Remenus kirchneri Kondratieff & Nelson, 1995

Verdone, Chris J. & Kondratieff, Boris C., 2018, Holomorphology And Systematics Of The Eastern Nearctic Stonefly Genus Remenus Ricker (Plecoptera: Perlodidae), Illiesia 14 (5), pp. 81-125: 114-120

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4757871

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:AAEA5971-4C18-45C2-AA83-5DD3D622315D

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4757727

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/671B126B-FFCB-FFCD-FF6D-F917A85D9C69

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Remenus kirchneri Kondratieff & Nelson, 1995
status

 

Remenus kirchneri Kondratieff & Nelson, 1995  

( Figs. 1 View Fig , 92–113 View Fig View Figs View Figs View Figs View Figs View Figure 108 View Figs View Fig )

http://lsid.speciesfile.org/urn:lsid: Plecoptera   .speciesfile.org: TaxonName:606

Remenus kirchneri Kondratieff & Nelson (1995: 600)   .

Holotype ♂: Virginia, Patrick County, Little Rock Castle Creek, Rock Castle Gorge National Recreation Area (NMNH). Figures: adult–male terminalia (dorsal, lateral), female subgenital plate.  

Remenus kirchneri: Kondratieff (2004: 165)   . Figures: adult–figures from Kondratieff & Nelson (1995).

Material examined: North Carolina, Avery Co., Jones Creek, Old Hanging Rock Rd., N 35.982213, W 82.01676, 22 June 2013, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, 1♂ ( CSUIC) GoogleMaps   . Wilkes Co., Garden Creek, Stone Mountain Rd., N 36.38905, W 81.06922, 29 May 2008, B.C. Kondratieff, R.F. Kirchner, R.E. Zuellig, D. R. Lenat, 2♂ ( CSUIC) GoogleMaps   . Tennessee, Carter Co., Roan Mountain State Park, [N 36.19623, W 82.07040], 2 June 2000, J. Enshinger, 1♂ ( CSUIC) GoogleMaps   . Virginia, Bedford Co., Battery Creek FR 951, N 37.55194, W 79.44059, 17 June 2016, C. Verdone, 2♂, 3♀ ( CSUIC) GoogleMaps   . Carroll Co., North Fork Stewarts Creek, Blue Ridge Parkway, BLRI, N 36.60630, W 80.81663, 11 May 2017, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, 11♂, 6♀, 6L ( CSUIC) GoogleMaps   ; Same location, 25 May 2017, C. Verdone, 3♂, 1♀ ( CSUIC)   ; Pine Creek, nr. Jct. Co. Rd. 633 & Co. Rd. 640, N 36.66773, W 80.51043, 30 May 2016, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, 4♂, 2♀ ( CSUIC) GoogleMaps   ; tributary to Turkey Creek, Rte 620, N 36.61184, W 80.77082, 11 May 2017, 2♂, 6L ( CSUIC) GoogleMaps   . Floyd Co., Dodd Creek, Blue Ridge Parkway, BLRI, N 36.87178, W 80.27901, 31 May 2016, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, 1♂ ( CSUIC) GoogleMaps   ; small spring fed stream, 6 miles east of Floyd Rte 221, [no GPS] 28 June 1981, B.C. Kondratieff, 1♂, 1♀ ( CSUIC, paratype)   ; spring fed stream, Blue Ridge Parkway, E. of Mt. Olivet Church, BLRI, N 37.11577, W 80.12949, 31 May 2016, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, 14♂, 19♀ ( CSUIC) GoogleMaps   ; Same location, 11 June 2016, C. Verdone, 5♂, 7 ♀ ( CSUIC)   ; Same location, 9 May 2017, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff. 38L ( CSUIC)   ; Same data, [emerged 19 May 2017], 1♂, 1♀ ( CSUIC)   ; Same data, [emerged 24 May 2017], 1♀ ( CSUIC)   ; spring fed stream, Blue Ridge Parkway (spring house S of Rte 642)   , BLRI, N 37.01133, W 80.12679, 31 May 2016, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, 1♂, 1♀ ( CSUIC) GoogleMaps   ; Spring tributary to Little River, Rte 706, N 36.98935, W 80.39589, 29 May 2016, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, 1♂, 2♀ ( CSUIC) GoogleMaps   ; tributary to Dodd Creek, Blue Ridge Parkway, BLRI, N 36.86353, W 80.28702, 31 May 2016, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, 13♂, 10♀ ( CSUIC) GoogleMaps   ; tributary to Dodd Creek, Blue Ridge Parkway, BLRI, N 36.8717, W 80.27943, 31 May 2016, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, 2♂ ( CSUIC) GoogleMaps   ; tributary to Little River, BLRI, N 37.01919, W 80.11913, 18–19 July 2007, C. R. Parker, 8♂, 6♀ ( CSUIC) GoogleMaps   ; tributary to Little River, Blue Ridge Parkway, N of Rte 642 "Poff", BLRI, N 37.01437, W 80.12343, 19 May 2017, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, S. Roble, 1♂, 3♀ ( CSUIC) GoogleMaps   ; tributary to Lick Fork, Blue Ridge Parkway, 0.9 mi. S of Rte 602, BLRI, N 37.11251, W 80.12924, 19 May 2017, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, S. Roble, 7♂, 4♀, 4L ( CSUIC) GoogleMaps   . Franklin Co., Brogan Branch, Rte 680/793, N 36.91700, W 80.19504, 31 May 2016, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, 1♂ ( CSUIC) GoogleMaps   . Patrick Co., Haunted Branch, Blue Ridge Parkway ~ 1 mi. S of Rte 634, BLRI, N 36.70024 W 80.44730, 9 May 2017, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, 15L ( CSUIC) GoogleMaps   ; Same location, 11 May 2017, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, 18L ( CSUIC)   ; Same location, 19 May 2017, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, S. Roble, 2♂, 1♀ ( CSUIC)   ; Little Rock Castle Creek, Rocky Knob Rec. Area, Rte 605, BLRI, N 36.80783, W 80.33112, 24 May 1994, B.C. Kondratieff, R.F. Kirchner, 1♂, 1♀ ( CSUIC) GoogleMaps   ; same location, 26 May 2016, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, 1♂, 2♀ ( CSUIC)   ; Mayberry Creek, Blue Ridge Parkway, ~ 0.25 mi. S of Rte 634, BLRI, N 36.70842, W 80.44395, 26 May 2016, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, 6♂, 9♀ ( CSUIC) GoogleMaps   ; Same location, 9 May 2017, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, 1L ( CSUIC)   ; small spring fed stream into [Talbott Reservoir], [no GPS], 2 August 1982, B.C. Kondratieff, 1♀ ( CSUIC, paratype)   ; spring fed tributaries of [Rock Castle Creek] Rte 605, [N 36.80874, W 80.3255], 10 May 1983, B.C. Kondratieff, 1♂ ( CSUIC, paratype) GoogleMaps   ; tributary to Rock Castle Creek, Rte 605 at Cemetery, N 36.80874, W 80.3255, 26 May 2016, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, 8♂, 7♀ ( CSUIC) GoogleMaps   ; Same location, 9 May 2017, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, 10L ( CSUIC)   ; Same location, 19 May 2017, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, S. Roble, 2♂, 3♀ ( CSUIC)   . Roanoke Co., tributary to Back Creek, Blue Ridge Parkway, BLRI, N 37.18181, W 80.04742, 31 May 2016, C. Verdone, B.C. Kondratieff, 7♂, 12♀ ( CSUIC) GoogleMaps   ; tributary to Back Creek   ; Blue Ridge Parkway, 0.5 mi. E of Rte 688 overpass, BLRI, N 37.19653, W 80.02029, 11 June 2016, C. Verdone, 2♂ ( CSUIC) GoogleMaps   .

