Machado, Renato Jose Pires & Oswald, John David, 2020, Morphological phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the former antlion subtribe Periclystina (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae: Dendroleontinae), Zootaxa 4796 (1), pp. 1-322: 190-194
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Megagonoleon banksi (New, 1985), new combination
Glenoleon banksi New, 1985b:53 (OD); New 1996:81 (cat); Stange 2004:103 (cat); Oswald 2018 (cat).
Diagnosis. Forewing broad; body mostly orange; profemur with numerous long white setae; tibial spurs present; frons with large dark area below and between antennae; posterior gonapophysis absent; pregenital plate U-shaped in posterior view; male paramere with anterior margin visible in dorsal view.
Description. Lengths: forewing: 22–29 mm; hind wing: 20–27 mm.
Head ( Figs. 93 View FIGURE 93 a–b): Labrum orange; with a line of elongate setae. Clypeus orange to pale; with few elongate pale setae. Frons predominantly orange with two curved black bands around ventral and medial part of antennal base; set with short white setae. Gena orange to pale. Vertex raised; in anterior view mostly orange with two small transverse dark brown marks laterally (intercalated with a small orange region in some specimens), and a small medial spot; in dorsal view mostly orange with a central longitudinal dark brown spot and three marks on posterior border; set with short black setae. Ocular setae absent. Antennae clubbed; elongate,> 3x length of pronotum; distance between width; anterior surface orange, posterior light brown; torular membrane orange; flagellomeres almost as long as wide at base, apical ones much wider than long; all segments set with short black setae. Mandibles mostly pale, with tip black. Palpi, maxillary and labial entirely orange, but with dark brown marks in some specimens mainly around palpimacula; apical labial palpomere fusiform, palpimacula opening oval-shaped, located medially.
Thorax ( Fig. 93b View FIGURE 93 ): Pronotum slightly wider than long; posterior margin as wide as anterior; subapical furrow present; mostly orange except for small dark spots on setal bases (some darker specimens with a central longitudinal band, and two curved longitudinal lines near center); beset with long black or white setae. Mesonotum orange with small dark rounded spots on setal bases (some darker specimens with few dark brown longitudinal bands, near midline); covered with long black setae, some long setae on prescutum. Metanotum very similar to mesonotum, but darker areas larger; set with short black setae. Pterothoracic pleura mostly orange with scattered dark brown areas around margins, and some small rounded spots on setal bases on anterior sclerites; covered with short white setae; Miller’s organ present.
Wings ( Fig. 93c View FIGURE 93 ): Broad; anterior Banksian line present in both wings, posterior absent; veins mostly orange, but some veins intercalated with brown spots; beset with short black setae. Male pilula axillaris present. Forewing membrane hyaline with small brown marks on pterostigma (some specimens with area surrounding some crossveins dark infuscated); CuA fork located between RP origin and first fork, but much closer to RP origin; three presectoral crossveins (some specimens crossveins are linked by a short longitudinal veinlet); subcostal veinlets mostly simple but few distal ones forked in some specimens; posterior area slightly wider than prefork area. Hind wing membrane colour similar to forewing; MP fork located between RP origin and first fork; subcostal veinlets simple; one presectoral crossvein.
Legs ( Figs. 93 View FIGURE 93 a–b): All pairs of legs, femur elongate (about three times longer than coxa); tibia and femur about same size, but longer than tarsi; tibial spurs surpassing T1 apex; T2, T3 and T4 about same size, T1 about twice longer than T2, T5 about twice longer than T1; claws about half of T5 length; coxa, trochanter, femur and tibia set with many short white setae, femur, tibia and tarsi set whit short black setae and scattered long black setae; T5 ventrally with two rows of thick, long, black setae. Proleg sense hair present, slightly longer than femur width; tibia with antennal cleaning setae ventroapically; coxa orange with some dark brown marks, trochanter orange, femur with tip and most of dorsal surface dark brown, remaining areas orange, tibia with three orange and three dark brown rings, tarsi with T3, T4 and tip of T5 and T2 dark brown, remaining areas orange. Mesoleg with same colour of proleg. Metaleg with femur, tibia and T1 slightly longer than in other legs; colour same of other legs except for tibia, orange with tip dark brown.
Abdomen: Mostly dark brown with scattered orange marks mainly on tergites bases, size of marks varies among specimens (some specimens with sternites fully orange); beset with short black setae, and some short white setae mainly on segments anterior halves.
Male Terminalia ( Figs. 94 View FIGURE 94 a–d): Ectoproct posterior margin rounded in lateral view; set with elongate black setae. 9 th sternite posterior margin straight in ventral view; set with elongate black setae. Gonarcus and Mediuncus fused in a large triangular structure with tip elongate and rounded in lateral and ventral view. Paramere longitudinally elongate in ventral view, mostly hidden behind gonarcus/mediuncus complex in lateral and dorsal view.
