Philopterus gustafssoni, Najer & Papousek & Adam & Trnka & Quach & Nguyen & Figura & Literak & Sychra, 2020

Najer, Tomas, Papousek, Ivo, Adam, Costica, Trnka, Alfred, Quach, Van Thi, Nguyen, Chinh Ngoc, Figura, Roman, Literak, Ivan & Sychra, Oldrich, 2020, New records of Philopterus (Ischnocera: Philopteridae) from Acrocephalidae and Locustellidae, with description of one new species from Regulidae, European Journal of Taxonomy 632, pp. 1-37: 19-27

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.632

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:B8641E16-EE63-48BE-B047-40FC04429BC9

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3804604

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/F1B071D3-5F30-4188-A586-0D511C0DAB58

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:F1B071D3-5F30-4188-A586-0D511C0DAB58

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Philopterus gustafssoni
status

sp. nov.

Philopterus gustafssoni   sp. nov.

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:F1B071D3-5F30-4188-A586-0D511C0DAB58

Figs 6–8C, D View Fig View Fig View Fig , Tables 2–5

Morphological diagnosis

Based on descriptions and illustrations published by Mey (1988), Ph. gustafssoni   sp. nov. appears to be closely related to Ph. pallescens   , Ph. rutteri   , Ph. hercynicus   and Ph. peripariphilus   . With these four species, it shares following morphological characters: (1) broadly triangular head shape with concave frons; (2) trapezoidal anterior dorsal head plate (ADP) with concave anterior margin and heavily sclerotized posterior projection. Anterior part of lateral ADP margin concave, posterior part of lateral ADP margin convex, making all lateral ADP margin S-shaped; (3) three or more pairs of setae on posterior margin of prothorax.

According to what can be seen from the illustrations ( Mey 1988), Ph. gustafssoni   sp. nov. differs from the abovementioned species in the following combination of characters: (1) lateral margin of preantennal head straight or slightly concave in Ph. gustafssoni   sp. nov. ( Fig. 6A, C, E View Fig ), but noticeably concave in Ph. pallescens   , Ph. rutteri   , Ph. hercynicus   and Ph. peripariphilus   ; (2) frons indented in Ph. gustafssoni   sp. nov. ( Fig. 6A, C, E View Fig ) and Ph. hercynicus   , but slightly concave in Ph. pallescens   , Ph. rutteri   and Ph. peripariphilus   ; (3) postero-lateral ADP corners broadly traingular with more or less right angles in Ph. gustafssoni   sp. nov. ( Fig. 6A, C, E View Fig ), but sharp with acute angles in Ph. pallescens   , Ph. rutteri   , Ph. hercynicus   and Ph. peripariphilus   ; (4) posterior ADP projection lingulate, relatively narrow on its base and broad on its apex in Ph. gustafssoni   sp. nov. ( Fig. 6A, C, E View Fig ), but triangulate with relatively broad base and sharp apex in Ph. pallescens   , Ph. rutteri   , Ph. hercynicus   and Ph. peripariphilus   ; (5) three pairs of setae on posterior margin of prothorax in Ph. gustafssoni   sp. nov. ( Fig. 6A, E View Fig ) and Ph. hercynicus   , but more on those of Ph. pallescens   , Ph. rutteri   and Ph. peripariphilus   ; (6) three short thorn-like setae on each side of anterior prothorax margin in Ph. gustafssoni   sp. nov. ( Fig. 6A, E View Fig , present also in Ph. acrocephalus   , Fig. 4A, E View Fig ), but absent in Ph. pallescens   , Ph. rutteri   , Ph. hercynicus   and Ph. peripariphilus   ; (7) ventral head carina with characteristic dark pigmentation in Ph. gustafssoni   sp. nov. ( Fig. 8 View Fig C–D), but not pigmented in Ph. pallescens   , Ph. rutteri   , Ph. hercynicus   and Ph. peripariphilus   .

