Cypselurus oligolepis oligolepis ( Bleeker, 1865 )

Shakhovskoy, Ilia B. & Parin, Nikolay V., 2022, A review of the flying fish genus Cypselurus (Beloniformes: Exocoetidae). Part 2. Revision of the subgenus Poecilocypselurus Bruun, 1935 with descriptions of three new species and five new subspecies and reinstatement of Exocoetus apus Valenciennes and E. neglectus Bleeker, Zootaxa 5117 (1), pp. 1-109 : 16-29

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5117.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:CFA7895B-43A7-4E19-8623-E8EAE4C43A89

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6823236

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/5F4D771C-090A-FF8A-E1C8-FB369227FB60

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scientific name

Cypselurus oligolepis oligolepis ( Bleeker, 1865 )
status

 

Cypselurus oligolepis oligolepis ( Bleeker, 1865)

Synonymy and bibliography.

Exocoetus unicolor (non Valenciennes). Bleeker 1852: 11, 21 (description; Batavia (Java )).

Exocoetus oligolepis Bleeker, 1865: 107 , 109–111 (original description; Indonesia, Singapore; in part?). Günther 1866: 296–297 (description of type; East-Indian Archipelago). Bleeker 1866 –1872: 67, 69–70, Tab. CCXLVIII Pl.Scombres II fig. 3 (description; Indonesia, Singapore; in part?). Günther 1910: 370 (short description; West Pacific; in part).

Cypsilurus oligolepis . Weber & de Beaufort 1922: 180, 189–190 (description; Indo-Australian Archipelago; in part).

Cypselurus oligolepis . Woods & Schultz 1953: 184–185, 187 (morphometry; Siam; in part: USNM 103337).? Chandy 1954: 177, 179–180, fig. 1c (short description; India ( Bombay, Ratnagiri)). Parin 1960a: 222, 254, 255, 279 (description (after Weber & de Beaufort 1922 and Woods & Schultz 1953); western Pacific; in part). Parin & Gorbunova 1964: 232–233, fig. 4a (eggs; Singapore). Jones & Kumaran 1965: 111–112, fig. 5 (short description; Laccadive Archipelago: Androth, Chetlat, Kadamat). Parin & Besednov 1965: 107–108 (description of a juvenile; Tonkin Bay; in part: only specimen 107 mm SL). Munro 1967: 117, 121 (New Guinea; short description; in part). Jinadasa 1971: 15 (short description; Sri Lanka; in part). Hyodo & Tsukahara 1977: 9, 13 (description; north Arabian Sea).? Mai & Bui 1978: 251, 261 (listed; Vietnam; in part?). Jones & Kumaran 1980: 146–147, fig. 124 (short description; Laccadive Archipelago: Androth, Chetlat, Kadamat). Parin 1984: EXOC Cyp 11 (description, figures, distribution; Western Indian Ocean; in part). Talwar & Kacker 1984: 298, 300–301, text-fig. 122 (short description, fishery; India). Chen 1987: 15, Fig. 3-20 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 View FIGURE 5 View FIGURE 6 View FIGURE 7 View FIGURE 8 View FIGURE 9 View FIGURE 10 View FIGURE 11 View FIGURE 12 View FIGURE 13 View FIGURE 14 View FIGURE 15 View FIGURE 16 View FIGURE 17 View FIGURE 18 View FIGURE 19 View FIGURE 20 , Tab. 3-1, (short description; North-West Pacific; in part). Chen 1993: 191 (short description, figure; Taiwan; in part). Lakshminaraina 1993: 26–27, Fig. 4a View FIGURE 4 (short description, distribution; “Indian seas”; in part). Parin & Lakshminaraina 1993: 55 (description, distribution; South-East India). Rao et al. 2000: 86–87 (short description; Andaman Is., Mayabunder). Barman & Mishra 2006: 3, 11, 13–14 (description; India; in part). Matsunuma 2018: 67 (short description, photo; Vietnam, Ha Long Bay; in part).

Cypselurus starksi (non Abe).? Imai 1958a: 41, Pl. 39 fig. 3 (juvenile; Makurazaki).? Imai 1959: 75–81, Pl. 38b (juveniles; Japan; in part: only juveniles with bands on body and stripes on pectoral and pelvic fins). Kyushin et al. 1977: 40–41 (description, photo; Andaman Sea).

