Trachusa grandicornis, Kasparek, 2020

Kasparek, Max, 2020, Revision of the Palaearctic Trachusa interrupta species complex (Apoidea: Anthidiini) with description of four new species, Zootaxa 4728 (1), pp. 1-48: 11-15

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Trachusa grandicornis

sp. n.

Trachusa grandicornis   sp. n.

( Figs 7 View FIGURE 7 , 9–13 View FIGURE 9 View FIGURE 10 View FIGURE 11 View FIGURE 12 View FIGURE 13 )

Material (all Turkey). HOLOTYPE: Male, Muğla prov.: Akyaka ( Çardak , 37°02’N 28°12’E), 300m, flying at Oregano, 15.v.2013. (cMK, to be transferred to OLL) GoogleMaps   .— PARATYPES (21♀, 19♂, Akyaka env., Muğla prov.; cMK, partly to be transferred to NHMUK, OLL and ZMB)   : 7♀ Kıran nr. Akyaka ,   ; 2♀ 1♂ Çınar nr. Akyaka ,, and   ; 2♀ 3♂ Yeşilova , 13./ and 25.v.2015   ; 1♀ 10♂ Çardak (300 m), 15.v.2013 and 19.v.2015   ; 3♀ 4♂ Köyceğiz: Toparlar (waterfall), 14.–16.v.2013,,   ; 7♀ Muğla prov.: Köyceğiz ,   .

Other material examined (all Turkey, N=32): 1♀ 1♂ Muğla prov.: Kıran nr. Akyaka ,, M. Kasparek leg. (cMK)   ; 1♂ Muğla prov.: Köyceğiz (Toparlar: Waterfall [ Şelale ], 37°00’N 28°38’E), 85m, 16.v.2013 (cMK) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ Muğla prov.: Akyaka ( Çardak ), 19.v.2015, M. Kasparek leg. (cMK)   ; 1♂ Muğla prov.: Derinkuyu (37°09‘N 28°22‘E), 720 m,–3.vii.2015, M. Barták & Š. Kubík leg. (cJS) GoogleMaps   ; 3♀ 8km NE Isparta (37°52‘N 30°40‘E), 1020m, 09.vii.2006, J. Halada leg. (cMS) GoogleMaps   ; 1♀ 20 km E Alanya ,, Ma. Halada leg. (cMS)   ; 1♂ Fethiye [Makri] ( OLL)   ; 1♂ Furnas [near Patara/Finike, S Turkey], May 1842, S. Loew leg. ( ZMB)   ; 4♀ 2♂ 45 km NNE Antalya, Sağırın env. (37°00‘N 31°13‘E), 85 m,, J. Hájek & J. Straka leg. (cJS) GoogleMaps   ; 1♀ 50 km NNE Antalya, 4 km S Beşkonak (37°07‘N 31°13‘E), 200 m 18.–, M. Fikaček, J. Hájek & J. Straka leg. (cJS) GoogleMaps   ; 6♀ Pass nr. Antalya, Akseki , 24.vii.1981, K. Warncke leg. ( OLL)   ; 1♂ ibid., 25.vii.1981, K. Warncke leg., ( OLL)   ; 1♀ Mut ,, M. Schwarz leg. (cMS)   ; 1♂ Mut , 8.–, J. Gusenleitner leg. ( OLL)   ; 1♀ 1♂ Silifke , 26.v.2001, M. Snižek leg. (cMS)   ; 1♂ Mersin [Içel]] prov.: Aslanköy , 1900 m,, M. Schwarz leg. (cMS)   ; 1♂ Pozantı , 3.–6.vii.1983, J. Hladil leg. coll. Kocourek (cMS)   ; 1♂ 45 km N Adana, 1 km W Boztahta (37°23‘N 35°12‘E), M. Fikaček, J. Hájek & J. Straka leg. (cJS) GoogleMaps   .

Notes. One of several specimens collected at Akyaka (Muğla prov., Turkey) is much smaller and has a slightly different colour pattern but it has the long antennae of T. grandicornis   . This stunted, abnormally developed specimen was not included in the morphometric analysis. Some of the material in CMS, cJS and OLL had been labelled as “ Anthidium tauricum   sp. n. ” or “ Trachusa taurica   sp. n. ”, some of them also as paratypes. The distinctness of T. grandicornis   and T. taurica   was not previously recognised.

