Phaedrotoma protuberator Li & van Achterberg
Li, Xi-Ying, Achterberg, Cornelis van & Tan, Ji-Cai, 2013, Revision of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from Hunan (China), including thirty-six new species and two new genera, ZooKeys 268, pp. 1-186: 88-91
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|Phaedrotoma protuberator Li & van Achterberg|
Holotype, ♀ (ZUH), "S. China: Hunan, nr Zhangjiajie, Badagong Mts, Bamaoxi, 2-3.vi.2009, 540 m, Xi-Ying Li, RMNH’09”. Paratypes (RMNH, ZUH): 4 ♀ + 4 ♂, with same label data as holotype; 4 ♀ + 4 ♂, id., but Longtanping, 4-5.vi.2009, 550 m; 1 ♀, id., but Tian Ping Mt, 9-13.vii.2009, 550 m; 3 ♀ + 1 ♂, "S. China: Hunan, nr Suining, Huangsang N. R., Shaoyang, 12-13.vi.2009, 1000 m, Xi-Ying Li, RMNH’09”; 1 ♀ + 2 ♂, "S. China: Hunan, nr Chengbu, Nan Mt., Shaoyang, 1500 m, 10-11.vi.2009, Xi-Ying Li, RMNH’09”; 1 ♀, "N. China: Shandong, Anqiu, Suotou Mt., 31.vii.2009, c. 120 m, Li Xi-Ying, RMNH’09”; 1 ♀ (RMNH), "China: Hunan, Changde, Taoyuan, Mao-zong-ling Xiang, Shuangxi-kou Xiang, roadside, at light, CN 1033, 12.viii.2010, P.-P. Chen, RMNH’11”.
Hypopygium of ♀ rather acute apically and 0.3 times as long as metasoma; labrum normal, without large space below clypeus (Fig. 270); clypeus normal ventrally and semicircular; clypeus 0.6 times as wide as face or less, protruding forwards; face less transverse (Fig. 270); occipital carina removed from hypostomal carina; malar suture entirely absent; medio-posterior depression of mesoscutum absent; scutellar sulcus at most moderately crenulate; scutellum flat or nearly so; posterior groove of propleuron smooth or absent; pronope round and large (Fig. 274); lateral carina of mesoscutum present; mesosoma largely black; precoxal sulcus finely crenulate or smooth; propodeum without oblique crests; vein m-cu of fore wing slightly postfurcal; vein CU1b shorter than vein 3-CU1 or subequal (Fig. 265); hind femur about 5 times as long as wide; second and third metasomal tergites more or less superficially granulate (Fig. 267); head and mesosternum largely yellowish-brown; mandible gradually widened basally and narrow apically; hind tarsus infuscate.
Holotype, ♀, length of body 1.6 mm, of fore wing 1.9 mm.
Head. Antenna with 30 segments and 1.7 times as long as fore wing; length of third segment 1.2 times fourth segment, length of third, fourth and penultimate segments 4.3, 3.7 and 2.5 times their width, respectively (Fig. 269); length of maxillary palp 0.9 times height of head; labial palp segments normal; occipital carina close to hypostomal carina and dorsally absent; hypostomal carina narrow; length of eye in dorsal view 1.5 times temple; frons glabrous, smooth, flattened and with pit medially, slightly convex laterally; face smooth, medially weakly elevated; width of clypeus 2.2 times its maximum height and 0.45 times width of face; clypeus convex, protruding forwards, largely punctate and its ventral margin thin and straight (Fig. 270); hypoclypeal depression medium-sized (Fig. 270); malar suture entirely absent; mandible gradually widened basally, with short and non-protruding ventral carina (Fig. 271).