Cypselurus bruuni Kotthaus, 1969: 15–17 , figs. 167, 174 (original description; off Goa, India). Shakhovskoy & Parin 2019: 67–68 (description of the holotype and paratype).

Cypselurus naresii (non Günther).? Yoshida et al. 2013: 60 (photos; Thailand (Chantha Buri); in part: KAUM-I.33236).

Material examined. Two hundred specimens 11–175 mm SL.

South China Sea. Full morphological study . IORAS 03967 (1, 166 mm SL), Nha Trang Bay , 20.06.2003 . IORAS 03968 (1, 44 mm), 3°11’N 109°06’E, 19.03.1977 GoogleMaps . IORAS 03969 (1, 139 mm SL), Tonkin Bay , 30.07.1960 . IORAS 03970 (1, 106 mm SL), 20°20’N 106°47’E GoogleMaps . CAS 81098 View Materials * (4, 135– 144 mm SL), 9°31’N 99°55’E, 6- 8.11.1957 GoogleMaps . CAS 81124 View Materials * (3, 141– 150.5 mm SL), 12°33’N 101°16’E, 27.10.1957 GoogleMaps . CAS 81179 View Materials (1, 50 mm SL), 11°55’N 102°13’E, 20.11.1960 GoogleMaps . CAS 81204 View Materials * (1, 148.3), Gulf of Thailand, Market at Chol Buri , 1.12.1957 . CAS 81943 View Materials (1, 64 mm SL), 10°13’N 103°55’E, 10.02.1961 GoogleMaps . ZMUC uncatalogued (8, 43– 111 mm SL), 4°30’N 103°28’E, 6- 7.06.1951 GoogleMaps .

Partial morphological study. IORAS uncat* (1, 111 mm SL), 18°35’N 106°20’E, 14.07.1961 GoogleMaps . CAS 81121 View Materials * (3, 136– 160 mm SL), 7°22’N 100°43’E, 2.04.1968 GoogleMaps . CAS 81170 View Materials * (1, 154 mm SL), 10°27’N 99°15’E, 27.05.1960 GoogleMaps . Institute of Marine Research ( Vietnam) No. 51789* (6, 108– 164 mm SL), Can Bong, 1.08.1976 . ISH 4-1993 View Materials * (1, 130 mm SL), off Chumpon, Gulf of Thailand, 6.12.1993 . ISH 5-1993 View Materials * (1, 115 mm SL), off Chumpon, Gulf of Thailand, 6.12.1993 . SMF 28116 View Materials * (1, 109 mm SL), Gulf of Thailand, December 1974 . ZMUC uncat. (1, 63 mm SL), 4°30’N 103°28’E, 6- 7.06.1951 GoogleMaps . Unknown collection. No. 1673* (1, 167 mm SL), Thailand, Songhla Lake , 1982 .

Singapore. Full morphological study. IORAS 03971 (1, 46.5 mm SL), 1°58’N 105°53’E, 13.07.1971 GoogleMaps . IORAS 03972 (11, 124– 142.5 mm SL), Singapore, 3- 4.11.1962 . IORAS 03973 (11, 118.5– 146 mm SL), Singapore, 8- 9.03.1975 . IORAS 03974 (1, 128 mm SL), Singapore, 23– 26.02.1973 . CAS 130720 View Materials ( SU 30722 )* (1, 143 mm SL), Singapore, 18.03.1934 . ZMUC uncat. (5, 43– 143 mm SL), 1°35’N 103°01’E, 11.05.1951 GoogleMaps .

Partial morphological study. T. Abe collection No. 10660* (1,128 mm SL), Singapore . ZMUC uncat. (2, 117– 130 mm SL), 1°46’N 104°25’E, 21.06.1951 GoogleMaps .

