Pseudechiniscus lacyformis, Roszkowska & Grobys & Bartylak & Gawlak & Kmita & Kepel & Kepel & Parnikoza & Kaczmarek, 2020

Roszkowska, Milena, Grobys, Daria, Bartylak, Tomasz, Gawlak, Magdalena, Kmita, Han- Na, Kepel, Andrzej, Kepel, Marta, Parnikoza, Ivan & Kaczmarek, Łukasz, 2020, Integrative description of five Pseudechiniscus species (Heterotardigrada Echiniscidae: the suillus-facettalis complex), Zootaxa 4763 (4), pp. 451-484: 471-476

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.4763.4.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:0DE45665-F3A9-474B-B438-1022FABB6BD1

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3804843

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/554F87D9-0765-F755-00C1-FE185584C90D

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Pseudechiniscus lacyformis
status

sp. nov.

4. Pseudechiniscus lacyformis   sp. nov. Roszkowska, Grobys, Bartylak & Kaczmarek

( Tables 5–6, Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 , 10–12 View FIGURE 10 View FIGURE 11 View FIGURE 12 )

Pseudechiniscus   sp. 4 ( Grobys et al. 2020)

Material examined: 15 animals (holotype (female) and 14 paratypes (11 females, 3 males) mounted on microscope slides in Hoyer’s medium and 4 prepared for barcoding.

Description

Animals (measurements and statistics in Table 5 and 6 View TABLE 6 )

Females. Body ( Fig. 10A View FIGURE 10 ) orange-yellow in living specimens (transparent after mounting on slides), black eyes present after mounting on slides. Apart from the head appendages (cirri interni and externi and spherical cephalic papillae [secondary clava]), only lateral cirrus A present (with finger-like clavae near the base [primary clava]) ( Fig. 10 View FIGURE 10 A–C). Cephalic papillae smaller than clava.

Dorsal plates with small hemispherical granules/upper ends of cuticular pillars (dots by PCM) 0.4–0.9 μm in diameter, densely (spaces between granules 0.5–0.9 μm) and uniformly distributed and not joined by striae ( Fig. 10 View FIGURE 10 C–D). Granules/upper ends of cuticular pillars slightly larger in the centre of the plates. On all dorsal plates, sometimes poorly visible darker stripes also present ( Fig. 10A View FIGURE 10 , C–D, filled arrows).

Dorsal plates typical for the genus Pseudechiniscus   (cephalic plate (cp), scapular plate (scp), median plates (m1, m2, m3), paired segmental plates I and II (s1, s2), pseudosegmental plate (psp) and the caudal plate (cap), see also Dorsal and ventral plates and sculpture in Grobys et al. (2020)) well developed. The cp with W-shaped pattern divided into five parts ( Fig. 10A View FIGURE 10 ). The scp divided by transversal fold which forms a long narrow stripe in posterior part of the plate. Narrow stripe divided by three longitudinal folds forming four plate parts/subplates ( Fig. 10A, C View FIGURE 10 ). Besides, the entire scp divided by median longitudinal fold into two parts ( Fig. 10A, C View FIGURE 10 , empty arrow). Additionally, lateral portions of the scp appear detached from the dorsal plate, forming small plate-like structures separated from the scp by a thin bright stripe ( Fig. 10A View FIGURE 10 , asterisk). Plates m1 and m2 divided in two portions by transverse fold, plate m3 undivided ( Fig. 10A View FIGURE 10 , filled indented arrowheads). Laterally to median plates, lateral intersegmental plates (lip) present. On the plates s1 and s2 darker stripes also visible ( Fig. 10A View FIGURE 10 , filled arrows). The psp divided by a longitudinal fold. Posterior margin of the psp plate straight, i.e. without projections, teeth or spines ( Fig. 10A View FIGURE 10 , empty indented arrowhead). The cap concave with two Y-shaped bifurcated ridges ( Fig. 10A View FIGURE 10 , filled arrowhead). Ventral cuticle with tiny granulation (formed by dense granules/upper ends of cuticular pillars, 0.2–0.4 μm) forming unique pattern ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 , 10B, E View FIGURE 10 ). Ventral PGs present (granulation 0.4–0.8 μm in diameter, spaces between granules 0.4–0.8 μm) with configuration PG:I-II-III-IV-VI-VIII a ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 , 10B View FIGURE 10 ). The female gonopore with the typical sixpetal rosette. ( Fig. 10B View FIGURE 10 ).

