAM P. 33021 -019, (22), 12– 18 m. Palau: Helen Reef: ROM 83077View Materials, 11(9–23), 2–8 m; ROM 83104View Materials, 4(18–22), 7–23 m; ROM 83136View Materials, 9(12–22), 4–8 m; ROM 83147View Materials, (16), 8–20 m; ROM 83193View Materials, (18), 14–23 m; ROM 83219View Materials, 4(20–22), 15–28 m; ROM 83233View Materials, 5(15–19), 8– 20 m. Papua New Guinea: Hermit Ids: USNM 263623, 2(8–13), 0–8 m; USNM 264517, 10(14–25), 0–12 m; USNM 264544, 4(17–19), 0–15 m; USNM 264556, 13(12–24), 0–12 m; USNM 264559, 6(18–23), 0– 33m. Louisiade Islands: WAM P. 31736 -020, 2 (21–22), 20– 25 m. Manus Id: WAM P. 27827 -046, (13), 7– 9 m. Ninigo Ids: USNM 298775, (12). Port Moresby: AMS, (21), 18 m. New Britain: ROM 92115View Materials, 2(15–16), 3 m. Trobriand Ids: USNM 293966, (21), 0–8 m; USNM 295524, (21). Solomon Islands: Hope Id: NTM S. 12710 -008, (19), 6 m. Florida Island: AMS I. 17499 -022, (17), 8– 12 m. Guadacanal: BPBM 16159, (19), 10 m; ROM 46039View Materials, (20.8), 21 m; ROM 46044View Materials, 2(17–19), 5 m; ROM 73436View Materials, 5(12–21), 21 m. Savo Id: AMS I. 17491 -038, (17), 10 m.

Diagnosis. A species of Trimma  with a deep interorbital trench, a deep groove behind the upper half of the eye; second spine of first dorsal fin longest, elongated into a short filament, third sometimes filamentous; dorsal and anal rays usually I 8; midline of predorsal region completely covered with ctenoid scales in 5–8 rows, reaching anteriorly to the interorbital trench; operculum usually naked, but sometimes with one or two small scales dorsally; pectoral-fin base with two vertical rows of 4–5 cycloid scales each, uppermost 1–2 scales largest (distinctly enlarged); prepelvic area covered with 5–8 rows of cycloid scales; upper and lower pectoral rays unbranched, central 5–10 rays branched; pelvic fins largely separate, connected only at the base with one or two scales on the midline extending beyond the connecting membrane, left and right fins widely separated, distance between the bases of the fins about half to three –quarters of the base of each fin; fifth pelvic ray usually with a single dichotomous branch, others with a single sequential branch (2 terminal tips); fifth ray 50–90 % the length of the fourth; nape crest absent; cheek with a bar below the anterior part of the eye; head with large reddish to brown spots (Pacific) or vertical bars (Western Australia), slightly narrower than the pupil diameter; pectoral-fin base usually with 3 reddish spots (light areas in preserved material); body with two zigzag lines anteriorly on the body, large white spots posteriorly on the caudal peduncle and below the bases of the second dorsal and anal fins; and caudal peduncle lighter than the anterior part of the body (yellow in life).

Description. The description is primarily based on specimens from the Great Barrier Reef and Solomon Islands. Dorsal fin usually VI + I 8 (I 7 or I 9 in 4.8 % of individuals), third spines longest, elongated into filament (reaching first segmented rays in juveniles, reaching well beyond end of second dorsal fin in some large adults); first ray of second dorsal fin usually unbranched (branched in 15–30 % of individuals in any sample); anal fin I 8 (rarely I 7 or I 9, in 6.1 % of individuals), first ray usually unbranched (branched in 15–30 % of individuals in any sample); pectoral-fin rays 15–18 (16 in 66 % of specimens, 17 in 26 % of specimens), reaching posteriorly to vertical in line from just beyond anal spine to about second segmented ray; pelvic fin I 5, fins widely separate with very low basal membrane, which is covered by a median scale, distance between bases of fins slightly less than base of each pelvic fin, first four rays with one sequential branch, fifth ray with one dichotomous branch (two terminal tips) or unbranched, 50–90 % length of fourth ray, which reaches posteriorly to below point between anus and anal spine; segmented caudal rays usually 17; branched caudal rays usually 6 upper + 5 lower (5 + 5 or 6 + 6 in <3 % of specimens). Lateral scales 22–24, usually 23; transverse scales 6–8, usually 7; predorsal scales on midline 5–8, usually 6–7, anterior-most of which sometimes distinctly larger than scale behind it, but often subequal in size, scales extending to edge of postorbital trench above posterior part eye; preoperculum scaleless, operculum scaleless or with 1–2 small cycloid scales; scales below second dorsal fin with small accessory scales; pectoral-fin base with two vertical rows of 4–5 large cycloid scales, scales ovoid; prepelvic area with 6–8 rows of cycloid scales; remaining scales ctenoid. Teeth in lower jaw consist of an outer row of curved, slightly enlarged canines ending near bend in dentary and inner row of similar, but smaller canines extending full length of dentary, with irregular row of small conical teeth in between; outer row of teeth in upper jaw similar to those of lower jaw, with 1–2 small irregular inner rows of teeth, innermost row not enlarged. Tongue tip variable in shape, usually with pointed triangular anterior margin, rarely rounded or bilobed. Gill opening extending anteroventrally to below posterior margin of pupil; outer gill rakers on first arch very elongate, almost equal to filament length at angle 2–5 + 15–18 = 19–23, n = 50, mean = 3.6 + 16.4 ( Winterbottom & Villa, 2003, reported 3–4 + 15–17, n = 6, mean = 3.4 + 15.7). Anterior nares a narrow tube, posterior nares small pore with raised rim; nasal sac elevated as raised oval sac located just above upper lip, openings separated by about 4–5 nares diameters. Interorbital as described in diagnosis (see also Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 A of T. caesiura  ), epaxialis musculature attaching to posterior wall of interorbital/postorbital trench. Abdominal/caudal vertebral transition is Type B.

