Pseudorphnus coquerelii ( Fairmaire, 1868 )

Frolov, Andrey V., Montreuil, Olivier & Akhmetova, Lilia A., 2016, Review of the Madagascan Orphninae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) with a revision of the genus Triodontus Westwood, Zootaxa 4207 (1), pp. 1-93: 19-22

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Pseudorphnus coquerelii ( Fairmaire, 1868 )


Pseudorphnus coquerelii ( Fairmaire, 1868)  

( Figs. 8 View FIGURE 8 A –H)

Orphnus coquerelii Fairmaire, 1868: 784   .

Pseudorphnus coquereli (Fairmaire)   : Paulian 1937: 14, 1977: 1206; Frolov & Montreuil 2006: 31.

Type material examined. Holotype ( Figs. 8 View FIGURE 8 A, E), female, “madag: / TYPE / MUSÉUM PARIS 1906 Coll. Léon FAIRMAIRE / Pseudorphnus coquereli (Fairm.) Frolov   det. 2010 / SYNTYPE / MNHN EC2303” (MNHN).

Additional material examined. MADAGASCAR: Antsiranana: one female, “ Madagascar Est m-if du Marojejy env-ons Manantenina 150 m. [ Marojejy Range , environs of Manantenina , 150 m. a.s.l., 14°28′59″S, 49°49′00″E], II.1974 A.Peyrieras ” ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; one female, “ Nosy Mitsio [Nosy Mitsio Island, 12°54′00″S, 48°36′00″E, 13–14.I.1960, R. Paulian leg.]” ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; one unsexed specimen, “ Antalaha [14°52′59″S, 50°16′59″E]” ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; one male, three females, “ Madagascar R-on Antalaha XI.35 Vadon! [Antalaha District, Vadon leg.]” ( MNHN)   ; one female, “ Madagascar R-on Antalaha XII.35 Vadon!” ( MNHN)   ; two males, one female, “ Sambirano [ Sambirano River ] N.O. Madagasc. ” ( MNHN)   ; two males, one female, “Sambirano N.O. Madagasc.” (MHNG); one female, “Museum Paris Madagascar Nossi-Be [ Nosy Be Island ] H. Pierron 1885” ( MNHN)   ; two females, “ Andranovolo [15°01′59″S, 50°07′00″E] / Madagascar R-on Antalaha XII.38 Vadon ” ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; one male, “Mad. Vohemar, Ampanefena [13°52′00″S, 49°58′00″E] XII.36 Vadon ” ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; one female, “ Vohemar [13°21′36″S, 50°00′00″E] Madagascar ” ( NMPC) GoogleMaps   ; one unsexed specimen, “ Nosy Mitsio [Nosy Mitsio Island, 12°53′56″S, 48°35′56″E]” ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; Toamasina: one female, “ Madagascar Andasibe [18°55′59″S, 48°25′00″E] X.1978 GoogleMaps   – II.1980 leg. Wojnarovich” (HNHM); one male, “ Museum Paris Moramanga [18°55′59″S, 48°12′00″E]” ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; one female, “ Madagascar R-on Maroantsetra Vadon! [ Maroantsetra District ]” ( MNHN)   ; one male, “ Nandihizana [15°45′00″S, 49°19′00″E] / Madagascar R-ne Maroantsetra XII.1937 Vadon!” ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; two males, “Museum Paris Madagascar Fenerive [17°22′00″S, 49°25′00″E] F.Genot 1904” ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; three males, one female, “ Madagascar Ambodivoangy [15°17′49″S, 49°36′47″E] I.1946 Vadon!” ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; one male, same label but XII.1946, (MNHN); one male, same label but XI.1945 (MNHN); one female, “MADAGASCAR: TAM Station Alaotra 27.xii.1990 A.Pauly col. jardin bac j. [ Alaotra Lake , TAM Station, 17°40′59″S, 48°27′00″E]” ( MRAC) GoogleMaps   ; one male, two females, “ Madagascar Antongil (Sud) Mocquerys 1897 [ Antongil Bay ]”, ( MNHN)   ; one male, one female, “Museum Paris Madagascar Baie D'Antongil A. Mocquerys 1898 [ Antongil Bay ]” ( MNHN)   ; one male and one female, “ S. Baie Antongil [ southern Antongil Bay ]”, ( MNHN), two females and two unsexed specimens, ( SMTFD)   ; two females, “ MADAGASCAR: Toamasina Ambatovy, 12.4 km NE Moramanga elev 1080 m pitfall trap, 4–7 March 2007 18˚50'22"S 048˚18'30" E California Acad. of Sciences coll. B.L.Fisher et al. montane rainforest BLF16917 View Materials ” ( CASC)   ; one unsexed specimen, “ MADAGASCAR: Toamasina Ambatovy, 12.4 km NE Moramanga elev 1080 m pitfall trap, 4–7 March 2007 18˚50'22"S 048˚18'30" E California Acad. of Sciences coll. B.L.Fisher et al. montane rainforest BLF16917 View Materials ” ( MNHN)   ; two males, one female, “ Antongil-Bai [ Antongil Bay ] Madagaskar ” ( SMTFD)   ; Fianarantsoa: one male, one female, “ Madagascar Vohilava 60 m. [60 m, 21°46′00″S, 47°55′00″E] Faraony ” ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; one female, “ Madagascar Region de Mananjary [21°13′00″S, 48°19′59″E] A. Mathiaux ” ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; Mahajanga: one female, “ Madagascar Manditsara / Amboaboa XI.35 Vadon [15°55′59″S, 48°43′00″E]” ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; one female, “ Madagascar Mananarara Nd. XI.35 Vadon [15°55′59″S, 48°43′00″E]” ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; one unsexed specimen, “ Mahizina [15°52′59″S, 48°04′00″E]” ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; one female, “ Maromandia [14°13′00″S, 48°04′59″E] / Madagascar R-on Antalaha XII.38 Vadon ” ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; one male, “Museum Paris Madagascar Prov D'Analalava Maromandia [Analalava District, Maromandia , 14°13′00″S, 48°04′59″E] R. Decary 1923” ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; one female, “ Madagascar Majunga [15°43′00″S, 46°19′00″E] Ch.Alluaud 1897” ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; one male, one female, “S te Marie de Madagascar [Sainte Marie de Madagascar, 16°06′00″S, 46°37′59″E]” ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   ; Toliara: one female, “ Betioky (Tulear) Mdgk. lg. Clement [ Betioky , 23°43′00″S, 44°22′59″E]” ( MHNG) GoogleMaps   ; Madagascar (no exact locality): one male ( MHNG)   ; one female, 21.X, Kaudern leg. (NRS); one male (HNHM); nine males, four females (MNHN); one female (SMTFD).

