Sadocus Sorensen , 1886, Sorensen, 1886

Pessoa-Silva, Marilia, Hara, Marcos Ryotaro & Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo, 2021, Revision of the southern Andean genus Sadocus Sorensen, 1886 (Opiliones, Gonyleptidae, Pachylinae), ZooKeys 1025, pp. 91-137: 91

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1025.57806

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:231B6931-2787-496E-B6B4-B87D59F5AC02

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/64992B26-2678-5565-9C34-FB3B4DBA0E0D

treatment provided by

ZooKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Sadocus Sorensen , 1886
status

 

Sadocus Sorensen, 1886  

Gonyleptes   [part]: Gervais, 1842: 2 [rdesc]; 1844: 105 [rdesc]; 1847: 576-577 [cit]; 1849: 21, 24-26 [desc, rdesc]; Butler 1873: 113-114 [cat]; 1876: 153 [desc].

Discocyrtus   [part]: Loman, 1899: 6 [desc].

Sadocus   Sørensen, 1886: 85 [desc]; 1902: 14-20 [rdesc]; Hogg 1913: 48 [cit]; Roewer 1913: 244-245 [cit, key]; 1923: 492 [cit, key]; Mello-Leitão 1923: 190 [cit]; 1926: 31 [key]; Roewer 1930: 381 [key, cit]; Mello-Leitão 1931a: 136 [cit]; 1932: 348 [rdesc]; 1935: 105 [key]; Canals 1936: 70 [cat]; Kästner 1937: 389 [desc]; Roewer 1938: 02 [cit]; Mello-Leitão 1939: 625 [cit]; B. Soares 1944a: 166 [syst]; Soares and Soares 1949: 211 [rdesc]; Ringuelet 1955a [cit]: 438; Ringuelet 1959: 409 [rdesc]; Roewer 1961: 102 [cat]; Cekalovic 1985: 14 [cat]; Kury 2003: 191 [cat]; Hara et al. 2012: 38-39 [syst]; Pinto-da-Rocha et al. 2012: 61 [cit]; Pinto-da-Rocha et al. 2014: 18 [syst]; Hara 2016: 106-109 [syst]; Pérez-Schultheiss et al. 2019, 4, 12-15 [cit]; Kury et al. 2020a: 5[cit]; Acosta 2020 [cit]; Kury et al. 2020b [cat]. (Type species Sadocus vitellinosulcatus   Sørensen 1886, by monotypy).

Lycomedes   Sørensen, 1902: 17 [desc]; Roewer 1913: 126-127 [rdesc, key]; Mello-Leitão 1926: 31 [key]; Muñoz-Cuevas 1973: 226-228 [cit]. (Type species Gonyleptes asperatus   Gervais, 1847, by subsequent designation by Roewer 1913).

Lycomedicus   Roewer, 1923: 442 (nom. nov. for Lycomedes   Sørensen, 1902, rdesc); 1925: 17 [cit]; 1929: 213 [cat]; Mello-Leitão; 1931b: 84 [cit]; 1932: 216 [rdesc]; 1935: 101 [cit]; Canals 1936: 69 [cat]; Roewer 1943: 28 [cit]; Ringuelet 1959: 329 [rdesc]; Cekalovic 1985: 18 [cat]. Synonym established by Kury 2003.

Lycomedius   [lapsus]: Kästner, 1937: 389 [rdesc]; Strand 1942: 397 [cit].

Carampangue   Mello-Leitão, 1937: 152 [desc]; 1945: 156 [cit]; 1949: 17 [syst]; Soares and Soares 1954: 241 [rdesc, cat]; Cekalovic 1985: 16 [cat]. (Type species Carampangue ingens   Mello-Leitão, 1937 by monotypy). Synonymy established by Kury 2003.

Jighas   Roewer, 1943: 28 [desc]; Mello-Leitão 1949: 17 [syst]. (Type species Jighas vastus   Roewer, 1943 by monotypy). Synonymy established with Carampangue   by Mello-Leitão 1949.

