Austrogymnocnemia pseudomaculata Machado, 2020

Machado, Renato Jose Pires & Oswald, John David, 2020, Morphological phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the former antlion subtribe Periclystina (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae: Dendroleontinae), Zootaxa 4796 (1), pp. 1-322 : 146-150

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.4796.1.1

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Austrogymnocnemia pseudomaculata Machado

sp. nov.

Austrogymnocnemia pseudomaculata Machado , new species

( Figs. 69–71 View FIGURE 69 View FIGURE 70 View FIGURE 71 ) 75CC0311-D268-477C-8A53-99E4773673CC

Diagnosis. Body mostly dark; pronotum with a dark medial continuous longitudinal line; wings with many brown marks; profemur without a series of long white setae; male mediuncus present.

Description. Lengths: forewing: 19–22 mm; hind wing: 17–19 mm.

Head ( Figs. 70 View FIGURE 70 a–b): Labrum pale to brown; set with a line of elongate setae. Clypeus pale to brown; set with some elongate black setae. Frons mostly shiny black with ventral margin and a central dorsal spot pale (some specimens with pale areas larger); covered with short white setae. Gena pale. Vertex strongly raised; in anterior view pale, with two short transverse dark brown marks laterally and a rounded central dark spot; in dorsal view mostly pale with two central perpendicular dark brown lines and two black marks posterolaterally in some specimens; covered with short black setae, and some white setae posteriorly. Ocular setae absent. Antennae clubbed; elongate, about three times longer than pronotum; distance between antennae wider than scape width; mostly dark brown except for pale areas as follows: parts of pedicel, anterior surface of apical flagellomeres, distal margin of flagellomeres, anterior surface of basal flagellomeres (in some specimens); torular membrane pale; flagellomeres almost as long as wide at base, apical ones much wider than long; scape, pedicel and first flagellomere covered with white setae, remaining segments set with short black setae. Mandibles pale, with tip black. Palpi, maxillary and labial mostly pale with apical segments dark, in some specimens the other segments are dark too; apical labial palpomere fusiform, palpimacula opening oval-shaped, located medially.

Thorax ( Fig. 70b View FIGURE 70 ): Pronotum wider than long; posterior margin as wide as anterior; subapical furrow present; mostly pale with dark brown areas as follows: a broad medial line, two lateral lines, anterior margin, two spots at furrow, two on posterior margin; beset with long white setae, and scattered short setae. Mesonotum with three longitudinal dark brown bands (a central and two lateral) intercalated by two pale lines; the central line is generally darker, and in some specimens, there is small black line on each of pale lines; covered with short white setae. Metanotum mostly dark brown with two pale marks near midline; set with short white setae. Pterothoracic pleura dark brown with margins pale; covered with white setae; Miller’s organ present.

Wings ( Fig. 70c View FIGURE 70 ): Rather narrow with tip acute; anterior and posterior Banksian lines present in both wings; veins mostly dark brown, but some veins intercalated with white spots. Male pilula axillaris present. Forewing membrane mostly hyaline with some brown marks on posterior margin, apex, around gradate crossveins, few areas at mediocubital area, and tip of prefork area; CuA fork located about same place of RP origin; three presectoral crossveins; subcostal veinlets simple; prefork area wider than posterior area, with many longitudinal crossveins. Hind wing membrane mostly hyaline except for brown marks on rhegmal area, base of hypostigmatic cell, and apex; MP fork located near RP origin; subcostal veinlets simple; one presectoral crossvein.

Legs ( Figs. 70 View FIGURE 70 a–b): All pairs of legs, femur elongate (> 2x length of coxa); femur, tibia and tarsi about same size; tibial spurs absent; T3 and T4 about same size, T2 slightly longer than T3, T1 and T5 about same size, but twice longer than T2; claws about half of T5 length; coxa, trochanter, femur and tibia set with short white setae, with few longer setae at femur; femur, tibia and tarsi set with short black setae, and scattered long setae; T5 ventrally with two rows of thick, long, black setae. Proleg sense hair short, slightly longer than femur width; tibia with antennal cleaning setae ventroapically; coxa dark brown with internal surface pale, trochanter pale, femur internal surface pale but external reddish brown, tibia pale with three dark brown marks on anterior surface; tarsi with T1 and T2 pale, remaining reddish brown except for tip of T5, dark brown. Mesoleg with same colour pattern of proleg, except for femur mostly reddish brown. Metaleg with femur, tibia and T1 slightly longer than in other legs; colour pattern similar to mesoleg, except for tibia pale at apex and dark reddish brown at base.

Abdomen: Dark brown with irregular pale marks, mainly segments distal margins; covered with short white setae.

