Crossopriza khayyami, Huber, 2022
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Distinguished from named congeners with only one pair of apophyses laterally on male chelicerae ( Fig. 562 View Figs 560–568 ) by details of male palp ( Figs 561, 564 View Figs 560–568 ; procursus with ventral sclerite accompanied by strong flat sclerite; genital bulb distal sclerite strongly protruding ventrally, with distinctive set of prolateral apophyses); females differ from very similar species ( C. sahtan sp. nov., C. ibnsinai sp. nov.) by details of epigynum and internal genitalia ( Figs 567 View Figs 560–568 , 573 View Figs 569–573 ; anterior epigynal margin evenly curved; distance between epigynal pockets). A very similar unnamed species is known from Iran, Kerman (see Remark below).
The CBSU has a very similar species from Iran (only 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀; Kerman: Jiroft, 28.519° N, 58.171° E; Jefriz, 29.492° N, 50.470° E) that shares the general distinctive shape of the bulbal process but is distinguished by a different configuration of the apophyses on this process and by several further minor details: presence of distinct prolateral sclerite on procursus tip; cheliceral apophyses more strongly bent inwards; and epigynal pockets rounder. A single male in SMF is probably conspecific with the specimens from Kerman, but the label information is dubious and possibly erroneous (“Anotalia: Taurus”, no further data).
The name honors Omar Khayyam (1048–1131), a Persian polymath, mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, and poet.
Other material examined
IRAN – Fars • 7 ♂♂, 11 ♀♀; same collection data as for holotype; MHNG GoogleMaps • 2 ♂♂; Ghader-Abad [Qaderabad]; 30.35° N, 53.32° E [or rather 30.28° N, 53.27° E?]; 17 Aug. 1973; A. Senglet leg.; MHNG GoogleMaps • 1 ♂, 5 ♀♀; Bishapour ; 29.78° N, 51.58° E; 28 May 1974; A. Senglet leg.; MHNG GoogleMaps • 2 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀; W of Dasht-e-Arjan [ Dascht-e Aržan ]; 29.68° N, 51.85° E; 3 Sep. 1975; A. Senglet leg.; MHNG GoogleMaps • 1 ♂, 1 ♀; Shiraz ; 29.62° N, 52.38° E; 2 Jun. 1974; A. Senglet leg.; MHNG GoogleMaps • 1 ♂, 1 juv.; 35 km S of Shiraz, “ Bahakisecula ”; 29.34° N, 52.63° E; date unknown; Bilek leg.; NHMW 29568 View Materials GoogleMaps • 2 ♂♂, 7 ♀♀ (2 vials); Firouzabad ; 28.87° N, 52.53° E; 6 Jun. 1974; A. Senglet leg.; MHNG. – Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad • 4 ♂♂, 8 ♀♀; [S of] Yasudj [Yasudsch]; 30.60° N, 51.60° E; 26 May 1974; A. Senglet leg.; MHNG GoogleMaps • 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀; “route de Yasudj”; 30.47° N, 51.50° E (the label says “ Kohkiluyeh ” but the coordinates indicate a point slightly outside of the province); 25 May 1974; A. Senglet leg.; MHNG GoogleMaps • 1 ♂; Charam [Choram]; 30.73° N, 50.73° E; 23 May 1974; A. Senglet leg.; MHNG GoogleMaps • 1 ♂, 4 ♀♀; “route de Charam ”; 30.47° N, 50.83° E; 22 May 1974; A. Senglet leg.; MHNG GoogleMaps • 1 ♀; Basht ; 30.33° N, 51.25° E [or rather 30.36° N, 51.16° E?, the coordinates on the label indicate a point slightly outside of Kohkliluyeh]; 25 May 1974; A. Senglet leg.; MHNG. – GoogleMaps Bakhtiyari • 2 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀; Kuhrang [Koohrang]; 32.47° N, 50.13° E; 19 Jun. 1974; A. Senglet leg.; MHNG GoogleMaps . – Lorestan • 6 ♂♂, 9 ♀♀; Ma’amulan [Mamulan]; 33.33° N, 47.90° E [or rather 33.38° N, 47.96° E?]; 6 Aug. 1973; A. Senglet leg.; MHNG GoogleMaps • 2 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀; Pol-e-Dokhtar [Pol-e Dochtar]; 33.17° N, 47.73° E; 17 May 1974; A. Senglet leg.; MHNG GoogleMaps • 1 ♂, 3 ♀♀; near Jelowgir ; 32.95° N, 47.85° E; 17 May 1974; A. Senglet leg.; MHNG GoogleMaps . – Hamedan • 7 ♂♂, 8 ♀♀; Hamedan ; 34.77° N, 48.45° E; 29 Jul. 1973; A. Senglet leg.; MHNG GoogleMaps • 1 ♀; Ganznameh / Hamedan [Ganjameh]; 34.73° N, 48.50° E [or rather 34.76° N, 48.44° E?]; 2100 m a.s.l.; 4 Jul. 1974; A. Senglet leg.; MHNG GoogleMaps . – Kordestan • 3 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀; N of Sanandajd [ Sanandadsch ]; 35.47° N, 47.02° E; 22 Jun. 1975; A. Senglet leg.; MHNG GoogleMaps • 4 ♂♂, 1 ♀; “Kal’eh Dju” [ Qellacê ]; 35.35° N, 46.28° E; 15 Sep. 1975; A. Senglet leg.; MHNG GoogleMaps .