Indonesia and Australia. Full morphological study . IORAS 03975 (1, 76 mm SL), 12°28’S 128°05’E, 3- 4.04.1973 GoogleMaps . AMS I.16937-002 (1, 50.5 mm SL), Australia, NT, Darwin , 1970 . AMS I.22137-015 (1, 61 mm SL), 18°46’S 146°26’E, 6.12.1980 GoogleMaps . FRSKU 112656 View Materials (1, 141 mm SL), 20°30’S 114°51’E, 11.01.1988 GoogleMaps . FRSKU 112657 View Materials (1, 147.5 mm SL), 20°30’S 114°51’E, 11.01.1988 GoogleMaps . FRSKU 112658 View Materials (1, 166 mm SL), 20°30’S 114°51’E, 11.01.1988 GoogleMaps . FRSKU 112835 View Materials (1, 143 mm SL), 15°11’S 122°47’E, 12.01.1989 GoogleMaps . FRSKU 112836 View Materials (1, 136 mm SL), 15°11’S 122°47’E, 12.01.1989 GoogleMaps . FRSKU 112837 View Materials (1, 148 mm SL), 15°11’S 122°47’E GoogleMaps . FRSKU 112838 View Materials (1, 150 mm SL), no data . NTM S.11951-003 (1, 51 mm SL), N of Table Head , Port Essington, N . T., 17.09.1985 .

Partial morphological study. IORAS 03976 (1, 32 mm SL), Surabaya, 24.12.1959 . IORAS 03977 (1, 78 mm SL), 6°59’S 104°49’E, 24.03.1961 GoogleMaps . AMS I.33759-008* (1, 31.5 mm SL), 10°11’S 142°56’E, 30.01.1993 GoogleMaps . AMS I.23423-004* (2, 126– 127 mm SL), 18°01’S 118°23’E, 1.08.1982 GoogleMaps . CSIRO C.726* (1, 170 mm SL), Maret Island , W.A., 17.09.1949 . CSIRO CA.1805* (1, 144 mm SL), Passage Islands , 9.12.1979 . FRSKU 112891 View Materials * (1, 146 mm SL), 18°29’S 118°59’E GoogleMaps . FRSKU 113560 View Materials * (1, 147.5 mm SL), 20°00’S 116°59’E, 9.01.1989 GoogleMaps . FRSKU 113896 View Materials * (1, 142 mm SL), 20°00’S 117°04’E, 27.11.1989 GoogleMaps . NTM S.10593.002* (2, 137– 147 mm SL), West side of Mc Cluer, N . T., 17.10.1982 . NTM S.11661-001* (1, 120 mm SL), Jensen Is., Wessel Is. Group, 4.02.1985 . QM I.6728–6729* (2, 130 mm SL), Thursday Id., N.Q., 26.05.1939 . QM I.16068* (1, 141 mm SL), Haggerstone Id., 19.02.1979 . QM I.17171* (1, 140 mm SL), Torres Strait, 8.11.1974 . SIO 61-56 View Materials * (4, 133– 138 mm SL), 10°11’S 139°31’E, 12.10.1960 GoogleMaps . USNM 072565 View Materials * (1, 147 mm SL), Java, Batavia, 2.04.1909 . WAM 29667.005 View Materials * (6, 157– 170 mm SL), 20°29’S 114°54’E, 11.01.1988 GoogleMaps .

Andaman Sea and Padang Harbour. Full morphological study. IORAS 03978 (4, 71.5–94 mm SL), 5°37’N 94°46’E, 9.03.1961 GoogleMaps . IORAS 03979 (1, 99 mm SL), Andaman Sea, 17.03.1964 . SOSC Ref. No. 360 (1, 55.5 mm SL), 7°11’N 99°22’E, 9.02.1966 GoogleMaps . SOSC uncat. (1, 145 mm SL), 7°11’N 99°22’E, 9.02.1966 GoogleMaps . ZMUC P34931 View Materials (1, 134 mm SL), Padang Harbour, 26.09– 5.10.1929 .

Partial morphological study. ISH 10-1993 View Materials * (10, 130– 148 mm SL), Ranong, Thailand, 10.12.1993 .

Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea. Full morphological study. IORAS 03980 (1, 156 mm SL), Yendi, Karwar , 5.10.1979 . IORAS 03981 (1, 149 mm SL), Yendi, Karwar , 5.10.1979 . IORAS 03982 (1, 170 mm SL), Vizinjam , December 1979 . IORAS 03983 (1, 144 mm SL), 5°20’N 80°01’E, 10- 11.11.1964 GoogleMaps . IORAS 03984 (1, 157 mm SL), Thirumullaivasal , July 1991 . CAS 141378 View Materials (SU 41378), (1, 158.5 mm SL) , Gulf of Mannar, Crusadai I., 22.01.1941 .