Colour pattern. Freshly collected specimens from Pacific. (From slides of freshly collected specimen from Yonge Reef and Escape Reef ( Fig. 21View FIGURE 21 A), Queensland, Raja Ampat Ids, Papua, Guadalcanal, Solomon Ids and Helen Reef, Palau). Head with large red spots, bordered by thin black rim; anterior spots often dark brown obscuring red colouration; interspaces white forming and irregular network of interconnected lines; snout usually dark blue to dark grey; thin vertical bar below anterior margin of pupil extending to near posterior end of jaws; vertically elongate dark spot below middle of pupil, not reaching to eye, varying in width from thin line to almost as wide as pupil diameter; large oval spot just below posteroventral margin of eye, sometimes triangular or slightly vertically elongate; below this spot vertically elongate to oval reddish spot, slightly smaller than spot in contact with eye; two reddish vertically elongate spots along posterior preopercular margin, often crossing onto operculum, rarely connected to form hourglass-shaped mark; operculum usually with two large spots, one dorsal and one ventral; small red spot directly behind posterodorsal margin of eye, followed dorsally by large red spot; nape with very large (almost equal to eye diameter) triangular spot; white interspaces from head extending onto body as two zigzag lines, one below dorsal fins and one just below middle side; lower stripe sometimes with vertical extension to anal fin base and sometimes other vertical extensions reaching to near anal fin; posteriorly both white lines on body breaking into small white spots; body reddish anteriorly, yellow to orange on caudal peduncle, yellow varying from covering whole of caudal peduncle to only posterior area just before caudal fin; pectoral-fin base with 3 oval red spots; one anteriorly on middle of pectoral-fin base and two posteriorly, one above and one below; upper spot with small mark posterodorsally, sometimes extending ventrally as thin line; dorsal fins with small spots proximally forming horizontal stripe near base of fin; second dorsal fin with small reddish to yellow spots forming 2–3 horizontal lines above base of fin, fin becoming paler distally; anal fin largely clear to dusky, often with small red spots near base of fin; caudal fin with yellow to orange spots often forming wavy bands, more prominent basally; pelvic fin dusky to white, sometimes with faint yellow or orange indistinct markings.

Colouration in life. (Based on a photo by A. Gonzalez-Cabello of an individual from Lizard Island, Queensland, Pl. 2 B). Similar to colouration of freshly collected specimens, except that red colouration more intense and caudal peduncle translucent yellow. Winterbottom & Villa (2004) give detailed description of live and freshly collected material from the Great Barrier Reef.

Freshly collected specimens from mainland of Western Australia. ( Fig. 21View FIGURE 21 B). Head with vertical bands and vertically elongate red to orange spots, bordered by thin black rim; a broad (slightly narrower than pupil diameter) vertical bar below anterior margin of pupil extending to near posterior end of jaws; second vertical bar from posteroventral margin of eye to lower preoperculum; snout slightly darker than rest of head; two reddish orange vertically elongate spots along posterior preopercular margin, often crossing onto operculum; operculum with one large spot dorsally and sometimes faint grey mark ventrally; small orange spot directly behind posterodorsal margin of eye, followed dorsally by large red spot; nape with very large (almost equal to eye diameter) triangular spot; large white interspaces from head extending onto body as two zigzag lines, one below dorsal fins and one just below midside; lower stripe with vertical extension to anal fin base and other vertical extensions reaching to near anal fin and ventrally on caudal peduncle; posteriorly both white lines on body breaking into large white spots; body reddish orange anteriorly, yellowish-orange on caudal peduncle, but only slightly lighter than anterior colouration; pectoral-fin base with three oval red spots; one anteriorly on middle of pectoral-fin base and two posteriorly, one above and one below; upper spot large with wide dark bar posteriorly; fin colouration as described above.