Araucanoleptes   Mello-Leitão, 1946: 4 [desc]; Soares and Soares 1949: 160 [rdesc]. (Type species Araucanoleptes exceptionalis   Mello-Leitão, 1946 by monotypy). Synonymy established by Kury 2003.

Arauconoleptes   [lapsus]: Cekalovic, 1985: 12 [cat].

Type species.

Sadocus vitellinosulcatus   Sørensen, 1886, by monotypy. Synonymized with S. polyacanthus   by Sørensen (1902).

Other species included.

S. asperatus   (Gervais, 1847), S. dilatatus   Roewer, 1913, S. funestus   (Butler, 1874), S. ingens   ( Mello-Leitão, 1937) and S. polyacanthus   (Gervais, 1847).

Diagnosis.

Sadocus   are large Pachylinae   (dorsal scutum maximum length 5.5-13.8 mm) with paired spines on ocularium and prominent frontal hump on dorsal scutum anterior margin. Dorsal scutum shape types gamma triangular and gamma pyriform, its posterior margin concave. Dorsal scutum mid-bulge placed close to scutal groove IV (scutal groove III in S. funestus   ) and transversal ( S. funestus   , S. ingens   , S. polyacanthus   ) or oblique ( S. asperatus   , S. dilatatus   ); free tergites II and III each with a pair of spines. Legs IV are twisted retro-laterad from the trochanter and gradually distorted along the femur and patella (except in S. funestus   ). Coxa IV bearing a long, large prodorsal apical apophysis and a short, retro-apical one (except in S. funestus   , in which is lacking). Trochanter IV with a short, blunt prolateral sub-basal apophysis and a long, robust prodorsal apical one. Penis glans turgid and dorsally projected (with antero-lateral projections), with ventral process (half stylus length) and without dorsal process. General color (in living specimens) of the body and most parts of legs and ventral area dark brown, with lighter tones at the tips of podomeres. Yellowish to reddish tone in scutal area, scutal posterior margin, free tergites, part of legs and apophysis. Green on the arthrodial membranes between the free tergites.

Redescription.