Partial morphological study. CMFRI uncat** (4, 150– 175 mm SL), Elathur Estuary , Calicut 2.11.1979 . CMFRI uncat** (2, 153– 154 mm SL), Karwar , 3.12.1979 . CMFRI uncat** (1, 160 mm SL), Veraval , Chamad, 11.10.1979 . ZMH 4983 View Materials * (1, 80 mm SL), off Goa , India, 15.02.1965 . ZMH 4984 View Materials * (1, 78.5 mm SL), off Goa , India, 15.02.1965 .

Philippines. Full morphological study . IORAS 03985 (2, 31.5–37 mm SL), 15°47’N 123°28’E, 10.09.1957 GoogleMaps . CAS 81829 View Materials (11, 36– 99 mm SL), 6°56’N 121°45’E, 6.05.1948 GoogleMaps . CAS 81864 View Materials (1, 70.5 mm SL), Palawan Prov., Linapacan I., San Miguel, 25.09.1949 . CAS 81904 View Materials (1, 69 mm SL), Zamboanga Del Sur, Pilas Group, Minis I., 7.05.1948 . SOSC Ref.No. 190 (3, 107– 136 mm SL), 6°30’N 118°45’E, 27.01.1965 GoogleMaps . ZMUC uncat (1, 49.5 mm SL), 9°36’N 125°46’E, 30- 31.07.1951 GoogleMaps .

Partial morphological study. IORAS 03985 (8, 10.9–17.2 mm SL), 15°47’N 123°28’E, 10.09.1957 GoogleMaps . BSKU 17726 View Materials * (1, 34.5 mm SL), 8°19’N 118°09’E, 27.05.1972 GoogleMaps . USNM 135803 View Materials * # (2, 125 mm SL), Catbalogan, Samar I., 15.04.1908 . USNM 135804 View Materials * # (3, 122– 134 mm SL), Subig Bay, Luzon I., 6- 8.01.1908 . USNM 135805 View Materials * # (2, 121– 123.5 mm SL), Catanduanes I., Agoho Pt., 10.06.1909 . USNM 135806 View Materials * # (5, 124– 132.5 mm SL), San Miguel Bay, Luzon, 5.07.1909 . USNM 294551 View Materials * (1, 81.5 mm SL), Luzon I., Albay Bay, 3.05.1976 . USNM 435573 View Materials # (1, 123 mm SL), near Dauis, Panglao, 31.07.2016 . ZMUC uncat (3, 26.5–31 mm SL), 9°36’N 125°46’E, 30- 31.07.1951 GoogleMaps .

Other areas. Full morphological study. ZIN 4827* (1, 122 mm SL), Pacific Ocean, Dr. Mertens. ZIN 5509* (1, 121 mm SL), Oc. Pacificus—Dr. Schrenk, 1854.

Type material. Full morphological study. BMNH 1866.5.2.31* (1, 147 mm SL), E. Ind. Arch.

Partial morphological study. AMS I.57* (1, 137 mm SL), Malay Arch. RMNH 12054* (8, 126– 147 mm SL), no data.

Types. Ten syntypes of Exocoetus oligolepis Bleeker were studied by the second author (nine have questionable type status). In this work we designate the syntype BMNH 1866.5.2.31 as the lectotype of Cypselurus oligolepis (Bleeker) to clarify the application of the name to the taxon.

The lectotype (ex syntype) of Exocoetus oligolepis Bleeker ( BMNH 1866.5.2.31, E. Ind. Arch.). Length 147 mm SL. D 12, A 8, P I 16, Spred 23, Str 8?, Sp.br 21 (4 + 17), Vert 40 (26 + 14). Measurements (in % SL): aA 81.2, aD 71.4, aV 58.5, cV 1 34.3, pV 40.1, c 25.3, o 9.0, ao 1 7.2, io 1 9.0, H 19.8, Dc 26.8, lP 64.7, lV 32.4, lD 18.7, lA -, HD 12.3, HA -. Pectoral fins gray to 9 th ray, with tip pale. The first anal-fin ray beneath 6 th dorsal-fin ray. Second dorsal-fin ray the longest. Lower jaw shorter than upper jaw. Jaw teeth tricuspid. Palatine teeth present. This specimen was also described by Günther (1866).