Distribution. USA – NC, TN, VA ( Fig. 91 View Fig )

Male. ( Fig. 92 View Fig ). Macropterous; forewing length, 9.1– 10.5 mm (n = 10) ( Fig. 93 View Figs ). Body length, 8.2–10.2 mm (n = 10). General body color yellow-gold with light brown markings. Dorsum of head typical of genus ( Fig. 94 View Figs ). Pronotum light brown, covered in regularly spaced setae, with pale, glabrous rugosities mediolaterally ( Fig. 94 View Figs ); medial pale area slightly wider posteriorly ( Fig. 94 View Figs ). Abdominal terga yellow-gold with darkened anterior margins; rarely with darkened lateral margins. Tergum 9 with or without mediolateral patches of 3–5 sensilla basiconica ( Fig. 95 View Figs ). Hemitergal lobes short, not separated from 10 th tergum, with long trichoid sensilla and 12–20 sensilla basiconica on each lobe ( Figs. 95–97 View Figs View Figs ). Epiproct length ~ 270–500 μm; width ~ 20–59 μm (n = 3); epiproct dorsoventrally flattened, tongue-shaped and lightly sclerotized ( Figs. 95-96 View Figs , 98–100 View Figs ); covered in dense, thick hair-like spinulae ( Fig. 100 View Figs ); when produced forward, exceeding the anterior margin of the basal sclerite. Paragenital plates triangular ( Figs. 95 View Figs , 98 View Figs ). Basal cowl covered in dense lightly pigmented spinulae ( Figs. 95–96 View Figs ).