Diagnosis. Pseudorphnus coquerelii   differs from the other species of the genus in having hook-shaped parameres (in lateral view) and in the shape of the prothoracic longitudinal ridges in males, which are somewhat bimodal in lateral view (although this character may be unreliable in the specimens with poorly developed prothoracic ridges). From P. hiboni   , it also differs in its smaller size and sculpture of the elytra.

Description. Male. Body elongated, strongly shiny ( Figs. 8 View FIGURE 8 A –C). Color brown, elytra and underside of body sometimes lighter.

Frontoclypeus slightly convex anteriorly, rounded laterally, anterior margin setose and crenulate in dorsal view. Eyes relatively large (diameter larger than the distance between eye and gula in ventral view), incompletely divided by canthus into somewhat smaller dorsal and larger ventral parts. Frontoclypeus with relatively short carina-like horn, which is 1/3 the width of frontoclypeus basally. Dorsal surface of head impunctate. Labrum bilobate, slightly sinuate in the middle and relatively feebly protruding past frontoclypeus. Length in the middle is 1/6 width (in dorsal view).

Pronotum 1.5 times wider than long; widest medially. Anterior margin with wide border, base with fine border. Disc of pronotum with deep excavation in the middle, with 2 relatively high slender longitudinal lateral ridges, somewhat bimodal in lateral view, bordering the excavation ( Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 D). Surface of disc between the ridges smooth, without punctures. Lateral sides with elongate irregular punctures. Lateral margins with long, brown setae.

Scutellum triangular, rounded apically, about 1/10 length of elytra.

Elytra convex, with feebly marked humeral humps. Maximum width approximately at the middle. Elytra with a distinct sutural stria and 2–3 more-or-less distinct longitudinal lines apparently corresponding to 3, 5, and 7 striae. Lines with minute, elongate punctures. Only sutural stria reaches elytral apex. Epipleura with long, sparse, brown setae. Base of elytra densely punctate with punctures similar to those in striae ( Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 F).

Protibiae with 2 strong outer teeth and a small tooth located basally. Lateral margin basad of outer teeth not crenulate. Apices with 3 robust, spur-like setae and a number of smaller setae. Protarsi well developed, about 4/5 length of protibiae. Claws 1/3 length of apical tarsomere. Apical protarsomere 2/3 the length of tarsomeres 3 and 4 combined, as thick as other tarsomeres. Ventral surface of protibiae smooth with 2 rows of setae along sides and sparse longer setae in the middle. Ventral surface of femora sparsely punctate, with 1 raised longitudinal line.

Mesothoracic and metathoracic legs similar in shape; metafemora and metatibiae slightly longer than mesofemora and mesotibiae. Tibiae somewhat triangular, with 2 apical spurs, with inner margin only slightly concave and with 1 transverse keel. Longer tibial spur as long as 2 basal tarsomeres. Claws 1/3 length of last tarsomere. Femora almost impunctate, with 2 rows of long setae.

Abdominal sternites irregularly punctate, pubescent with dense, long setae. Sternite 8 medially as long as sternites 4–5 combined.

Pygidium transverse, irregularly punctate, hidden under elytra.

Parameres with slender, hook-shaped apices ( Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 G).

Female. The female ( Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 C) differs from the male in the rugose surface of the head, absence of the frontoclypeal horn or tubercle, presence of the distinct spur on protibiae, densely punctate disc of the pronotum, and absence of the pronotal excavations and ridges. The sexes are similar in general body shape and color.

Variation. Some male specimens have poorly-developed frontoclypeal horns and prothoracic ridges and are similar to females. Body length of the examined specimens varied from 6.5–9.0 mm (males) and from 6.0– 7.5 mm (females).

Distribution and habitat. Pseudorphnus coquerelii   is one of the most widespread Madagascar orphnine species. It is known from relatively large number of localities in the northern and eastern Madagascar as well as from the smaller islands near the northwestern coast ( Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 H). Most specimens originate from the regions predominantly covered with wet lowland forests but a few were collected from distant localities in western Madagascar (dry deciduous forests and succulent woodlands). As in the case of T. nitidulus   (see below), wide distribution and high abundance of this species may be a result of the secondary adaptation to feeding on the cultivated crops.


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


National Museum Prague


Estonian Museum of Natural History


Mus�e Royal de l�Afrique Centrale


Museum d'Histoire Naturelle














Pseudorphnus coquerelii ( Fairmaire, 1868 )

Frolov, Andrey V., Montreuil, Olivier & Akhmetova, Lilia A. 2016

Pseudorphnus coquereli

Frolov 2006: 31
Paulian 1937: 14

Orphnus coquerelii

Fairmaire 1868: 784