Paralectotype (ex syntype (?)) of Exocoetus oligolepis Bleeker ( AMS I.57, Malay Arch., Purch. Mr. Fransis Day 1886). Length 137 mm SL. D 12, A 10, P I 15, Spred 27?, Sp.br 22 (5 + 17), Vert 41 (27 + 14). Measurements (in % SL): cV 1 33.5, pV 43.1, c 25.2, o 9.3, io 1 10.1, Dc 28.5, lP 62.0, lP 1 44.9, lV 29.2. The fish is in bad condition (shrunken). First anal-fin ray beneath 5 th dorsal-fin ray. Jaw teeth in many rows, some teeth tricuspid. Palatine teeth present. This specimen is probably C. oligolepis oligolepis , although we are not certain.

Paralectotypes (ex syntypes (?)) of Exocoetus oligolepis Bleeker ( RMNH 12054, Coll. Dr. Bleeker). Eight specimens 126–147 mm SL have the following counts: D 12, 12, 12, 12, 12, 12, 12, 11; A 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8; Spred 27, 26, 25, 24, 26, 25, 23, 26. Judging by the characters provided the vast majority of fish (if not all of them) belong to C. oligolepis oligolepis , although it is possible that some are other subspecies (or even C. neglectus ).

We regard Cypselurus bruuni Kotthaus, 1969 as a junior synonym of C. oligolepis oligolepis . The holotype and the only paratype of this species were studied by the second author, and their characters were given in the first part of this review ( Shakhovskoy & Parin 2019: 67–68).

Description. Meristic and morphometric characters are given in Tables 1–5 View TABLE 1 , 7, 10. D 10 View TABLE 10 –13 (usually 12–13), A 8–9 (rarely 7), P I 12–16 (usually I 13–15), Spred 22–28 (usually 24–26), Str 8–9½ (very rarely 7 or 7½), Sp.br 19–26 (4–8 + 14–18), usually 21–24 (5–6 + 16–17), Vert 39–43 (25–27 + 14–17), usually 40–42 (25–26 + 15–16). Snout short ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 ), lower jaw shorter than upper or of equal length (rarely lower jaw may be slightly longer, especially in juveniles). Jaw teeth small to medium-sized (not visible or barely visible with naked eyes), mainly tricuspid (some specimens also have conical teeth or teeth with additional cusps). Juveniles <90 mm have mainly conical teeth. Teeth arranged in 2–5 rows, in juveniles in 1–3 rows. Palatine teeth always present, numerous (sparse in juveniles <40 mm SL); one juvenile 68.5 mm SL with two teeth on vomer.

Body rather deep. Greatest body depth changes slightly with growth: in juveniles 30–100 mm SL body depth 4.6–6.2 in SL; in fish 120–170 mm SL, 4.0– 5.5 in SL. Body width 0.96–1.52 and caudal peduncle depth 2.01–3.00 in greatest body depth. Greatest head depth and head length do not change with growth, 4.7–5.9 and 3.7–4.4 in SL, respectively. Head length 3.7–4.4 in SL and 0.97–1.27 in dorso-caudal distance. Eyes large, eye diameter decreases strongly with growth ( Fig. 6a View FIGURE 6 ): in juveniles (30–100 mm SL) 7.7–12.6 in SL, 2.0– 3.1 in head length, 1.0– 1.5 in interorbital width and 0.85–1.4 in postorbital distance ( Fig. 6e View FIGURE 6 ); in fish 120–170 mm SL, eye diameter 10.5–13.9 in SL, 2.7–3.4 in с, 0.95–1.45 times in io and 1.1–1.45 in po.