Freshly collected specimen from Halmahera. ( Fig. 21View FIGURE 21 C). Head with vertical bands and vertically elongate red spots, bordered by thin black rim; broad (about half pupil diameter) vertical bar below anterior margin of pupil extending to near posterior end of jaws; short second vertical bar from posteroventral margin of eye to middle of preoperculum; snout slightly darker than rest of head; two reddish orange vertically elongate spots along posterior preopercular margin, crossing only slightly onto operculum; operculum with one large red spot dorsally and faint grey mark ventrally; small orange spot directly behind posterodorsal margin of eye, followed dorsally by slightly larger red spot; nape with large (equal to pupil diameter) round spot; large white interspaces from head extending onto body as two zigzag lines, one below dorsal fins and one just below midside; lower stripe with vertical extension to anal fin base and other vertical extensions reaching to near anal fin and ventrally on caudal peduncle; posteriorly both white lines on body breaking into large white spots; body red orange anteriorly, yellow on caudal peduncle, but distinctly lighter than anterior colouration; pectoral-fin base with three oval red spots; one anteriorly on middle of pectoral-fin base and two posteriorly, one above and one below; upper spot large with two small black spots posteriorly; fin colouration as described above.

Preserved. Snout dark brown; head with large dark brown spots or bands below eye, corresponding to red spots in fresh material; spots on preoperculum margin and operculum dark edged with light brown in center; overall body colour light brown; scales edged in melanophores more prominently anteriorly; entire head and body very faded in material from Timor Sea; fins clear, with scattered melanophores, but no distinct spots; pectoral-fin base light brown, sometimes with traces of three spots, but distinct dark bar on pectoral-fin base in specimens from mainland of Western Australia.

Variation. The species is most similar to Trimma caesiura  and T. naudei  . Winterbottom & Villa (2004) compared it with T. naudei  and other relatives. They only reported colour differences between Trimma lantana  and T. naudei  , separating the former from the latter by the absence of a dark, vertical pectoral bar and the presence of two separate orange spots on the vertical limb of the preopercle (versus a club-shaped bar). As noted below, the absence of the dark bar on the pectoral-fin base does not hold up for mainland Western Australian specimens. In addition, the bar or spots on the vertical limb of the preopercle are variable in Timor Sea material. We note that, for all forms of T. lantana  , the caudal peduncle is lighter than the body in freshly collected material (versus caudal peduncle the same colour as the body in T. naudei  ). We also note here a statistical difference in the presence of an opercular scale. In over 100 well-preserved specimens from the Great Barrier Reef only 4 specimens were found with the scale. In 25 of 40 T. naudei  examined the scale is present. Furthermore, specimens of T. lantana  from Western Australia more commonly have the scale as well. Many of the specimens from Western Australia are not in good condition and we cannot be sure of the exact occurrence (but did find the scale in about one-third of the specimens).