Male: Dorsum. Anterior margin of carapace with a prominent median frontal hump (bell shaped in dorsal view). Ocularium with one pair of spines posterior to the eyes. Dorsal scutum type varying from gamma to gamma triangular and gamma pyriform, its posterior margin concave, mid-bulge slightly asymmetrical and displaced posteriorly, widest at the scutal groove IV (scutal groove III in S. funestus   ). The curvature of mid-bulge can be transversal ( S. funestus   , S. ingens   , and S. polyacanthus   ) or oblique ( S. asperatus   and S. dilatatus   ). Four scutal areas (three in S. polyacanthus   ); scutal area I divided into right and left halves by a longitudinal median groove. Scutal area III with one pair of paramedian spiniform tubercles or spines. Two pairs of ozopores close to coxa II. Lateral margin of dorsal scutum with an external and internal rows of tubercles (the external row of slightly larger tubercles) (except S. asperatus   , with granules covering most of the lateral margin of dorsal scutum and S. ingens   , smooth or with only few granules). Posterior margin of dorsal scutum and free tergite I each with one paramedian pair of tubercles (except S. funestus   and S. polyacanthus   , unarmed). Free tergites II and III each with one paramedian pair of spines. Venter. Coxa I-IV granulate; coxa I with a median longitudinal row of granules increasing in size apically, becoming tubercles. Chelicerae. Isomorphic in males and females. Segment I with well-marked bulla. Segment II fixed finger and segment III toothed. Pedipalps. Trochanter dorsal face inflated; ventral face with one or two setiferous tubercles. Femur bearing sub-apical mesal seta; dorsal face with few granules; ventral face with one basal setiferous tubercle. Tibiae and tarsi dorsal and lateral faces with few minute granules and variable setation. Legs. Coxae I-III each with one prodorsal and one retro-dorsal spiniform tubercles, ventral faces granulate (except S. polyacanthus   , coxa I with tubercles and others with setae). Coxa IV dorso-lateral face with sparsely distributed granules, ventral face entirely granulated, with one long, oblique, bifid prodorsal apical apophysis (transversal in S. dilatatus   , uniramous in S. funestus   ), dorsal branch longest and curved ventrad and ventral branch short and blunt; and one ventro-apical retro-lateral spine. Trochanters I-III granulate. Leg IV twisted retro-laterad from the trochanter, gradually untwisting along the femur (except S. funestus   , straight). Trochanter IV longer than wide; prolateral face with one short, conical, blunt sub-basal apophysis, and one robust, blunt dorso-apical apophysis. Femora I-IV with granules roughly organized in six longitudinal rows (prodorsal, retro-dorsal, pro- and retro-lateral, proventral and retro-ventral rows); femora I and II unarmed. Femur IV curved, with marked inner curvature on the distal half ( S. asperatus   and S. ingens   ) or almost straight ( S. dilatatus   , S. funestus   , and S. polyacanthus   ). Patellae I-III granulate, unarmed; patella IV dorsal face granulate, ventral face tuberculate. Tibiae I-III granulate, unarmed (except S. dilatatus   and S. funestus   , tibia III dorsal face granulate with retro-ventral row of tubercles increasing in size apically). Tibia IV dorsal face granulate, ventral face with tubercles sparsely distributed. Metatarsi I-IV minute granulate, unarmed. Tarsus III and IV each with ventral process, tarsal claws smooth. Penis. Ventral plate distal margin with slight (but conspicuous) to moderate concavity, two or three pairs of MS A, one pair of MS B or entirely absent, four or five pairs of MS C, one or two pairs of MS D, and one or two pairs of MS E. Glans sac tall, turgid, dorsally projected with antero-lateral projections, forming a sheath for the stylus. Glans without dorsal process; stylus inserted ventrally and smooth. Glans ventral process is short (half of stylus length), parallel to the stylus, apex curved ventrad, with a short semi-circular antero-lateral projection.

Geographic distribution

(Fig. 2 View Figure 2 ). Central Chile, Región XIV Los Ríos; Metropolitan Region of Santiago; Región V Valparaíso; Región VIII Bio-Bío; Región IX Araucanía; and Region X Los Lagos. There are other localities mentioned in the literature besides the material studied here for S. polyacanthus   in Neuquén (Argentina) and Magallanes, in the extreme south of Chile, however, we did not examine any material from there. The record of Sadocus funestus   for Ecuador (Chimborazo, Riobamba) by Roewer (1913) is certainly a mislabeling because it does not agree with the known generic distribution (Cekalovic 1985; Kury 2003). Two species are widely distributed ( S. asperatus   and S. polyacanthus   ) and three others occur mainly in coastal mountains of Central Chile ( S. funestus   , S. dilatatus   , and S. ingens   ).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Opiliones

Family

Gonyleptidae

Loc

Sadocus Sorensen , 1886

Pessoa-Silva, Marilia, Hara, Marcos Ryotaro & Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo 2021
2021
Loc

Arauconoleptes

Cekalovic 1985
1985
Loc

Araucanoleptes

Mello-Leitao 1946
1946
Loc

Araucanoleptes exceptionalis

Mello-Leitão 1946
1946
Loc

Jighas

Roewer 1943
1943
Loc

Jighas vastus

Roewer 1943
1943
Loc

Lycomedius

Strand 1942
1942
Loc

Carampangue

Mello-Leitao 1937
1937
Loc

Carampangue ingens

Mello-Leitão 1937
1937
Loc

Carampangue

Mello-Leitao 1937
1937
Loc

Lycomedicus

Roewer 1913
1913
Loc

Sadocus

Sorensen 1886
1886
Loc

Gonyleptes

Kirby 1819
1819