Mesosoma. Length of mesosoma 1.2 times its height; dorsal pronope distinct, large, round (Fig. 274); pronotal side mainly smooth, but slightly granulate posteriorly and posterior groove absent (Fig. 264); epicnemial area smooth dorsally; precoxal sulcus only medially impressed, nearly smooth as rest of mesopleuron (Fig. 264); pleural sulcus smooth; anterior groove of metapleuron crenulate; notauli absent on disc, only anteriorly indicated by shallow depressions; mesoscutum glabrous except for a few setae along imaginary notaulic courses (Fig. 266); medio-posterior depression of mesoscutum absent; lateral carina of mesoscutum present; scutellar sulcus moderately crenulate; scutellum smooth and flattened; surface of propodeum largely smooth anteriorly, posteriorly obliquely rugulose, without carinae (Fig. 266).
Wings. Fore wing (Fig. 265): pterostigma wide elliptical, narrowed apically; 1-R1 reaching wing apex and 1.2 times as long as pterostigma (Fig. 265); r:3-SR:SR1 = 2:21:61; 2-SR:3-SR:r-m = 13:21:6; 1-M straight; SR1 slightly curved; m-cu slightly postfurcal; cu-a postfurcal and 1-CU1 widened; first subdiscal cell closed, CU1b medium-sized. Hind wing (Fig. 265): M+CU:1-M:1r-m = 12:15:7; cu-a straight; m-cu absent.
Legs. Length of femur, tibia and basitarsus of hind leg 5.3, 10.3 and 6.0 times as long as wide, respectively; hind femur with long setae and of tibia medium-sized (Fig. 268).
Metasoma. Length of first tergite 1.2 times its apical width, its surface distinctly convex but flattened medially and largely finely rugose or rugulose, dorsal carinae developed on its anterior 0.6, curved (Fig. 267); second and following tergites largely smooth, but with some superficial granulation, division of tergites slightly elevated (Fig. 267); length of ventrally visible setose part of ovipositor sheath 0.07 times fore wing and 0.2 times hind tibia (Figs 264, 272); apex of hypopygium rather acute (Fig. 272).
Colour. Black; palpi, mandible, malar space, second and base of third tergite and legs pale yellowish, but hind tibia apically and hind tarsus more or less infuscate; face, temple medially and ventrally, mesopleuron ventrally, mesosternum, first tergite and metasoma ventrally, yellowish-brown; frons and vertex laterally brown; antenna (but scapus yellowish), tegulae, ovipositor sheath and apical dorsal half of metasoma dark brown; pterostigma and veins dark brown; wing membrane subhyaline.
Molecular data. COI, 16S, 28S (CVA4254).
Variation. Length of body 1.6-2.0 mm, of fore wing 1.9-2.4 mm; antenna of female with 25 (1), 27 (3), 28 (3), 29 (1), 30 (3) or 31 (1) segments, of male with 24 (1), 28 (3), 29 (1), 30 (1), 31 (3) or 32 (1) segments; second and third metasomal tergites nearly smooth and shiny to distinctly granulate and matt, sometimes only third tergite granulate; mesosoma laterally, metanotum and propodeum may be largely brown or chestnut brown; clypeus often largely smooth, protuberant, but ventrally with acute margin or obtuse, protruding or depressed; head (especially of males) may be largely brownish-yellow; shallow medial depression of frons present or absent; second and third tergites are dark brown in melanistic specimens. Some female paratypes (Figs 394, 398) have the hind tarsus hardly or not infuscate, the propodeum completely or largely coarsely sculptured and the precoxal sulcus distinctly crenulate.
Name derived from “protuberatus” (Latin for "bulging out"), because the clypeus more or less protrudes forwards.
Belongs morphologically to the genus Phaedrotoma Foerster, but according to the DNA analysis belongs to the genus Opius Wesmael. The DNA analysis should be re-done to be sure this is not a result of contamination.
The new species does not run well in the key by Chen and Weng (2005); if the robust mesosoma is considered the most important character then it ends up at Phaedrotoma amputata (Weng & Chen, 2005) comb. n. Phaedrotoma protuberator differs by having the anterior groove of the metapleuron crenulate (smooth), vein 3-SR of fore wing 1.6 times vein 2-SR (twice in Phaedrotoma amputata ), the precoxal sulcus comparatively long and nearly parallel to the pleural sulcus (short and angled with pleural sulcus) and vein m-cu of the fore wing is distinctly angled with vein 2-M (gradually merging).
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