Male Terminalia ( Figs. 71 View FIGURE 71 a–c): Ectoproct posterior margin rounded in lateral view, set with elongate black setae. 9 th sternite short, with posterior margin straight in ventral view; set with elongate black setae. Gonarcus broad, arched, with anterior margin narrow, elongate, and extending ventrally in lateral view. Mediuncus triangular in posterior view, with tip acute; connected to gonarcus, but less sclerotized. Paramere broad in lateral view, with an apical hook, curving downwards and more sclerotized.

Female Terminalia ( Figs. 71 View FIGURE 71 d–e): Ectoproct posterior margin rounded, covered with thin elongate setae. Lateral gonapophyses rounded, much smaller than ectoproct, set with few thickened setae. 7 th sternite short with distal margin medially extended in ventral view and a small concavity medially; covered with black setae. Pregenital plate large with a transverse line bearing a medial acute expansion anteriorly, and a curved small band posteriorly. Posterior gonapophyses broad, elongate, with tip recurved, covered with long black setae, and with few cavisetae posteroapically. 9 th tergite with an elongate membranous digitiform process. Anterior gonapophyses absent. Ventral membrane gonapophyseal plates present.

Distribution ( Fig. 69 View FIGURE 69 ). Australia: ACT, NSW, NT, QLD, SA, WA. Widespread and common across mainland Australia.

Adult activity period. Records for September to June.

Biology. Unknown, larva unknown.

Etymology. pseudo- (from Greek pseudos, fallacy or lie) + - maculata (from the species-group name of Gymnocnemia maculata Tillyard, 1916 ), in reference to the strong similarity of the new species to maculata Tillyard.

Name-bearing type. Austrogymnocnemia pseudomaculata : Holotype (by present designation), male, AMSA. AUSTRALIA: Western Australia: 140 km ENE of Cosmo Newberry , 27:41S–124:13E, 28.Dec.1995, M.S. & B.J. Moulds. Condition: pinned, good.

Paratypes (4♂, 3♀). AUSTRALIA: Northern Territory: 60 mi N of Barrow Creek , UV light, 7.iv.1966, N. McFarland (1♂ SAMA, pinned) ; Western Australia: same as holotype (1♀, AMSA, pinned); Kiwirrkurra IPA: Visitor Center, 22.81979 oS– 127.76564 oE, 430m, 7.ix.2015, N. Tatarnic, [BBKIWI L03] (1♂, WAM, pinned); 111 km N of Meekatharra, 4.iii.1994, L. Stange (1♂, FSCA, pinned); Millstream : 21.35S– 117.04E, 4.Nov.1970, Upton & Feehan (1♀, ANIC, pinned); Highway 138, 9 air km EENE of Newman, 520m, 23.34699 oS– 119.82137 oE ± 80m, 25.xii.2012, M.V., Oswald, Diehl & Machado, Oswald #616 (1♂, 1♀, TAMU, pinned) GoogleMaps .