Other body parts than head and prothorax are neither illustrated nor described, so we could not verify how much they differ from Ph. gustafssoni   sp. nov. We looked for the type material of Ph. pallescens   and Ph. rutteri   in the Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom (BMNH), where a large part of the Denny’s (1842) and Kellogg’s (1899) collection is placed. We did found neither specimen of these species nor any Philopterus   specimens from the type hosts. Type material of Ph. hercynicus   and Ph. peripariphilus   should be deposited in the Museum of Natural History Rudolstadt, Germany. We tried to contact Eberhard Mey in order to get more information about this material, but without any success. From Balat’s collection (MMBC) we examined one female paratype of Ph. peripariphilus   and one female from Periparus ater (Linnaeus, 1758)   labeled as Ph. pallescens   . Both these specimens correspond to all the characters of each species described by Mey (1988) but we hesitate to assess relevance of these species only on base of one specimen. Hence, we are leaving identity of all the four species unresolved and provide only description of Ph. gustafssoni   sp. nov.

Etymology

The specific epithet is a patronym in honor of Dr. Daniel R. Gustafsson, for his exceptional contribution to worldwide knowledge of chewing lice and leading of chewing lice frontier research in China.

Material examined

Holotype

CZECHIA • ♂ ( Fig. 8C View Fig ); Moravian-Silesian Region, Frydek-Mistek District, Janovice ; 49°37′N, 18°24′E; 19 Mar. 2015; I. Literak leg.; ex Regulus regulus regulus   ; MMBC CZ-OS01. GoogleMaps  

Paratypes

CZECHIA • 1♀; same collection data as for preceding; MMBC CZ-OS01   1♂, 1♀; same collection data as for preceding; MMBC CZ-OS02   1♂, 1♀; same collection data as for preceding; MMBC CZ- OS03   1♂, 1♀; same collection data as for preceding; MMBC CZ-OS04   .

Other material

CZECHIA • 18 ʘʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MMBC   13 ʘʘ; S Bohemian Region, Jindrichuv Hradec District, Klec ; 49°05′N, 14°44′E; 15–16 May 2015; same collector, and host as for preceding; MMBC GoogleMaps   9 ♂♂, 11 ♀♀, 28 ʘʘ; Moravian-Silesian Region, Frydek-Mistek District, Lubno ; 49°36′N, 18°22′E; 18 Mar. and 15–16 Apr. 2015; same collector and host as for preceding; MMBC GoogleMaps   1 ♀; S Moravian Region, Brno Country District, Skalicka ; 49°21′N, 16°30′E; 2 Oct. 2015; same collector and host as for preceding; MMBC GoogleMaps   2 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀, 4 ʘʘ; Olomouc Region, Jesenik District, Zulova ; 50°18′N, 17°05′E; 8 and 10 Nov. 2014; same collector and host as for preceding; MMBC GoogleMaps   2 ♀♀, 5 ʘʘ; S Moravian Region, Brno Country District, Moravske Kninice ; 49°17′N, 16°29′E; 21 Dec. 2009; O. Sychra & I. Literak leg.; same host as for preceding; MMBC GoogleMaps   1 ♀, 4 ʘʘ; S Bohemian Region, Jindrichuv Hradec District, Klec ; 49°05′N, 14°44′E; 16 May 2015; I. Literak leg.; ex Regulus ignicapillus   ; specimen lost during DNA extraction GoogleMaps   .

UNITED KINGDOM • 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀, 1 ʘ; England, Dorset, Portland Bill, Portland Bird Observatory ; 15 Apr. 1975; ex Regulus ignicapillus   ; NHML NHMUK010647797 -98, Brit. Mus. 1975-355   1 ♂, 2 ʘʘ; England, Cumbria, Wasdale; 9 Apr. 1955; ex Regulus regulus   (labeled as Regularis regularis   ); NHML NHMUK010647799, Brit. Mus. 1955-233   1 ♂, 2 ♀♀; England, Lancashire, Southport; 5 Mar. 1961; ex Regulus regulus   ; NHML NHMUK010647803, Brit. Mus. 1961-671   1 ♀, 1 ʘ; England, Surrey; Oct. 1973; K. M. Barralet; same host as for preceding; NHML NHMUK010647804   .