Pectoral fins relatively long, their length increasing with growth to about 100 mm SL, and then nearly constant ( Fig. 6c View FIGURE 6 ): in juveniles 30–100 mm SL pectoral fin 1.5–1.85 in SL and in fish 120–170 mm SL, 1.45–1.65 in SL. Tip of pectoral fin reaching posterior half of dorsal-fin base or slightly beyond, not exceeding middle of caudal peduncle; in juveniles <50 mm SL to about middle of dorsal-fin base. First pectoral-fin ray unbranched, its length increasing with growth: in juveniles 30–100 mm SL it fits 2.55–3.35 in SL and 1.57–1.93 in lP; in fish 120–170 mm SL, 2.3–3.1 in SL and 1.55–1.90 in lP. Pelvic-fin base much closer to posterior edge of head than to origin of caudal-fin lower lobe (cV / pV = 0.63–0.80); pelvic fins not changing position as fish grows. Pelvic-fin length decreasing strongly from juveniles to adults ( Fig. 6d View FIGURE 6 ): in juveniles 30–100 mm SL pelvic fin 2.15–2.8 in SL and 1.22–1.77 in lP ( Fig. 6f View FIGURE 6 ); in fish 120–170 mm SL, 2.8–3.4 in SL and 1.82–2.22 in lP. Tip of pelvic fin of juveniles 30–70 mm SL reaching (nearly reaching) origin of caudal-fin lower lobe or protruding beyond; in juveniles 70–100 mm SL reaching from middle of caudal peduncle to origin of caudal-fin lower lobe; in fish 100–130 mm SL reaching from end of anal-fin base to middle of caudal peduncle and in fish> 130 mm SL reaching from middle to end of anal-fin base (very rarely further).

Anal-fin origin far posterior to dorsal-fin origin (1st anal-fin ray under 4 th –8 th dorsal-fin ray, usually under 5th–7th). Dorsal fin with 2–6 rays more than anal fin. Height of dorsal and, particularly, anal fins decreasing markedly as fish grow. In juveniles 30–100 mm SL, HD 6.3–9.1 and HA 8.3–13.9 in SL; in fish 120–170 mm SL, HD 7.25–10.85 and HA 10.75–14.7 in SL. Longest ray of dorsal and anal fins—2 nd or 3 rd (in a juvenile 46 mm SL 4 th dorsal ray the longest). Tip of last dorsal-fin ray reaching from middle of caudal peduncle to origin of caudal-fin upper lobe (rarely slightly further). Middle and posterior rays of dorsal fin not elongate, penultimate rays usually not extending beyond tip of last ray.

Pigmentation. Body of juveniles ( Fig. 5a–d View FIGURE 5 ) brown or pale brown, ventral side usually paler than dorsal one. In juveniles 25–80 mm SL dark body bands absent or one to four bands on the lower part of body present: near pectoral-fin base, between pectoral and pelvic fins, near pelvic-fin base; in some fish also under eye or above anus. Fish> 80 mm SL without body bands.

The lower surface of the head of juveniles 25–90 mm SL brown with paler chin and distal parts of branchiostegal rays, or in some fish pale with pigmentation mainly under the eye. With growth pigment on lower surface of head begins to disappear (persisting as dots under the eye), and in fish> 105 mm SL, lower surface of head pale with only few dots near lower jaw symphysis. Adults with a few small specks on gill cover and (or) under eye or without specks.

Pectoral fins ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 ) of juveniles 10–80 mm SL brown or dark brown with pale tip and usually with pale transverse band or a row of pale spots (sometimes with only 1–2 spots) in central part ( Fig. 7a–b View FIGURE 7 ). Juveniles from Philippine Sea (IORAS 03985, 15°47’N 123°28’E) also have large pale spots distally ( Fig. 7a View FIGURE 7 ). Occasional specimens with entirely dark fins. In fish (75) 80–110 mm SL, the fins become brown or dark brown to 10 th –11 th ray with pale tip and small pale band (“mirror”) reaching up to 6 th –10 th ray ( Fig. 7c View FIGURE 7 ). In fish ≥ 110 mm SL, pectoral fins brown or dark brown (rarely dark gray) to 8 th –9 th (rarely to 7 th or 10 th –11 th) ray, with narrow pale posterior edging and broad pale tip ( Fig. 7d View FIGURE 7 ). Pigmentation usually extending distally one ray lower than proximally ( Fig. 7d View FIGURE 7 ) or a small “mirror” present.

