Hindumanes karnatakaensis ( Tikader & Biswas, 1978 )

Sudhin, Puthoor Pattammal, Nafin, Karunnappilli Shamsudheen & Sudhikumar, Ambalaparambil Vasu, 2017, Revision of Hindumanes Logunov, 2004 (Araneae: Salticidae: Lyssomaninae), with description of a new species from the Western Ghats of Kerala, India, Zootaxa 4350 (2), pp. 317-330 : 319-325

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4350.2.7

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:00DC83AE-1754-4065-8BDC-F49B01EA2DDD

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5999273

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/5B3B3A3C-7164-3E59-FF3C-AE61FC44FA84

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Hindumanes karnatakaensis ( Tikader & Biswas, 1978 )
status

 

Hindumanes karnatakaensis ( Tikader & Biswas, 1978)

Figs 1–4A–E View FIGURE 1 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 , 5 View FIGURE 5

Lyssomanes karnatakaensis Tikader & Biswas, 1978: 257 , figs 1–3.

Hindumanes karnatakaensis: Logunov 2014: 74 , figs 1–3; Prószyński 2017: 125, fig. 54K; World Spider Catalog 2017.

Type material. Holotype female from Kottigehara , District of Chikmagalur , Karnataka, India, 1978, Tikader & Biswas, deposited at ZSI, Kolkata, NOT EXAMINED.

New material examined. INDIA: Kerala: Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Bathery range: 2 ♂ (11°42ʹ09.8ʹʹN 76°20ʹ39.6ʹʹE, 868 m asl) ( CATE 8411 A) ; 1 ♀ (11°42ʹ01.7ʹʹN 76°20ʹ28.1ʹʹE, 866 m asl) (CATE 8411B), all P.P. Sudhin & K>S. Nafin, 31.V.2015.

Diagnosis. The female of H. karnatakaensis is similar to that of H. wayanadensis sp. nov., but can be separated by the following combination of characters: chelicerae with two mid-dorsal spines (absent in H. wayanadensis ); epigyne with posterior outgrowth overhanging the epigastric furrow (absent in H. wayanadensis ); spermathecae nearly oblong, touching each other (in H. wayanadensis , it is almost kidney-shaped, widely separated and anteriorly narrowed, with a lateral hump); copulatory ducts moderately long and copulatory openings at the middle of the epigyne (in H. wayanadensis , copulatory ducts are very short and copulatory openings are anteriorly located) (compare Figs 3C View FIGURE 3 , 4C View FIGURE 4 , 6C View FIGURE 6 , 7A–B View FIGURE 7 ; Logunov 2004: figs 1–2).

The palp conformation of the male of H. karnatakaensis is closest to true Lyssomanes spp., mostly similar to L. anchikaya Galiano, 1984 . It can be separated from L. anchikaya by the following combination of characters: 1. Highly elongated cymbium (medium-sized in L. anchikaya ); 2. Tibia with a distal process and a long retrolateral outgrowth (both absent L. anchikaya ); 3. Membranous conductor clam-shaped (mushroom-shaped in L. anchikaya ); 4. Median apophysis long, wide with an apical finger-like projection (wide with an apical tooth in L. anchikaya ); 5. Embolus slightly elongated (longer in L. anchikaya ) (compare Figs 5A–E View FIGURE 5 ; Galiano 1984: figs 12– 14; Logunov 2014: figs 1–3).

Description. Male ( CATE 8411A) ( Figs 1A–B View FIGURE 1 , 2A–E View FIGURE 2 , 4B, E View FIGURE 4 , 5A–E View FIGURE 5 ): Measurements: body length 6.13. Carapace length 2.41, width (at the middle) 1.98, height at PLE 1.06. Abdomen length 3.72, width (at the middle) 1.19. Ocular area length 0.62, width at PLE 0.62. Eye diameters: AME 0.49, ALE 0.16, PME 0.04, PLE 0.16. Eye interdistances: AME–ALE 0.04, PME–PME 0.26, ALE–ALE 0.36, PME–PLE 0.27, PLE–PLE 0.34, ALE–PME 0.12. Clypeus height 0.15. Length of chelicera 1.47. Measurement of palp and legs: Palp 5.8 [2.28, 0.72, 0.99, 1.81], I 21.87 [6.45, 1.49, 6.13, 6.96, 0.84], II 13.27 [3.93, 1.02, 3.75, 3.81, 0.76], III 10.72 [3.20, 0.86, 2.30, 3.63, 0.73], IV 11.5 [3.36, 0.72, 2.93, 3.83, 0.66]. Leg formula: 1243.