Female. Macropterous; forewing length 10.0– 11.9 mm (n = 10). Body length, 9.2–12.6 mm (n = 10). General color and morphology similar to the male. Abdominal terga pale, without darkened anterior or lateral margins. Subgenital plate broadly rounded ( Fig. 101–102 View Figs ), occasionally with a shallow posteromedial emargination ( Fig. 102 View Figs ), or broadly triangular ( Fig. 103 View Figs ); lightly sclerotized, with regularly spaced setae, extending ½–⅘ over sternum 9; posterolateral margins convex; basolateral margins typically parallel; basolateral crease typically curved, concave posteriorly, extending ~ ¼ length anteriorly into sternum 8 ( Figs. 101–103 View Figs ).

Ovum. Shape typical of genus ( Figs. 104–107 View Figs ). Length 438–460 μm; width 348–353 μm.

Larva. ( Fig. 108 View Figure 108 ). Body length 8.5–11.4 mm, (n = 10). Head ( Fig. 109 View Figs ), lacinia ( Fig. 110 View Figs ), mandibles ( Fig. 111 View Figs ), and pronotum ( Fig. 109 View Figs ) typical of genus. Mature male larva with a short terminal process (developing epiproct) with a constriction at the basal ⅓; apical ⅔ tapering to a narrowly rounded apex ( Fig. 112 View Figs ). Basal cercal segments with whorls of short setae ( Fig. 113 View Fig ).

Diagnosis. Males of R. kirchneri   are morphologically similar R. daniellae   . Males possess a tongue-shaped epiproct in dorsal aspect, which is widest medially or near the basal ¼ and is dorsoventrally flattened. Whereas the epiproct of R. daniellae   is clavate, is widest towards the apical ¼ and narrows posteriorly both in dorsal and lateral aspects. Additionally, the epiproct of R. daniellae   typically possesses a short translucent tube at the apex, which R. kirchneri   lacks. Furthermore, R. kirchneri   generally has sensilla basiconica on tergum 9 and consistently has 12–20 sensilla basiconica on each hemitergal lobe. In contrast, R. daniellae   generally lacks sensilla basiconica on tergum 9 and has <4 minute sensilla basiconica on each hemitergal lobe.

Females of R. kirchneri   are most similar to R. daniellae   . Separation of these species may require associated males. Generally, the subgenital plate of R. kirchneri   is parallel sided basally, whereas in R. daniellae   , the subgenital plate is typically convergent. Based on presently available records, the ranges of these two species do not overlap, as previously mentioned. As such, morphology paired with geographic location should help inform identification of these two similar species.

Mature larvae of R. kirchneri   are separable from the other sympatric species, R. bilobatus   , by the lack of long setae on the basal cercal segments. Remenus duffieldi   also lacks long setae on the basal cercal segments, but it does not occur east of the French Broad River ( Fig. 115 View Fig ).

Biological notes. Prior to this study R. kirchneri   was known from six locations in Virginia, one in North Carolina and one in Tennessee. Despite considerable effort, we were unable to find this species in either year in North Carolina or Tennessee. However, R. kirchneri   proved to be a frequent inhabitant of headwater streams along the Blue Ridge Parkway in southern Virginia. This species is now known from 25 locations ranging from Bedford County, Virginia to Carter County, Tennessee. Remenus kirchneri   occurs in the Blue Ridge Physiographic Province in 1 st –3 rd order streams with drainage areas ranging in size from 0.09–8.75 km 2. The average elevation of occurrence localities is 717.8 m (SD ± 163.5 m). Based on the material examined, emergence begins in mid-May and continues until early August.

This species can achieve moderate benthic densities ranging from 11–161/m 2 (n = 12) despite apparently low fecundity. Females collected from a spring fed stream, along the Blue Ridge Parkway near Mt. Olivet Church, were kept alive in ventilated plastic jars with moistened paper towels (and no food) so that they might mate and produce eggs. In total, only three females produced eggs, each consisting of a single clutch of 59–61 ova. However, ova dissected from another female numbered 134. The ova were not fully formed and may have numbered more if fully developed. Possibly R. kirchneri   produces several clutches of ova, or may need to feed to do so. Other similarly sized perlodids are known to produce egg masses ranging in size from ~ 90 to 1000 ova ( Peckarsky & Cowan 1991, Tierno De Figueroa et al. 2000, Sandberg & Stewart 2001, Tierno De Figueroa & López-Rodríguez 2005).

DNA Barcodes

The neighbor-joining tree constructed from COI DNA barcode sequences supported the morphological species concepts presented above ( Fig. 114 View Fig ). All four species, R. bilobatus   , R. daniellae   , R. duffieldi   , and R. kirchneri   were clearly delineated and supported by high bootstrap values for species level nodes.

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Plecoptera

Family

Perlodidae

Genus

Remenus

Loc

Remenus kirchneri Kondratieff & Nelson, 1995

Verdone, Chris J. & Kondratieff, Boris C. 2018
2018
Loc

Remenus kirchneri: Kondratieff (2004: 165)

Kondratieff, B. C. 2004: )
2004
Loc

Remenus kirchneri

Kondratieff, B. C. & C. H. Nelson 1995: )
1995