Cephalaria anamurensis Goektuerk & Suembuel,
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|Cephalaria anamurensis Goektuerk & Suembuel|
Cephalaria anamurensis is similar to Cephalaria elmaliensis Hub.-Mor. & V. A. Matthews and Cephalaria speciosa Boiss. & Kotschy. It can be distinguished from them by its rhizomatous growth, the lower stem leaves 35-55 × 3.5-4.5 cm, a globose capitula, involucral bracts that are ovate-orbicular to triangular-ovate, 3-7 × 2.5-6 mm, and completely blackish or blackish on the dorsal side and at the acute or subobtuse apex, receptacular bracts that are oblanceolate and blackish at an acuminate apex, and the involucel with long teeth 3-4 mm long and short teeth 1-1.5 mm long.
TURKEY, Mersin, Anamur, Anamur to Kazancı, Kırkkuyu, Bıçkıcı boğazı, 36°28'35"N; 032°44'11"E, 1784 m, steppe and stony places, 24 July 2015 Göktürk 8018, Sümbül & Çıngay (holotype: Akdeniz University Herbarium 3446!; isotypes: ANK!, GAZI!, HUB!, NGBB!).
Plant stout, erect, perennial, rhizomatous herbs, up to 1.5 m, simple, striate, covered with densely stellate hairy and retrorse hairy in lower part. Leaves coriaceous, densely stellate hairy; lower stem leaves simple, lanceolate, 35-55 × 3.5-4.5 cm, crenate-serrate, acuminate; cauline leaves simple or lyrate; simple leaves lanceolate or broadly lanceolate, 10-30 × 1.5-5.5 cm, entire, acuminate; lyrate leaves lanceolate or broadly lanceolate in outline, 10-25 × 2-5 cm, with 2-3 segments, lateral segments lanceolate, 0.3-1.5 × 0.1-0.4 cm, entire, acute, terminal segment larger than lateral ones, lanceolate or broadly lanceolate, 8-22 × 2-5 cm, margins entire or crenate-serrate, acute; upper stem leaves simple, sessile, linear or linear-lanceolate, 0.5-6 × 0.2-0.8 cm, entire, acuminate. Capitula globose, 25-50-flowered, 2-4 cm in diameter in flower, 2-3 cm in diameter in fruit. Involucral bracts ovate-orbicular to triangular-ovate, 3-7 × 2.5-6 mm, completely blackish or blackish in dorsal side and at apex, pubescent or adpressed pilose, margins ciliate, acute or subobtuse at apex; receptacular bracts oblanceolate, 8-13 × 2-4 mm, straw-coloured on dorsal side and base, blackish at apex, pubescent and adpressed pilose in dorsal side and apex, margins ciliate, acuminate at apex. Calyx cupuliform, 1-2 mm in diameter, with irregular teeth. Corolla cream or pale yellow, 8-15 mm long, densely adpressed hairy outside. Involucel 4-angled, 7-13 mm long in fruit, pilose, 4 long and 4 short teeth at apex; long teeth 3-4 mm long, short teeth 1-1.5 mm long. Flowering from July to August, fruiting from August to September.
Distribution and ecology.
This species is endemic to South Anatolia, Turkey, and east Mediterranean (mountain) element (Fig. 1DView Figure 1). According to EUNIS (2007), habitat type of this new species is E2.5 (Meadows of the steppe zone). Cephalaria anamurensis grows in steppe and stony places at an elevation of 1784-1800 m. It is associated with endemics such as Marrubium lutescens Boiss. & Heldr. subsp. micranthum (Boiss. & Heldr.) P. H. Davis, Nepeta nuda L. subsp. glandulifera Hub.-Mor. & P. H. Davis, Papaver pilosum Sibth. & Sm. subsp. pilosum , Sideritis libanotica Labill. subsp. violascens (P. H. Davis) P. H. Davis, Verbascum cucullatibracteum Hub.-Mor. and non-endemic plants such as Digitalis ferruginea L. subsp. ferruginea , Euphorbia kotschyana Fenzl, Berberis crataegina DC., Genista albida Willd., Hordeum bulbosum L., Onopordum sibthorpianum Boiss. & Heldr., Phlomis armeniaca Willd., Scutellaria orientalis L. subsp. pinnatifida J. R. Edm. and Thymus sipyleus Boiss.
This species is known only from three adjacent localities with small populations in Kırkkuyu collected by the authors. It is suggested that this new species should be placed under the IUCN threat category "Critically Endangered (CR)" ( IUCN 2014) because the estimated area of occupancy is less than 10 km2, the population size of the new species is estimated to be less than 50 mature individuals, and the population size of the new species could be reduced in the near future based on heavily grazing pressure [CR B2; C2a(i)].
The specific epithet is derived from the name of Anamur district in Mersin province, where the holotype of Cephalaria anamurensis was collected.
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