Spination. Palp: femur do 2 pl 1 rl 1, patella do 1, tibia pl 2 do 1, tarsus do 2 pl 1 rl 1. Legs: femur I–IV pl 2 rl 2 do 3; patella I–II spineless, III–IV do 1; tibia I–II pl 1 rl 1 plv 4 rlv 4, III–IV pl 2 rl 1 plv 1 do 2; metatarsi I plv 3 rlv 3, II pl 1 rl 1 plv 3 rlv 3, III pl 1 rl 1 plv 2 rlv 2, IV spineless.

Carapace yellowish-orange, with light reddish-brown lateral markings, except the region near to coxa I, margin of carapace with narrow dark reddish-brown lines, region around fovea with a large U-shaped light reddish-brown marking ( Figs 1A–B View FIGURE 1 , 2A, C View FIGURE 2 , 4B View FIGURE 4 ); fovea distinct and longitudinal, dark reddish brown ( Figs 1A View FIGURE 1 , 2A, C View FIGURE 2 , 4B View FIGURE 4 ), with indistinct markings radiating from fovea to lateral margin; eye field slightly raised, narrow, covered with golden yellow, lustrous, appressed scales ( Figs 1A–B View FIGURE 1 , 2A, C View FIGURE 2 , 4B View FIGURE 4 ); clypeus low, vertical, yellowish-orange, with lateral sides reddish-brown. Chelicera yellowish-orange, moderately long, sub-vertical and slightly diverging ( Figs 1B View FIGURE 1 , 2A–D View FIGURE 2 , 4B View FIGURE 4 ); inner frontal face with two spines, situated one third from base, outer with two median spines ( Figs 2C–D View FIGURE 2 , 4B View FIGURE 4 ); promargin with one apical tooth near the fang and two basal teeth, retromargin with six teeth ( Fig. 4E View FIGURE 4 ); fangs long, reddish-brown. Endites greenish-yellow. Labium greenish-yellow. Sternum pale greenish-yellow, sternal margins reddish-brown ( Fig. 2B View FIGURE 2 ). Pedicel light greenish-yellow with lateral black stripes. Abdomen light greenish-yellow, elongate, ovoid, narrowing posteriorly, clothed with colorless setae, dorsally with two mediolateral longitudinal black stripes extending along the entire length of the abdomen; ventral abdomen with similar lateral stripes, terminating just before the spinnerets ( Figs 1A–B View FIGURE 1 , 2A–B, E View FIGURE 2 , 4B View FIGURE 4 ). Anterior spinnerets black, posterior and median spinnerets reddish-brown. Leg I reddish-brown coxa and trochanter, other articles light greenish-yellow, femur with pro- and retrolateral longitudinal black stripes, patella distally with retrolateral black mottling, proximal tibia with pro- and retrolateral longitudinal black stripes and black distally, distal half of metatarsus black; other leg articles light greenish-yellow with black on the distal areas of tibia, metatarsus and proximal area of femur IV; tibiae I & II with 4 pairs of ventral spines, metatarsi I & II with 3 pairs of ventral spines, patellae I & II distally with one dorsal macrosetae, patellae III & IV with one dorsal spine; all legs with trichobothria on tibia, metatarsus and tarsus. All tarsi black with well-defined claw tufts; tarsal claw with nine teeth.

Palp ( Figs 5A–E View FIGURE 5 ). Palpal articles long and slender, coxa and trochanter light reddish-brown, cymbium light brown, bulb dark brown, other articles greenish-yellow; femur prolaterally with longitudinal black stripes; patella black prolaterally; tibia basally with black mottling retrolaterally. Tibia slightly longer than patella, clothed with long setae, with a long, flat retrolateral tibial outgrowth, joined to a basal stalk on the distal mid-section of tibia, which is slightly bent at the middle, tip is wide with uneven edges, and flanked by a strong spine at the base ( Figs 5A–C View FIGURE 5 ); tibial process reddish-brown, stout, wide at the base, distally sub-acute ( Fig. 5C View FIGURE 5 ); cymbium highly elongated, basally with a pair of elongated dorsal spine, distally with pro- and retrolateral spines ( Figs 5A, C View FIGURE 5 ); cymbium with several long and medium-sized setae; tutaculum medium-sized, oval ( Fig. 5C View FIGURE 5 ); bulb nearly ovoid, almost two fifths the length of cymbium; tegulum occupies distal retrolateral part of the bulb; subtegulum equals almost one third of the bulb; the retrolateral descending loops of spermophore closely arranged, median apophysis long, wide with an apical finger-like projection slightly bent disto-prolaterally, tip slightly bent downwards ( Figs 5B–C, E View FIGURE 5 ); embolus base wide, the thin spermophore forms a twist in the embolus base before entering the embolus, embolus thin and elongated, situated prolaterally, initially oriented distally in an upward angle, then bending distoretrolaterally with the pointed tip slightly bent forward ( Figs 5A, E View FIGURE 5 ).