PORTUGAL • 5 ♂♂, 5 ♀♀; Azores, São Miguel Island, Sete Cidades ; 37°48′N, 25°12′W; 14–15 Apr. 2013; I. Literak leg.; ex Regulus regulus azoricus   ; MMBC GoogleMaps   .

COUNTRY UNKNOWN • 3 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀, 2 ʘʘ; 14 Mar. 1937; A. Ivanov leg.; ex Regulus regulus   ; ZIN   2 ♂♂, 1 ♀, 4 ʘʘ; 16 Mar. 1937; same collector, host and deposit as for preceding   1 ♂, 2 ♀♀; 14 Apr. 1948; Lyubin leg.; same host as for preceding; ZIN   .

POLAND • 1 ♂; Pomeranian Voivodeship, Nowy Dwor Gdanski County, Mierzeja Wislana ; 1 Apr. 1966; Busse leg.; same host as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/58   1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/59   1 ♀; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 2 Apr. 1966; MNHW 9/a/60   1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/61   1 ʘ [labeled as ♀]; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 25 Apr. 1966; MNHW 9/a/62   1 ♂; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 1 Apr. 1966; MNHW 9/a/63   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/64   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 2 Apr. 1966; MNHW 9/a/65   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 1 Apr. 1966; MNHW 9/a/66   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 4 Apr. 1966; MNHW 9/a/67   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 1 Apr. 1966; MNHW 9/a/68   1 ♀; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 8 Apr. 1966; MNHW 9/a/69   1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/70   1 ʘ; Pomeranian Voivodeship, Puck County, Hel ; 10 Sep. 1962; same collector and host as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/1   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 22 Sep. 1962; MNHW 9/a/2   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 26 Apr. 1963; MNHW 9/a/5   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/6   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 14 Apr. 1963; MNHW 9/a/7   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/8   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 1 May 1963; MNHW 9/a/9   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/10   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 15 Apr. 1963; MNHW 9/a/11   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/12   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/13   1 ♀; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 14 Apr. 1963; MNHW 9/a/14   1 ♂; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 16 Apr. 1963; MNHW 9/a/15   1 ♀; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 27 Apr. 1965; MNHW 9/a/16   1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/17   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 1 Apr. 1965; MNHW 9/a/18   1 ♀; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 20 Apr. 1965; MNHW 9/a/19   1 ♀; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 3 Apr. 1965; MNHW 9/a/20   1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/21   1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/22   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/23   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/24   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/25   1 ♀; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 17 Apr. 1965; MNHW 9/a/27   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/28   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/29   1 ♀; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 29 Mar. 1965; MNHW 9/a/30   1 ♀; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 25 Mar. 1965; MNHW 9/a/31   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 29 Mar. 1965; MNHW 9/a/32   1 ♀; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 17 Apr. 1965; MNHW 9/a/35   1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/36   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/37   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/38   1 ♀; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 3 Apr. 1965; MNHW 9/a/39   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 2 Apr. 1965; MNHW 9/a/40   1 ♀; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 17 Apr. 1965; MNHW 9/a/43   1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/44   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/45   1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/47   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 3 Apr. 1965; MNHW 9/a/48   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/49   1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/50   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 17 Apr. 1965; MNHW 9/a/53   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/54   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 3 Apr. 1965; MNHW 9/a/55   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/56   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/57   1 ♂; Pomeranian Voivodeship, Nowy Dwor Gdanski County, Mierzeja Wislana ; 1 Apr. 1966, same collector and host as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/58   1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/59   1 ♀; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 2 Apr. 1966; MNHW 9/a/60   1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/61   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 25 Apr. 1966; MNHW 9/a/62   1 ♂; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 1 Apr. 1966; MNHW 9/a/63   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 2 Apr. 1966; MNHW 9/a/65   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 1 Apr. 1966; MNHW 9/a/66   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 4 Apr. 1966; MNHW 9/a/67   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 1 Apr. 1966; MNHW 9/a/68   1 ♀; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 8 Apr. 1966; MNHW 9/a/69   1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/70   1 ♂; Pomeranian Voivodeship, Puck County, Hel ; 25 Apr. 1969; same collector and host as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/73   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/74   1 ♀; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 21 Apr. 1969; MNHW 9/a/75   1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/77(2)   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 25 Apr. 1969; MNHW 9/a/78(2)   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/79(2)   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/80(2)   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 17 Apr. 1969; MNHW 9/a/82(3)   1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/84   1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/86   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/88(1)   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 21 Apr. 1969; MNHW 9/a/100(2)   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/100(2) [the same label as preceding]   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/108(1)   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/109(1)   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/110(4)   1 ♂; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 14 Apr. 1969; MNHW 9/a/112(2)   1 ♂; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 17 Apr. 1962; MNHW 9/a/113(2)   1 ♀; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 21 Apr. 1969; MNHW 9/a/119(2)   1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/120(2)   1 ♀; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 16 Apr. 1969; MNHW 9/a/122(1)   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/129   1 ♀; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 21 Apr. 1969; MNHW 9/a/131(4)   1 ♂; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 31 Apr. [?] 1965; MNHW 9/a/133   1 ♀; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 21 Apr. 1969; MNHW 9/a/135(3)   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/136   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/137(4)   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/157(3)   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/159(3)   . • 1 ♀; same locality as for preceding; 16 Apr. 1969; Busse leg.; ex Regulus ignicapillus   ; MNHW 9/b/1   .