Pelvic fins of juveniles 10–50 mm SL ( Fig. 8a View FIGURE 8 ) entirely brown or dark brown. Fish from Philippine Sea sometimes with a paler area near tip of 1 st –2 nd ray. Fish (45) 55–90 mm SL usually with a row of 1–5 pale spots ( Fig. 8b View FIGURE 8 ). In fish 95–115 mm SL pigmentation begins to disappear starting with proximal part of the fin and between 5 th –6 th rays ( Fig. 8c View FIGURE 8 ). In fish ≥ 115 mm SL pelvic fins pale ( Fig. 8d View FIGURE 8 ), although few dots or a line between rays may persist occasionally.

Dorsal fin of juveniles 10–45 mm SL pale with melanophores near bases of anterior rays and along fin’s upper margin; posterior margin devoid of pigmentation. In fish 45–95 mm SL, dorsal fin is covered with melanophores (darker near fin base anteriorly and along upper margin of the fin, paler or entirely pale near fin base posteriorly and along last ray). In fish 95–110 mm SL, pigmentation starts to disappear and dorsal fin becomes gray with dark upper margin. In fish> 110 mm SL, dorsal fin gray or translucent, usually with yellowish or brownish tinge near its base.

Anal fin of juveniles 10–17 mm SL transparent, sometimes with few black dots between 2–3 posterior rays distally or near fin base anteriorly. In fish 30–90 mm SL, anal fin pale with a large dark spot posteriorly (occasionally absent) and, sometimes, with melanophores near the fin base anteriorly. In fish 90–100 mm SL, pigmentation starts to disappear, and in fish> 100 mm SL anal fin translucent or, rarely, grayish (in fish 100–110 mm SL a few dots sometimes persist distally).

Caudal fin of fish 10–35 mm SL pale, with dots along rays of lower lobe (except uppermost rays), and sparse dots between upper lobe rays and on fin base. In fish 35–90 mm SL, caudal fin pale with pale brown or brown base and dots between rays of lower lobe and, usually, on upper lobe distally. The dots usually form 1–3 aggregations (bands) on lower lobe and, in fish> 55 mm SL, also 1 band on upper lobe. In fish ≥ 90 mm SL caudal fin pale brown, brown or gray, usually with the distal part of upper lobe darker and paler near fork ( Fig. 5d–f View FIGURE 5 ).

Coloration in life. According to Bleeker (1852), pectoral fins in adults are a beautiful dark blue, and caudal fin also blue.

Maximum size. The maximum length of C. o. oligolepis in the material examined was 175 mm SL (CMFRI uncat, Elathur Estuary, Calicut). The largest female and male were 170 and 157 mm SL, respectively.

Common names. The name “largescale flying fish” is most frequently used for C. oligolepis . The name “common largescale flying fish” (Russian: обыкновенный малочеШуйный стрижехвост) is proposed here for the subspecies C. o. oligolepis .

Intrasubspecies variation. Specimens from different regions slightly differ in frequencies of some counts ( Tables 1–5 View TABLE 1 ). For example, C. o. oligolepis from Australia and Indonesia have a slightly higher number of anal-fin rays (usually 9 vs. usually 8). Fishes from Philippines more frequently have 11 dorsal-fin rays, and fishes from Indian waters have fewer vertebrae. There are also subtle differences in several measurements— H, h, io, p, HA and lA ( Table 7). These minor differences suggest some degree of isolation between populations. Juveniles from the Philippine Sea ( IORAS 03985 , 15°47’N 123°28’E) differ from other juveniles in pigmentation of pectoral (with large pale area near tip, Fig. 7a View FIGURE 7 ) and pelvic (with pale area near 1 st ray) fins, and in higher values of HD and HA. Fishes from the Philippine Sea are worth study based on more representative material GoogleMaps .

Biology. Males are mature by 124 mm SL, females by 126 mm SL. Close to mature or mature fish were captured off Nha Trang , Vietnam in June ( IORAS 03967 ) and off Can Bong in August ( Institute of Marine Research No. 51789), in the Gulf of Thailand in October ( CAS 81124 View Materials ), near Singapore in March ( IORAS 03973 ) and November ( IORAS 03972 ), in Padang Harbour in September–October ( ZMUC P34931 View Materials ), near Vizinjam , India in December ( IORAS 03982 ), in the Gulf of Mannar in January ( CAS 141378 View Materials ). Small juveniles 17–31 mm SL were captured on 11 May 1951 at 1°35’N 103°01’E, GoogleMaps on 6–7 June 1951 at 4°30’N 103°28’E GoogleMaps and on 30–31 July 1951 at 9°36’N 125°46’E (all ZMUC uncat.). Juveniles 11–37 mm SL were captured in the Philippine Sea in September ( IORAS 03985 ). These data suggest year-round spawning of C. o. oligolepis , probably with some local seasonality GoogleMaps .