Description. Female. Tergal patterns ( Fig. 10A View FIGURE 10 ) quite variable; yellow bands on T1–T2 medially interrupted mostly by wide gaps (rarely contiguous in centre); T3 mostly uninterrupted (specimens with contiguous lateral bands rare); inner ends of lateral bands on T3 slender, tapering towards centre with pointed ends; scutum with Lshaped anterolateral yellow stripes, scutellum and axillae together with four yellow spots ( Fig. 10A View FIGURE 10 ); mid-femur with yellow stripe normally almost reaching distal end ( Fig. 10C View FIGURE 10 ); inner side of hind tibia black; pronotal lobe black.

Male. Antenna very long, average length of Sg4–Sg6 ≥ 0.55 mm (mean 0.59 mm) ( Fig. 13 View FIGURE 13 ); scutum with lateral yellow stripe or L-shaped anterolateral stripe; scutellum with two yellow spots; yellow spot on axilla not always present ( Fig. 10B View FIGURE 10 ); yellow band on T1 interrupted by a wide gap, bands on T2 and T3 uninterrupted but gradually narrowing medially ( Fig. 10A View FIGURE 10 ); mid-femur with yellow stripe reaching at least to middle, mostly to distal end; inner side of hind tibia black ( Fig. 10D View FIGURE 10 ); pronotal lobe black.

Differential Diagnosis. The most visible feature that distinguishes the male of T. grandicornis   from all its congeners are the extremely long antennae, even longer than in T. taurica   and T. heinzi   . When bent backwards, they extend beyond the scutum and sometimes beyond the scutellum while in all other species of the complex they reach at most the centre of the scutum. Segments Sg4–Sg6 are ≥0.55 (average 0.59 mm), while the maximum in the other species is 0.54 mm. By far most of the specimens can unambiguously be identified by the length of the antennae alone, but occasional overlap of this character with T. taurica   and T. heinzi   may occur. The absence of an obtuse projection on the dorsolateral side of the pronotum and the yellow maculation on the scutum, being confined to a lateral stripe or entirely absent (boomerang-shaped yellow anterolateral maculation in T. heinzi   ) distinguishes T. grandicornis   from T. heinzi   . The male of T. grandicornis   is distinguished from T. taurica   by the yellow tergal pattern: only the band on T1 is interrupted in T. grandicornis   , while in T. taurica   the bands on T1–T2 are interrupted (T2 sometimes with contiguous lateral bands). All other bands are uninterrupted in both species.

In the male only the interrupted first tergal band is shared between T. grandicornis   and T. integra   and some T. heinzi   . Additional to the short antennae, T. integra   is distinguished from T. grandicornis   by yellow pronotal lobes (dark in T. grandicornis   ) and dense pubescence on vertex and scutum (short in T. grandicornis   ).

The female of T. grandicornis   is distinguished from T. taurica   by the colouration of the genae: T. grandicornis   has a yellow stripe that extends to the lower end of the eye and is not in contact with the inner eye orbit ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 ); T. taurica   has small yellow spots on the upper genae ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 ). Additionally, the yellow lateral bands of T2 taper towards the centre and have pointed ends in T. grandicornis   , whereas they are blunt in T. taurica   ( Fig. 11 View FIGURE 11 ).

In the DFA of 15 morphometric parameters, both males and females of T. grandicornis   form distinct   clusters ( Fig. 14 View FIGURE 14 ). In a confusion matrix ( Table 4 View TABLE 4 ), membership of all males could be confirmed (100.0%), whereas this value was 87.5% in females. Antennal length is the main factor which explains this difference. The long antenna of the male allows T. grandicornis   to be unambiguously distinguished from the other species. The antennae in female T. grandicornis   are mostly longer than in other species, but there is broad overlap.

Derivatio nominis. The name refers to the antennae of this species, which are much longer than in all other species of the complex.

Distribution. Eastern Mediterranean, endemic to Turkey. The distribution extends from the central Taurus mountains in the east to the western foothills of the Western Taurus Mountains in Muğla Province in the west ( Fig. 19 View FIGURE 19 ). Records are available from the Turkish provinces of Adana, Mersin, Antalya, Isparta, and Muğla.

Biology. Visiting Oregano sp. ( Lamiaceae   ) and Scabiosa   ( Caprifoliaceae   ). Found on the wing between mid- May and late July.


Natural History Museum, London


Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (Zoological Collections)