AZERBAIJAN • 1 ♂, 1 ♀; Lankaran District; 10 Mar. 1934; Shtroi leg.; ex Regulus regulus buturlini   ; ZIN I362 View Materials   4 ʘʘ; Lankaran District; 14 Mar. 1934; same collector and host as for preceding; labeled as Philopterus subflavescens   (determined by D.I. Blagoveshtchensky); ZIN I400 View Materials   .

UZBEKISTAN • 1 ♂, 1 ♀; 16 Jan. 1940; ex Regulus regulus tristis   ; ZIN I445-22 View Materials   2 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding; ZIN I446-23 View Materials   .

Additional material collected

PORTUGAL • 8 ʘʘ; Azores, Sao Miguel Island, Nordeste ; 18 Apr. 2013; I. Literak leg.; ex Regulus regulus azoricus   ; UVPS   7 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀, 30 ʘʘ; Azores, Sao Miguel Island, Sete Cidades ; 37°48′N, 25°12′W; 15 Apr. 2013; same collector and host as for preceding; UVPS GoogleMaps   1 ♀; Azores, Santa Maria Island, Pico Alto ; 36°58′N, 25°05′W; 20 Sep. 2013; O. Sychra & I. Literak leg.; ex Regulus regulus sanctaemariae   ; UVPS GoogleMaps   .

Not determinable material

The following material from Złotorzycka’s collection is probably Ph. gustafssoni   sp. nov., but the species could not be determined because it contained only larvae without any associated adult lice:

POLAND • 1 ʘ; Pomeranian Voivodeship, Nowy Dwor Gdanski County, Mierzeja Wislana ; 26 Sep. 1965; Busse leg.; ex Regulus regulus   ; MNHW 9/a/26   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 30 Sep. 1964; MNHW 9/a/40   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/41   1 ʘ; same collection data as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/42   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 1 Apr. 1960; MNHW 9/a/64   1 ʘ; Pomeranian Voivodeship, Nowy Dwor Gdanski County, Skowronki ; 3 Sep. 1962; J. Złotorzycka leg.; same host as for preceding; MNHW 9/a/3   1 ʘ; same location, collector and host as for preceding; 9 Sep. 1962; MNHW 9/a/4   .