The outer cuticle on legs I–III with round patches of granulation (with larger granules but sparser in the centre and smaller and denser in peripheral parts), on leg IV with uniform wide stripes of granulation (slightly larger in the centre of these stripes) ( Fig. 11 View FIGURE 11 ). Triangular spine on leg I and dentate collar on leg IV absent. A finger-like papillae on leg IV present ( Fig. 11A View FIGURE 11 , arrow). External claws of all legs smooth, internal with spurs directed downwards, identical in legs I–IV ( Fig. 11B View FIGURE 11 ).

Males ( Fig. 12 View FIGURE 12 ). Dorsal plates and body appendages arranged identically like in females. Dorsal granules/upper ends of cuticular pillars similar in size, shape and pattern to those in females ( Fig. 12 View FIGURE 12 A–B). Ventral granulation pattern similar in shape and size to females, but less visible ( Fig. 12 View FIGURE 12 C–D). Ventral PGs present (granulation 0.3–0.6 μm in diameter, spaces between granules 0.2–0.5 μm) with configuration PG:I-II-IV-VI-VIII a ( Fig. 12 View FIGURE 12 C–D). The gonopore round and without the six-petal rosette and with the PG in anterior and lateral parts. Leg sculpture similar to females ( Fig. 12E View FIGURE 12 ).

Juveniles. Unknown.

Larvae. Unknown.

DNA sequences

We obtained good quality sequences for the applied molecular markers:

– COI sequence (GenBank: MN528472 View Materials ), 689 bp long;

– ITS-2 sequence (GenBank: MN537868 View Materials ), 281 bp long.

Etymology.

The specific epithet ‘ lacy ’ means, in Latin, ‘lacy’ and refers to the complicated and lace-like structure of the ventral sculpture.

Type locality.

59°46’12’’N, 10°28’17’’E, 72 m asl: Norway, Buskerud Province, Røyken Region, Bøsnipa Nature Reserve, at Slemmestadveien, calcareous Tilia cordata   forest, lichen, 10.08.2018, coll. Torbjørn Ekrem, Ingemar Jönsson, Terje Meier, Tommy Prestø, Lasse Topstad.

Type depositories.

Holotype: slide NR135/6/S and 8 paratypes (slides: NR135/*, where the asterisk can be substituted by any of the following numbers: 2, 6/S, 8/S, 9/S, 10/S) are deposited at the Department of Animal Taxonomy and Ecology, Institute of Environmental Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Uniwersytetu Poznańskiego 6, 61-614 Poznań, Poland; 6 paratypes (slides: NR255/*, where the asterisk can be substituted by any of the following num- bers: 1, 3) are deposited at the collection NTNU University Museum, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway.

Morphological differential diagnosis*

*only measurements of adult females are used in differential diagnosis

Pseudechiniscus lacyformis   sp. nov. differs specifically from:

1. Pse. angelusalas   sp. nov., see Morphological differential diagnosis of Pse. angelusalas   sp. nov. above.

2. Pse. beasleyi, by: the scp not divided in anterior part (the scp divided into four parts in Pse. beasleyi), longer clavae (5.1–6.4 μm in Pse. lacyformis   sp. nov. vs 3.1–3.9 μm in Pse. beasleyi) and different claws length arrangement (shortest claws II and III, and longest claws IV in Pse. lacyformis   sp. nov. vs shorter claws I and II, and longest claws III and IV in Pse. beasleyi).

3. Pse. clavatus   , by: different shape of clavae (finger-like in Pse. lacyformis   sp. nov. vs club-shaped in Pse. clavatus   ) and normally developed cephalic papillae (reduced in Pse. clavatus   ).

4. Pse. dastychi   sp. nov., see Morphological differential diagnosis of Pse. dastychi   sp. nov. above.

5. Pse. ehrenbergi   sp. nov. see Morphological differential diagnosis of Pse. ehrenbergi   sp. nov. above.

6. Pse. facettalis   , known from distant localities throughout the world ( McInnes 1994). Based on present study, an inaccurate description of this species makes it impossible to differentiate this taxon from Pse. lacyformis   sp. nov.. See also Morphological differential diagnosis of Pse. suillus   and Discussion in the paper Grobys et al. (2020).