Redescription. Female ( CATE 8411B) ( Figs 1C–D View FIGURE 1 , 3A–D View FIGURE 3 , 4A, C–D View FIGURE 4 ): Measurements: body length 6.92. Carapace length 2.60, width (at the middle) 2.02, height at PLE 1.19. Abdomen length 4.32, width (at the middle) 1.82. Ocular area length 0.60, width 0.60. Eye diameters: AME 0.66, ALE 0.25, PME 0.04, PLE 0.16. Eye interdistances: AME–ALE 0.06, PME–PME 0.21, ALE–ALE 0.46, PME–PLE 0.25, PLE–PLE 0.31, ALE–PME 0.78. Clypeus height 0.15. Length of chelicera 0.95. Measurement of palp and legs: Palp 3.55 [1.27, 0.52, 0.71, 1.05], I 11.35 [3.28, 1.23, 3.17, 2.94, 0.73], II 9.24 [2.93, 0.96, 2.39, 2.32, 0.64], III 8.43 [2.55, 0.87, 2.00, 2.35, 0.63], IV 8.71 [2.54, 0.79, 2.18, 2.57, 0.62]. Leg formula: 1243.

Spination. Palp: femur do 2 pl 1 rl 1, patella do 1, tibia pl 2 do 1, tarsus do 2 pl 1 rl 1; Legs: femur I–IV pl 2 rl 2 do 3; patellae I–II spineless, III–IV do 1; tibia I plv 4 rlv 4, II pl 1 rl 1 plv 4 rlv 4, III pl 2 rl 1 v 1 do 2, IV pl 1 rl 1 do 2; metatarsi I plv 3 rlv 3, II pl 1 rl 1 plv 3 rlv 3, III pl 1 plv 2 rlv 1, IV spineless.

In all details as male, except the following: carapace little longer and wider, greenish with no color markings ( Figs 1C–D View FIGURE 1 ). Clypeus green. Chelicera medium-sized, light green, not diverging ( Fig. 3C View FIGURE 3 ); cheliceral teeth arrangement different ( Fig. 4D View FIGURE 4 ), fangs medium-sized, light brownish-green. Endites and labium light green. Sternum greenish ( Fig. 3B View FIGURE 3 ). Pedicel light green. Abdomen slightly longer and wider, light green. Spinnerets cloudy white. Legs and palp light green, color varies from light green to light greenish-yellow towards the distal articles; tibia I with apical retrolateral black mottling.

Epigyne ( Logunov 2004: figs 1–2). Simple, transparent, with posterior outgrowth overhanging the epigastric furrow. Spermathecae nearly oblong, close together, anteriorly narrowing. Copulatory opening situated mediolaterally, almost in the middle of epigyne ( Logunov 2004: fig. 1). Copulatory duct moderately long, extending along the anterolateral margins of the spermatheca and entering spermatheca anteriorly. Fertilization duct short, anterolaterally oriented, located almost in the mid-posterior half of spermatheca ( Logunov 2004: fig. 2).

Habitat: Specimens collected from under the leaves of Chromolaena odorata ( Asteraceae ) in the moist mixed deciduous forest of Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India ( Fig. 8A View FIGURE 8 ).

NOT

Nottingham City Natural History Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Salticidae

Genus

Hindumanes

Loc

Hindumanes karnatakaensis ( Tikader & Biswas, 1978 )

Sudhin, Puthoor Pattammal, Nafin, Karunnappilli Shamsudheen & Sudhikumar, Ambalaparambil Vasu 2017
2017
Loc

Hindumanes karnatakaensis: Logunov 2014 : 74

Proszynski 2017: 125
Logunov 2014: 74
2014
Loc

Lyssomanes karnatakaensis

Tikader 1978: 257
1978