Trimma lantana  differs consistently from T. naudei  in having spots or bands below the eye and a paler caudal peduncle. However, it appears that there may be several species in the T. naudei  complex based on colour patterns. Trimma naudei  , as currently recognised, may actually consist of two species, one in the Indian Ocean and one in the Pacific. Specimens from the Pacific have a reddish body with large white areas, with the caudal peduncle the same colour as the body, and there is a dark area on the pectoral-fin base in the form of a one-third pupil diameter wide vertical line ( Fig. 22View FIGURE 22 A).The typical T. naudei  from the Indian Ocean the body colouration is the same as specimens from the Pacific Ocean, but there is a dark oval spot almost pupil diameter in width dorsally on the pectoral-fin base rather than a vertical line ( Fig. 22View FIGURE 22 B). As recognised here, three different colour phases of T. lantana  are known from Australia. The form found on the Great Barrier Reef ( Fig. 23View FIGURE 23 A), Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea and Papua, Indonesia ( Fig. 23View FIGURE 23 B) has distinct dark spots under the eye and three light areas on the pectoral-fin base. Specimens from the mainland of Western Australia ( Fig. 23View FIGURE 23 C and Fig 21View FIGURE 21 B), are similar in body colouration, with a light caudal peduncle, but differ in having dark vertical bars under the eye and a prominent dusky bar at the base of the pectoral fin. In some specimens the posterior band on the cheek is only a vertically elongate spot, not reaching to the lower edge of the preoperculum. The bar at the base of the pectoral fin is darker and broader than the spot or bar in either form of T. naudei  . Specimens from Scott Reef ( Fig. 23View FIGURE 23 D), which lies well offshore, are lighter and only have faint traces of bands under the eye and a faint bar on the pectoral-fin base. The third form is known from Timor Sea islands and parts of Indonesia (Ceram and Halmahera). The live colouration of material from the Timor Sea is unknown, but preserved material usually has one spot posteriorly on the cheek below the eye ( Fig. 23View FIGURE 23 E –F), similar to freshly collected specimens from Halmahera ( Fig. 21View FIGURE 21 C). In some specimens from the Timor Sea ( Fig. 23View FIGURE 23 E) there are traces of faint spots below the middle of the eye, but these are never as prominent as in specimens from the Pacific. Some specimens show faint trances of bands under the eye and some have a faint vertical bar on the pectoral-fin base. Specimens from Ashmore and Cartier Reefs are highly variable and it is possible that more than one species is present on those reefs. Without live colouration, it is not possible at present to separate the various forms found on these reefs. Alternatively the area may represent a transition area between T. naudei  and T. lantana  with some interbreeding. Consequently without genetic information and life colouration of the Ashmore Reef and surrounding areas we recognise all of the Australian material as T. lantana  , but realise that two or more species may be involved.

Analysis of variance of the lower gill-raker counts of the various populations (Great Barrier Reef and Solomon Island, n = 50; Western Australia to Halmahera, n = 23; Trimma naudei  from the western Indian Ocean (n = 27) and T. naudei  from Philippines and Japan, n = 20), indicates a significant difference in counts (p <.05), with counts averaging 16.4 for T. lantana  ( Australia and Solomon Islands) and 16.3 (Western Australia to Halmahera); 14.5 for T. naudei  (western Indian Ocean) and 15.5 ( Philippines and Japan). Although the sample sizes are too small for most populations to make individual comparisons, the differences between the two forms of T. naudei  are as great as the differences between Pacific T. naudei  and T. lantana  . Table 2 gives the raw data for lower gill raker counts.

Etymology. Named after the tropical plant Lantana  , in allusion to its red and yellow flowers that are reminiscent of the predominant colours of this species. The name is a noun in apposition.

Distribution. Trimma lantana  is known from mid and outer-edge reefs of the Great Barrier Reef and from Western Australia. The species is not known from inshore reefs on the Great Barrier Reef. Provisionally we include material here from offshore reefs in the Timor Sea and islands and mainland areas off Western Australia as Trimma lantana  (see following discussion). The species is known from depths of 1– 28 m. Elsewhere, the species has been recorded from eastern Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and from Helen Reef, Palau (but is apparently absent from the main Palauan islands).

Comparisons. For the differences between T. lantana  and other members of the T. caesiura  group, see under T. caesiura  (above).

Results from an analysis of the CO 1 gene ( Winterbottom et al. 2014) included seven specimens of T. lantana  (Great Barrier Reef, n = 2; Helen Reef, Palau, n = 2, Raja Ampat, Indonesia, n = 2; and Rabaul, New Britain, n = 1) in a single haplogroup, with a within group variation of 0.8 %. Specimens of T. naudei  from the western Indian Ocean (n = 7) were separated from specimens from Japan and Taiwan (n = 3) by a minimum of 3 %, and these two groups differed from the T. lantana  specimens by between 2.3 % (western Indian Ocean) and 4.0% ( Japan / Taiwan). No other specimens identified as T. naudei  were available for that study, and it would be especially interesting to obtain specimens from Western Australia, central Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam for analysis.

Discussion. This species has been referred to informally as Trimma  DFH sp. 13 or T. RW sp. 56. It reaches a maximum recorded size of 29.4 mm SL.

TABLE 2. Lower gill raker counts for Trimma lantana and T. naudei.

  13 14 15 16 17 18
        27 16  
Western Australia to Halmahera            
    10 13      
ROM

Royal Ontario Museum

NTM

Northern Territory Museum of Arts and Sciences

WAM

Western Australian Museum

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

BPBM

Bishop Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Perciformes

Family

Gobiidae

Genus

Trimma

Loc

Trimma lantana Winterbottom & Villa, 2004

Winterbottom, Richard & Hoese, Douglass F. 2015
2015
Loc

Trimma lantana

Allen 2012: 940
2012
Loc

Trimma caesiura:

Kuiter 2006: 662
2006
Loc

Trimma

Kuiter 1992: 236
1992
Loc

Trimma

Burgess 1990: 577
1990