7. Pse. indistinctus   sp. nov., by: different ventral pattern ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 , 10B View FIGURE 10 for Pse. lacyformis   sp. nov. vs Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 , 13 View FIGURE 13 C–D for Pse. indistinctus   sp. nov.), different ventral PG configuration (PG:I-II-III-IV-VI-VIII a in Pse. lacyformis   sp. nov. vs PG:I-II-III-IV-V-VI-VIII a in Pse. indistinctus   sp. nov.), granules on the cap similar in size to other dorsal plates (granules visibly larger on the cap in comparison with other dorsal plates in Pse. indistinctus   sp. nov.), longer cirri interni (10.6–14.0 μm, [sp=48.4–53.9] in Pse. lacyformis   sp. nov. vs 7.0–9.2 μm, [sp=34.1–38.5] in Pse. indistinctus   sp. nov.), higher sp of cirri externi (66.5–77.8 in Pse. lacyformis   sp. nov. vs 54.3–54.9 in Pse. indistinctus   sp. nov.), higher sp of clavae (23.4–26.8 in Pse. lacyformis   sp. nov. vs 19.3–22.5 in Pse. indistinctus   sp. nov.), longer papillae on leg IV (3.2–4.2 μm, [sp=14.7–17.2] in Pse. lacyformis   sp. nov. vs 2.2–2.9 μm, [sp=9.8–11.9] in Pse. indistinctus   sp. nov.) and lower spur/branch length ratio of all claws (15–20% in Pse. lacyformis   sp. nov. vs 28–34% in Pse. indistinctus   sp. nov.).

8. Pse. juanitae   , known from Austria, Brazil (type locality), Italy and Galapagos Islands ( McInnes 1994). Based on present study, an inaccurate description of this species makes it impossible to differentiate this taxon from Pse. lacyformis   sp. nov.. See also Morphological differential diagnosis of Pse. suillus   and Discussion in the paper Grobys et al. (2020).

9. Pse. megacephalus   , by: different shape of cephalic papillae (spherical in Pse. lacyformis   sp. nov. vs mushroom-like in Pse. megacephalus   ), absence of papilliform projection between external buccal cirri and cirri A.

10. Pse. suillus   , see by: a small papilla-like structure on leg I absent, different ventral pattern ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 and 10B View FIGURE 10 for Pse. lacyformis   sp. nov. vs Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 herein and 4C–D in Grobys et al. (2020) for Pse. suillus   ), well-developed ventral patches of granulation, different position of PG VIII (PG VIII placed above gonopore in Pse. lacyformis   sp. nov. vs PG VIII placed around gonopore in Pse. suillus   ) and lower spur/branch length ratio (15–20% in Pse. lacyformis   sp. nov. vs 21–27% in Pse. suillus   ).

11. Pse. xiai   , known only from China ( Wang et al. 2018), by: different ventral pattern ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 and 10B View FIGURE 10 for Pse. lacyformis   sp. nov. vs Figs 1B, F View FIGURE 1 and 2E View FIGURE 2 in Wang et al. (2018) for Pse. xiai   ).

12. Pse. chengi, known only from China ( Xue et al. 2017), by: plates m1 and m2 divided in two portions by transverse fold (unndivided in Pse. chengi), longer cirri interni (10.6–14.0 μm [sp=48.4 –53.9] in Pse. lacyformis   sp. nov. vs 3.2–8.5 μm [sp=13.2 –38.1] in Pse. chegi), higher sp of cirri externi ([66.5–77.8] in Pse. lacyformis   sp. nov. vs [45.9–56.1] in Pse. chegi), higher sp of cirri A ([114.1–142.5] in Pse. lacyformis   sp. nov. vs [96.0 –111.1] in Pse. chengi).

Genotypic differential diagnosis

The ranges of genetic distances between Pse. lacyformis   sp. nov. and species of the genus Pseudechiniscus   , for which DNA sequences are available in GenBank, are as follows:

COI: 10.6–27.0% (21.1% on average), with the most similar being Pse. aff. xiai   ( MK804894 View Materials –7, Cesari et al. 2020) and the least similar being Pse. indistinctus   sp. nov. ( MN528471 View Materials , present study).

ITS-2: 10.3–39.3% (26.7% on average), with the most similar being Pse. indistinctus   sp. nov. ( MN537867 View Materials , present study) and the least similar being Pse. angelusalas   sp. nov. ( MN537864 View Materials , present study).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Tardigrada

Class

Heterotardigrada

Order

Echiniscoidea

Family

Echiniscidae

Genus

Pseudechiniscus

Loc

Pseudechiniscus lacyformis

Roszkowska, Milena, Grobys, Daria, Bartylak, Tomasz, Gawlak, Magdalena, Kmita, Han- Na, Kepel, Andrzej, Kepel, Marta, Parnikoza, Ivan & Kaczmarek, Łukasz 2020
2020
Loc

Pseudechiniscus

Grobys et al. 2020