Additional material examined (149♂, 199♀, 16?). AUSTRALIA: ACT: Canberra : ii.1960 (1♀, ANIC) ; New South Wales: Bourke : x.1957 (7♂, 12♀, ANIC) ; Cobar : x.1957 (2♂, ANIC) ; Nature Tooma : iv.1972 (1♀, SAMA) ; Northern Territory: Barkly Highway: 75 km ESE of junction with Tablelands Hwy , 4.i.1987, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (1♂, 7♀, AMSA) ; Barrow Creek : iv.1966 (2♂, 2♀, SAMA) ; Barry Caves : ix.1976 (1♂, 1♀, MVM) ; Center of Aus- tralia Marker : iii.1993 (1♀, SAMA) ; 3 km S of Elliott , 1.iv.2008, at light in grassland-shrub complex, G. Williams & W. Pulawski (1♀, AMSA) ; Finke : ix.1972 (1♀, ANIC) ; Illamurta Spring : iii.1993 (5♂, 5♀, SAMA) ; Kings Canyon : 9.ix.2005 (1♂, FSCA) ; Lubras Lookout: near Renner Springs , 12.i.1992, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (2♂, AMSA) ; Milton Park : xi.1968 (1♂, ANIC) ; 30 km W of Mount Ebenezer , 1.i.1996, M.S. & B.J. Moulds & K.A. Kopestonsky (1♂, AMSA) ; Palm Valley : 26.xi.1954 (1♀, MVM) ; 27 km S of Rabbit Flat , 20:22:52S–130:08:54E, 12.i.2002, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (1♂, AMSA) ; 5 km S of Renner Springs , 18 o 21’05’’S– 133 o 48’58’’E, 26.i. 2004, 260m, M. Moulds & S. Cowan (1♀, AMSA) GoogleMaps ; Tablelands & Barky Highway junction: 21.xii.1986, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (1♀, AMSA) ; Tennant Creek : xi.1966 (2♂, ANIC) ; Tilmouth Well: Napperby Creek , 22:48:40S–132:35:40E, 13.i.2001, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (4♂, AMSA) ; Three Way : 16.xi.90, at light, W.F. Chamberlain (2♂, TAMU) ; x.1972 (2♀, ANIC) ; Yalara Resort: Ayres Rock , 2.ii.1984, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (1♀, AMSA) ; 2 km S of Wauchope :, 31.iii.2008, at light in spinifex plain, G. Williams & W. Pulawski (1♂, 1♀, AMSA) ; x.1972 (1♂, 1♀, ANIC) ; Queensland: Barcaldine : 10.ii.1981, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (1♂, AMSA) ; 9.5 air km S, Botanical Walk , 23.63733°S 145.28137°E ± 30m, R Machado, MV light, 23.xii.2015, AustRM#08 (1♂, TAMU) GoogleMaps ; Barrey Caves : 12.x.1963, R. Lossin (1? AMSA) ; 70 km S of Blackwater , 19.i.1987, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (1♀, AMSA) ; Charleville : x.1957 (1♂, 1♀, ANIC) ; 5 km NW of Charleville , 26 o 23’S– 146 o 12’E, 3–5.iii.2003, G. Monteith & C. Bunwell (1♀, CSCA) GoogleMaps ; Clement : Dr. K.K. Spance (1♀, 1? AMSA) ; 8 km S of Clermont , 18.iii.1982, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (1♂, AMSA) ; ii.1924 (2♂, 1♀, ANIC) ; 22.x.1924 (1♀, QMBA) ; Cloncurry : (1?, MVM) ; Dynevor Lakes : 88 km W Eulo, 28 o 05’S– 144 o 12’E, 27.ix. 1991, 150 m G. Daniels (12?, QMBA) GoogleMaps ; Hebel : x.1957 (3♂, 2♀, ANIC) ; 65 km E of Hughenden , 4.ii.1981, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (1♀, AMSA) ; Kundala : (1♂, 3♀, MVM) ; Lawn Hill: Adels Grove , W of Gregory Downs, 19.xii.1986, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (3♀, AMSA) ; Noombah Station : SW of Longreach, 24.05.2S–143.08.7E, 14.i.2002, Cooley, Hill, Marshal & Moulds (1♂, AMSA) ; Yanna : v.1973 (1♂, ANIC) ; South Australia: Agnes Creek Station : 11.x.1977, at light, G.F. Gross & J.A. Forrest (5♀, SAMA) ; Allendale Station : ix.2005 (1♂, SAMA) ; Coober Pedy : xi.1977 (1♀, ANIC) ; Everard Park : x.1970 (3♂, 4♀, SAMA) ; xi.1970 (2♂, 9♀, SAMA) ; Innaminka : 17.i.2002, Cooley, Cowan, Hill, Marshal & Moulds (1♂, AMSA) ; Lake Eyre: Prescott Point , iii.1965 (1♂, SAMA) ; Maralinga Tjarutja: SW lake Bring , xi.2005 (1♀, SAMA) ; Mount Lindsay: Wartaru , x.1996 (13♂, 17♀, SAMA) ; Muloorina : iii.1965 (1♀, SAMA) ; Musgrave Range: SE Mitchell Knob , x.1994 (1♂, 3♀, SAMA) ; Vokes Hill : iv.2002 (1♂, SAMA) ; Wel- bourne Hill : xi.1977 (1♀, ANIC) ; x.1953 (1♂, SAMA) ; William Creek : xii.1974 (1♀, SAMA) ; Wychinga Bore : ix.1999 (1♀, SAMA) ; Western Australia: 60mi N of Barrow Creek , 7.iv.1966, UV light, N. McFarland (1♂, 1♀, SAMA) ; 7 km N of Billiluna , 19 o 30’39’’S– 127 o 39’47’’E,, MV, JD Oswald (1♀, FSCA, 9♂, 9♀, TAMU) GoogleMaps ; Billiluna Pool : iv.1930 (1♀, SAMA) ; Blackstone : x.2006 (4♂, 7♀, SAMA) ; 130 mi SE of Broome , 15.ix.1924 (1♀, MVM) ; Cane River homestead: iv.1971 (1♂, 3♀, ANIC) ; Cosmo Newberry : 140 km ENE of Cosmo Newberry, 27:41S–124:13E, 28.xii.1995, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (1♂, 4♀ AMSA) ; 80 km E of Cosmo Newberry , 27:55S–123:29E, 27.xii.1995, M.S. & B.J. Moulds & K.A. Kopestonsky (3♂, AMSA) ; 70 air km WWNW of Gascoyne Junction , 24.87559 oS– 114.55150 oE ± 90m, 21.xii.2012, M.V., Oswald, Diehl & Machado, Oswald #613 (12♂, 14♀, TAMU) ; Great Sandy Desert : 130 miles SE of Broome, 15.ix.1924 (1? MVM) ; near 85 km ESE of Halls Creek , 18 o 24S– 128 o 28E,, MV, JD Oswald (1♀, TAMU) GoogleMaps ; 40 km SW Halls Creek , 18 o 29’31’’S– 127 o 24’05’’E,, MV, JD Oswald (1♀, TAMU) GoogleMaps ; v.1964 (1♂, ANIC) ; Kalgoorlie : 30.xi.1985, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (2♂, AMSA) ; Karijini Natural Park: Karijini Dr. 8 km WNW Great Northern Hwy, 750m, 22 o 37.1’S– 118 o 22.3’E, 22–23.iv.2003, Malaise Trap in Dry Wash, M.E. Irwin & F.D. Parker (1♀, FSCA) GoogleMaps ; Karonie : xi.1969 (1♀, ANIC) ; Lake Austin : 24.iii.2005 (1♀, FSCA) ; Lake Marmion : iii.1996 (2♂, 1♀, SAMA) ; Millstream Chichester National Park: Python Pool , 21.33309 oS– 117.23930 oE ± 130m, 180m, 23.xii.2012, M.V., Oswald, Diehl & Machado, Oswald #615 (1♂, TAMU) ; 1 km NE of Millstream , 21.35S– 117.04E, x.1970, Upton & Feehan (2♂, 2♀, ANIC) GoogleMaps ; xi.1970 (3♀, ANIC) ; iv.1971 (1♀, ANIC) ; Minilya River : iii.1971 (1♀, ANIC) ; Mount Aloysius : xi.1977 (4♂, 2♀, ANIC) ; xi.1963 (2♂, 2♀, SAMA) ; Mount Davis : xi.1956 (2♂, SAMA) ; x.1972 (1♂, SAMA) ; Mundiwindi : x.1961 (1♀, FSCA) ; high- way 136, 13 air km NENE of Nanutarra Roadhouse , 22.47124 oS– 115.60040 oE ± 70m, 22.xii.2012, M.V., Oswald, Diehl & Machado, Oswald #614 (2♂, 3♀, TAMU) ; highway 138, 9 air km EENE of Newman , 520m, 23.34699 oS– 119.82137 oE ± 80m, 25.xii.2012, M.V., Oswald, Diehl & Machado, Oswald #616 (22♂, 18♀, TAMU) ; Port Head- land: x.1960 (1♂, FSCA) ; Pungkulpirri Waterhole: 0.5 km E of Walter James Range, 24 o 39’15’’S– 128 o 45’18’’E, 26.ix.2006, at light, Central Ranges Sur. Camp 1 (1♂, 3♀, SAMA) GoogleMaps ; 48 km S of Tea Tree , 23.i.1984, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (3♂, 3♀, AMSA) ; Tom Price Road: 15 km North along, 150m East of Tom Price Rd. , - 22.6736S– 117.7725E, 17.ii. 2005, 710m, light trap on slope of small hill above dry creek bed dominated by Acacia, M. Bulbert & S.G. Ginn (3♀, AMSA) GoogleMaps ; 40 km W of Warburton , 26.13S– 126.19E, 29.xii.1995, M.S. & B.J. Moulds & K.A. Kopestonsky (1♂, 3♀, AMSA) GoogleMaps ; Werburton : xi.1977 (1♂, 3♀, ANIC) ; Zanthus : xi.1969 (1♀, ANIC) .

Comments. Despite being described here for the first time, many specimens of A. pseudomaculata sp. nov. were collected years ago and are deposited in many collections around the world. Few of these specimens were unidentified when examined; most were incorrectly identified as A. maculata ; but at least two specimens in the QMBA were presciently labelled as a new species. Indeed, A. maculata and A. pseudomaculata are very similar ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 ), particularly with respect to wing markings and the shape of the female terminalia. However, these two species can be clearly distinguished, mostly based on the darker colouration of A. pseudomaculata —the frons, pronotum, and forewing, of the new species possess much larger and darker marks than A. maculata . But, the main difference between the two is in the male terminalia, with A. pseudomaculata possessing a large mediuncus, which is absent in A. maculata .


South Australia Museum


Albany Museum


Western Australian Museum


Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology


Australian National Insect Collection


California State Collection of Arthropods

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