Description

Both sexes

Head as in Fig. 6C View Fig , broadly triangular, at least as wide as long, with frons deeply concave, preantennal region shorter than the postantennal, with straight lateral margin. Hyaline margin slight, not wider than frons, in some specimens barely apparent. Dorsal anterior head preantennal plate (ADP) as in Fig. 6B View Fig , with anterior margin centrally deeply indented or concave and straight anterior part of lateral margin. Posterior part of ADP lateral margin convex, so entire ADP (ignoring central posterior projection) trapezoidal with convex lateral margins. Large heavily sclerotized posterior projection protruding from posterior part of ADP, with a base the same width as anterior ADP margin. Postero-lateral corners of ADP broadly triangular, with bases positioned approximately at the level of ¼ of length of the central projection, about the same width as the central projection at this level, both postero-lateral ADP angles more or less right, very weakly sclerotized and therefore barely apparent, especially in comparison with the central projection. There is no or only a very slight indentation between the ADP postero-lateral corners and the central projection. Ventral anterior plate as in Fig. 6C View Fig , lateral quarters of anterior margin straight as well as lateral margins, straight or slightly convex posterior margins converging into one central median point, so the entire posterior ½ of the ventral plate seems a wide triangular jag. Ventral carina darkly pigmented, creating characteristic pied pattern on preantennal head ( Fig. 8 View Fig C–D). Prothorax as in Fig. 6A, E View Fig , with 1 medium-long pps in each postero-lateral corner, 2 medium-long pps on each side of posteriorly convergent central part of posterior margin and 3 short thorn-like setae on each side of its anterior margin. Prosternum elongated and posteriorly fused with anterior part of rhombic mesosternum. In place of metasternum 1–2 medium-long setae on each side. Pterothorax with 10–13 medium-long posterior setae (mts) on each side, all of them about the same length. Lateral margins of pterothorax with bulging anterior part, posterior margin with noticeable bulge in places where it overlaps with tergopleurites II on each side. Tergopleurites II–IX with all setae the same length, short or medium-long, never reaching posterior margin of following segment. Leg chaetotaxy as in Fig. 7 View Fig , measurements as in Table 3.

Male

Habitus as in Fig. 6A View Fig , thoracic and abdominal chaetotaxy as in Fig. 6A View Fig and Table 2. Sternal setae (sts) medium-long on segments II–IV and VI, slightly overreaching posterior margin of following segments, and long on segment V, overreaching anterior margin of subgenital plate. Subgenital plate as in Fig. 6A View Fig , with large central anterior bulge, formed from sternites VII–IX, which are fused only in narrow central parts, in most of their width remaining separated by deep lateral indentations. Posterior margin of subgenital plate widely concave, 1 long (reaching to the posterior end of the body) seta on each side of posterior margin of original sternite VII and 1 about the same length (noticeably overreaching posterior body end) on each side of posterior margin of original sternite VIII, all 4 setae placed more or less medioanteriorly from the median ends of lateral indentations. Genitalia as in Fig. 6D View Fig , basal apodeme long with rounded anterior margin fluently flowing into straight lateral margins. Parameres finger-like, clearly separated from the basal plate, relatively short, never overreaching elongated mesosome, never touching each other if turned medianly, either without or with only 1 sensilla on the distal end. Mesomeres (MM in Fig. 6D View Fig ) and endomeres (EM in Fig. 6D View Fig ) fully developed, clearly separated from the basal plate. Mesomeres relatively short and wide, with 3 sensillae on each distal end, which reach approximately to the same level as distal end of parameres. Endomeres claviform, with bulbous wider parts distally.