Distribution. According to our data ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 ), C. o. oligolepis occurs in the neritic waters of India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Cambodia, Australia, New Guinea, Philippines and Vietnam, from Veraval, India (CMFRI uncat.) to eastern Philippines (CAS 138417, Mindanao I., Talissayan) and eastern Australia (AMS I.22137- 015, 18°46’S 146°26’E), and from Tonkin Bay (Institute of Marine Research ( Vietnam) No. 51789, Can Bong) to NW Australia (CSIRO CA.1805, Passage Islands).

Cypselurus o. oligolepis has also been reported by Hyodo & Tsukahara (1977) from the northern Arabian Sea at about 20– 22°N 60– 70°E, by Jones & Kumaran (1965) from the Laccadive Archipelago, by Rao et al. (2000) from Mayabunder (Andaman Islands) and by Chen (1993) from Taiwan. Imai (1958a, 1959) described (as C. starksi ) juveniles presumably of C. o. oligolepis from the waters of southern Japan (Makurazaki). Additional occurrences are listed in synonymy and bibliography.

Günther (1910) reported C. oligolepis from Tahiti. However, it is probably a misidentification because there is no evidence of any subspecies of C. oligolepis from Tahiti.

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

ZMUC

Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen

SMF

Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

NTM

Northern Territory Museum of Arts and Sciences

CSIRO

Australian National Fish Collection

CA

Chicago Academy of Sciences

CMFRI

See FMRI

ZIN

Russian Academy of Sciences, Zoological Institute, Zoological Museum

RMNH

National Museum of Natural History, Naturalis

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Beloniformes

Family

Exocoetidae

Genus

Cypselurus

Loc

Cypselurus oligolepis oligolepis ( Bleeker, 1865 )

Shakhovskoy, Ilia B. & Parin, Nikolay V. 2022
2022
Loc

Cypselurus naresii

Yoshida, T. & Motomura, H. & Musikasinthorn, P. & Matsuura, K. 2013: 60
2013
Loc

Cypselurus bruuni

Shakhovskoy, I. B. & Parin, N. V. 2019: 67
Kotthaus, A. 1969: 17
1969
Loc

Cypselurus starksi

Kyushin, K. & Amaoka, K. & Nakaya, K. & Ida, H. 1977: 40
Imai, S. 1959: 75
Imai, S. 1958: 41
1958
Loc

Cypselurus oligolepis

Matsunuma, M. 2018: 67
Barman, R. P. & Mishra, S. S. 2006: 3
Rao, D. V. & Devi, K. & Rajan, P. T. 2000: 86
Chen, C. - H. 1993: 191
Lakshminaraina, D. 1993: 26
Parin, N. V. & Lakshminaraina, D. 1993: 55
Chen, C. - H. 1987: 15
Talwar, P. K. & Kacker, R. K. 1984: 298
Jones, S. & Kumaran, M. 1980: 146
Mai Dinh Phong & Bui Van Duong 1978: 251
Hyodo, H. & Tsukahara, H. 1977: 9
Jinadasa, J. 1971: 15
Munro, I. S. R. 1967: 117
Jones, S. & Kumaran, M. 1965: 111
Parin, N. V. & Besednov, L. N. 1965: 107
Parin, N. V. & Gorbunova, N. N. 1964: 232
Parin, N. V. 1960: 222
Chandy, M. 1954: 177
Woods, L. P. & Schultz, L. P. 1953: 184
1953
Loc

Cypsilurus oligolepis

Weber, M. & de Beaufort, L. F. 1922: 180
1922
Loc

Exocoetus oligolepis Bleeker, 1865: 107

Gunther, A. 1910: 370
Gunther, A. 1866: 296
Bleeker, P. 1865: 107
1865
Loc

Exocoetus unicolor

Bleeker, P. 1852: 11
1852