Female Terminalia ( Figs. 94 View FIGURE 94 e–f): Ectoproct posterior margin rounded, set with thin elongate setae and some cavisetae ventrally. Lateral gonapophyses rounded, about same size as ectoproct, beset with cavisetae. 9 th tergite with some thickened setae in lateral view. 7 th sternite distal margin with a bilobate structure, in ventral view (size of lobes varies among specimens); covered with short black setae. Pregenital plate large and U-shaped in posterior view. Posterior gonapophyses absent. 9 th Tergite membranous digitiform process absent. Anterior gonapophyses absent. Ventral membrane gonapophyseal plates absent.
Distribution ( Fig. 92 View FIGURE 92 ). Australia: NSW*, NT, QLD*, SA*, WA. Widespread across mainland Australia. This species is much more common than noted by New (1985b), probably because many M. banksi specimens were misidentified in that work as M. annulatus . The current revision reveals this species to be the most common and widely distributed species of Megagonoleon gen. nov.
Adult activity period. Records for August to April , and June. Biology. Unknown, larva unknown. Name-bearing type. Glenoleon banksi : Holotype (by original designation), female, WAM, high-resolution images examined. Type locality: Australia, Western Australia, Belele (station). From original description: “ Holotype, ♀, Western Australia, Belele ( WAM)”. Condition: good, with some legs missing.
Additional material examined (76♂, 128♀). AUSTRALIA: New South Wales : 14 mi NW of Avon Downs ,
23.viii.1960, MJD White (1♂, 1♀, ANIC); Broken Hill : 10.ii.1902 (3♂, 3♀, ANIC, 2 PT of G. aurora ) ; 19.xi.1949
(1♀, ANIC); 11.iii.1944 (1♂, ANIC) ; Mount Boopy : 27.x.1957 (1♀, ANIC) ; Northern Territory: Alice Springs: 19.x.1966, A & R. Mesa (1♀, ANIC) ; 41 km SbyE of Alice Springs , 24.03S– 133.59E GoogleMaps , 4.x.1978, MS Upton & RA Barret (1♀, ANIC) ; 2 km WSW of Andado homestead, Simpson Desert , 26.ix.1972, Z. Liepa (1♂, ANIC) ; 13 km EbyN of Andado homestead, 25.23S– 135.25E GoogleMaps , 27.ix.1972, MS Upton (1♀, ANIC) ; Erldunda: ix.1967 (2♂, MVM) ; 10 km SE of Finke , 25.39S– 134.38E GoogleMaps , 30.ix.1972, MS Upton (5♀, ANIC) ; 10 km SE of Finke , 30.ix.1972, Z. Liepa (1♂, ANIC) ; Horseshoe Bend: 8.ix.1963, P. Ranford (2♀, ANIC) ; 8 km N of Kulgera , 25.46S– 133.17E GoogleMaps , 21.ix.1978, MS Upton & RA Barret (1♂, ANIC) ; Murchison Range: 1932 (1♀, SAMA) ; Palm Valley : 30.ix.1959 (1♂, SAMA) ; Reedy Rockhole: Amadeus Basin , 24.20S– 131.35E GoogleMaps , 26.ix.1962, P Ranford (2♂, ANIC) ; Tempe Downs: 14.ix.1963, P. Ranford (1♂, ANIC) ; Queensland: 14 mi NW of Avon Downs , 23.viii.1960, MJD White (1♂, 1♀, ANIC) ; Cun- namulla: 23.x.1957 (1♀, ANIC) ; Mount Lamington : xii.1948 (1♂, SAMA) ; 204 km west of Windorah , 25 o 42’S– 140 o 53’E GoogleMaps , 3.ix.1997, C. Lambkin (1♂, 1♀, QMBA) ; 84 km east, 25 o 42’04’’S– 143 o 18’18’’E, 5.ix.1997, J & A Skevington (2♂, 2♀, QMBA) ; South Australia: Allendale Station : ix.2005 (2♂, 1♀, SAMA) ; 9 km WNW of An- damooka Homestead (sandhills), 31.x.1975, at light, H. Herridge (1♂, SAMA) ; 1.xi.1975 (1♀, SAMA) ; Arkaroola Homestead: 1.xi.1969, UV light, N. McFarland (2♂, 1♀, SAMA) ; x.1999 (2♀, SAMA) ; Arrona Dam: S of Copley , 3.xi.1969, UV light, N. McF (1♂, 1♀, SAMA) ; Ban Ban Station : 24.x.2010 (1♂, SAMA) ; Bimbowrie: ix.1962 (8♀, 4♂, SAMA) ; Bookaloo: 12.x.1966, A & R Mesa (1♂, ANIC) ; Chambers Gorge: x.1961 (1♀, 5♂, SAMA) ; Cook Pitfalls: iv.1984 (1♂, 2♀, SAMA) ; Cooper’s Creek : (1♀, SAMA) ; Copley : x.1967 (1♂, SAMA) ; Dulkaninna: ix.1989 (1♂, SAMA) ; i.2001 (1♂, SAMA) ; Farina: x.1970 (1♀, SAMA) ; Gammon Ranges National Park: Ranger headquarters, 30 o 32’S– 139 o 18’E GoogleMaps , 12.x.1997, S Winterton, J Skevington, C. Lambkin (1♀, QMBA) ; Glendambo: 21.ix.2005, L. Stange & R. Miller (1♀, FSCA) ; 5.xi.2005, L. Stange (4♀, FSCA) ; Grasmere Station : ix.1962 (7♀, 5♂, SAMA) ; Hawker: on Ororroo Road, x.1970 (1♀, SAMA) ; Hergott: (2♀, SAMA) ; Indulkana Creek : ix.2001 (3♂, 3♀, SAMA) ; Innaminka: ix.1962 (1♀, 1♂, SAMA) ; x.1962 (2♀, 1♂, SAMA) ; 10 mi NEbyE of Iron Knob, 23.x.1968, Britton, Upton, Balderson (1♂, ANIC) ; Kelchowla Station : x.1973 (1♂, SAMA) ; 8 mi SE of Kenmore Park Homestead , 27.ix.1960, Chinnick, McCabe, Corby (1♂, 1♀, ANIC) ; Lake Torrens : x.1971 (2♀, SAMA) ; Leigh Creek : aerodrome , 28.viii.1967, G. Gregory (1♂, 1♀, SAMA) ; 17.x.1966, G.C. Gregory (1♂, 11♀, ANIC) ; ix.1965 (4♀, 4♂, SAMA) ; viii.1967 (3♀, 3♂, SAMA) ; Mabel Creek : x.1953 (6♀, 4♂, SAMA) ; Marree: xi.1955 (1♀, SAMA) ; Marryat Creek : 48 km S of Cavanagh , 28.x.1963, at light, P. Altken & NB Tindale (1♀, SAMA) ; McDonalds Downs: 1930 (2♂, SAMA) ; Mirra Mitta Bore: ix.1976 (1♂, SAMA) ; Moolawatana: ix.1992 (1♂, 3♀, SAMA) ; Moolooloo: (1♀, SAMA) ; Moonaree Homestead: x.1988 (1♀, SAMA) ; x.2006 (1♂, SAMA) ; Mount Barr : 24 km SSE of Abminga, 26.20S– 134.56E GoogleMaps , 25.ix.1972, Z Liepa (3♀, ANIC) ; Mount Barry : ix.1996 (1♀, SAMA) ; Mount Sarah : 6 km NbyW N of Oodnadatta , 24.ix.1972, Z. Liepa (1♀, ANIC) ; viii.1976 (1♂, SAMA) ; 5mi SE of Musgrave Park , 15.x.1972, H.E. Evans & T. Houston (1♀, SAMA) ; Myrtle Creek : xi.1969 (2♀, SAMA) ; Nullarbor Region: Maralinga Village , xi.2010 (1♂, 2♀, SAMA) ; Oodnadatta : 33 km SEbyS, 27.47S– 135.39E GoogleMaps , 23.ix.1972, MS Upton (2♀, ANIC) ; South Gap: Lake Dam , xi.1996 (1♀, SAMA) ; Uno Station : xi.2008 (1♀, SAMA) ; Uro Bluff: W of lake Towells , 21.x.1971, H. Mincham (2♀, SAMA) ; 28mi S of Yunta , 27.x.1971, S.C. Pfeiffer, NACKARA (1♀, SAMA) ;: x.1972 (1♀, SAMA) ; Wabma Springs: viii.1970 (1♀, SAMA) ; Whywhyana Park: x.1969 (2♀, 1♂, SAMA) ; Wirraminna: x.1953 (1♀, SAMA) ; Witchelin Station Reserve : 22.x.2010 (4♂, SAMA) ; Western Australia: Balgo Hills: 29.viii.1985 (1♀, ANIC) ; 7 km N of Billiluna , 19 o 30’39’’S– 127 o 39’47’’E GoogleMaps , 5.vi.1998, JD Oswald (1♀, FSCA) ; Blackstone: x.2006 (1♀, SAMA) ; Carnarvon: viii.1971 (1♀, SAMA) ; Kalgoorlie: Minefields, 1969 (1♀, MVM) ; Moola Bulla Station : ix.1953 (1♀, SAMA) ; Tickalara: 14.xi.1949 (1♀, ANIC) ; NO LABEL: (1♂, ANIC) .
Comments. Megagonoleon banksi was originally described from only a few specimens and was noted by New (1985b) as being closely related to M. annulatus and M. roseipennis . The current study reveals it to be most closely related to M. pingrupensis ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 ), in which the male and female terminalia are almost identical, and only a few markings on the body (see identification key) separate them.
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