Female

Habitus as in Fig. 6E View Fig , head as in Fig. 6C View Fig , in general as in male, except following features. Thoracic and abdominal chaetotaxy as in Fig. 6E View Fig and Table 2. Sternal setae (sts) on all segments long, reaching at least to posterior margin of following segment. Subgenital plate ( Fig. 6F View Fig ) with rounded anterior margin, formed from sternite VII and large triangular central part of sternite VIII, posterior margin of which is composed of 2 posteriorly converging lines and gives the whole plate more or less the appearance of a pie wedge with rounded posterior apex. Lateral parts of sternite VIII separated as vestigial sternites, which are triangular or piriform, placed postero-laterally from the subgenital plate. Subgenital plate with 2 very long setae on each side, 1 placed on the supposed border of original sternites VII and VIII, 1 more anteriorly and medially, placed more or less in center of corresponding half of plate, both reaching always beyond vulval margin. Sometimes, there may be 1 medium-long seta placed on each side on the presumed border of original sternites, medially from the abovementioned long seta. Vulval margin as in Fig. 6F View Fig , straight in median part, with both lateral parts flexed anteriorly, fringed by 3–5 medium-long setae in each lateral part and by 6–8 short setae in the median part. Inner genital sclerites missing.

Hosts

Type host

Regulus regulus regulus (Linnaeus, 1758)   .

Other hosts

Regulus regulus (Linnaeus, 1758)   , Regulus regulus azoricus Seebohm, 1883   , Regulus regulus buturlini von Loudon, 1911   , Regulus regulus sanctaemariae Vaurie, 1954   , Regulus regulus tristis Pleske, 1892   , Regulus ignicapillus (Temminck, 1820)   .

Type location

Czechia, Janovice.

Other locations

Czechia, Klec, Lubno, Moravske Kninice, Skalicka, Zulova; United Kingdom, Portland Bird Observatory, Southport, Surrey, Wasdale; Portugal, Azores, Sao Miguel, Santa Maria; Azerbaijan, Lankaran District; Uzbekistan, specific location unreadable.

Remarks

The odd medium-long seta shown in the left part of the female subgenital plate ( Fig. 6F View Fig ) is not always present. Here it is included in the illustration because it is present in the specimen used for the drawing.

Genetic diversity

Two specimens of Ph. gustafssoni   sp. nov. from Regulus regulus regulus   (collected in Czechia), one specimen from Regulus regulus azoricus   and one specimen from Regulus ignicapillus   were genetically analysed, providing sequences of all three genes examined. Since samples from two host species (and in the case of goldcrest, Regulus regulus   , even from its two subspecies) were analysed, the relatively noticeable intraspecific genetic variability in Ph. gustafssoni   sp. nov. (3.0% for COI, 0.3% for hyp, 0.3% for TMEDE6 and 1.4% for the concatenated sequences) was also recorded; for more details and comparison with intraspecific variability of the other species mentioned above, see Table 4. From the Philopterus   species from which we managed to get molecular data (Najer, unpublished results), following three species are the nearest relatives of Ph. gustafssoni   sp. nov.: Ph. acrocephalus   – net interspecific p -distances 23.1% for COI, 1.6% for hyp, 0.8% for TMEDE6 and 9.7% for the concatenated sequences, Ph. fringillae   – 18.0% for COI, 1.6% for hyp, 0.4% for TMEDE6 and 7.6% for the concatenated sequences, and Ph. citrinellae   – 14.8% for COI, 1.6% for hyp, 0.4% TMEDE6 and 6.4% for the concatenated sequences); more details are given in Table 5.

NHML

Libya, Tripoli, Natural History Museum

ZIN

Russia, St. Petersburg, Russian Academy of Sciences, Zoological Institute

MMBC

Moravske Muzeum [Moravian Museum]

NHML

Natural History Museum, Tripoli

ZIN

Russian Academy of Sciences, Zoological Institute, Zoological Museum