TURKEY • 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀, 1 juv.; “on bank of rv. Zaps, Hakari-Baskale, 50K, Van ”; 37.71° N, 44.05° E (these estimated coordinates are in Hakkari Province because the Great Zab river does not enter Van); 30 Aug. 1956; collector unknown; HECO GoogleMaps .
Assigned tentatively (see Variation below)
IRAN – Yazd • 1 ♀; Shaddad; 32.294° N, 54.411° E; 2015; M.S. Tahami leg.; CBSU GoogleMaps .
AFGHANISTAN • 10 ♂♂, 20 ♀♀; Herat; 34.33° N, 62.22° E; 15 Aug. 1975; A. Senglet leg.; MHNG GoogleMaps .
MEASUREMENTS. Total length 4.1, carapace width 1.4. Distance PME–PME 90 µm; diameter PME 90 × 110 µm; distance PME–ALE 30 µm; diameter AME 85 µm; distance AME–AME 20 µm. Leg 1: 34.2 (10.1 + 0.6 + 9.3 + 11.9 + 2.3), tibia 2: 6.6, tibia 3: 5.1, tibia 4: 6.0; tibia 1 L/d: 64; femora 1–4 diameters: 0.23, 0.19, 0.18, 0.18.
COLOR (in ethanol). Carapace ochre-yellow, anteriorly in median pit light brown; sternum light brown with darker brown radial marks; legs ochre-yellow, without darker rings, with indistinct black lines on femora and (few) on tibiae (cf. Figs 558–559 View Figs 555–559 ); abdomen pale gray, with whitish internal marks, without dark dorsal marks; ventrally with broken dark band, with indistinct parallel longitudinal marks behind gonopore.
BODY. Habitus similar to C. sahtan sp. nov. (cf. Fig. 391 View Figs 391–398 ). Ocular area slightly raised. Deep thoracic pit and pair of furrows diverging from pit toward posterior margin. Clypeus unmodified, rim apparently as in female. Sternum wider than long (1.05/0.65), unmodified. Abdomen slightly elongated, dorsoposteriorly angular to conical.
CHELICERAE. As in Figs 562–563 View Figs 560–568 , laterally much darker than frontally, with one pair of apophyses distally, each with one large modified hair at tip; distance between tips of modified hairs: 255 µm; lateral stridulatory ridges fine but visible in dissecting microscope.
PALPS. As in Figs 555–557 View Figs 555–559 ; coxa with rounded retrolateral hump; trochanter barely modified; femur distally strongly widened, with rounded ventral protrusion, proximally with prolateral stridulatory pick, with retrolateral transversal line, without retrolateral proximal process but retrolateral-ventral ridge with some small sclerotized processes (hair-bases?); femur-patella joints shifted toward prolateral side; tibia-tarsus joints shifted toward retrolateral side; tarsus without macrotrichia; procursus ( Figs 560–561 View Figs 560–568 ) slightly curved towards ventral, strongly narrowing distally, with low prolateral hump proximally set with many hairs, long dorsal hairs mostly straight, only 2–3 hairs weakly curved, procursus tip with ventral sclerite accompanied by strong flat sclerite (prominent in retrolateral view; arrow in Fig. 561 View Figs 560–568 ); genital bulb ( Figs 564–566 View Figs 560–568 ) with simple basal sclerite connected to distal (main) sclerite, sperm duct opening not seen; distal sclerite without retrolateral ridge, with distinctive set of prolateral apophyses, with transparent prolateral structure of unknown function.
LEGS. Femur 1 with single row of ~20 ventral spines; without curved hairs; few vertical hairs; retrolateral trichobothrium of tibia 1 at 3.5%; prolateral trichobothrium absent on tibia 1, present on other leg tibiae; tarsal pseudosegments not seen except 1–2 at tip.
Tibia 1 in 35 males from Iran and Turkey: 6.4–9.7 (mean 7.8). Males (and females) from some localities (e.g., Izad Khast, Pol-e Dochtar) seem to be significantly larger than specimens from other localities
(e.g., S of Yasudsch, Mamulan) (small sample sizes). Some males with distinct dark and whitish marks on abdomen; dark lines on leg femora and tibiae variably distinct.
Specimens from Iraq and Afghanistan are assigned tentatively. The single male from Iraq appears identical in shape to the males from Iran but the female differs (see below); the male is also unusually large (tibia 1: 11.1). The males from Afghanistan show tiny but consistent differences in the procursus tip and in the bulbal ventral apophyses (asterisks in Figs 561 and 564 View Figs 560–568 ); they are also considerably larger than the males from Iran and Turkey (tibia 1 in 10 males: 9.6–11.4; mean: 10.9).
In general similar to male but without spines on legs, apparently without stridulatory files on chelicerae, and with stridulatory organ consisting of pair of weakly sclerotized but distinct processes posteriorly on carapace and pair of small but distinct light brown plates anteriorly on abdomen. Tibia 1 in 55 females from Iran and Turkey: 5.3–9.1 (mean 6.7). Epigynum as in Figs 569–570 View Figs 569–573 , main epigynal plate wider than long, weakly protruding, medially posteriorly light, anteriorly with variably distinct brown mark, laterally heavily sclerotized with pair of large pockets (distance ~290 µm); internal sclerotized arcs and simple median structure visible in uncleared specimens; posterior plate light brown, short but wide. Internal genitalia ( Figs 567–568 View Figs 560–568 , 571–573 View Figs 569–573 ) with large elongate pore plates converging anteriorly, dorsal arc strongly widened laterally, ventral arc with small and simple median modification (not pouch or pocket) apparently asymmetric, with counterpart in dorsal arc also asymmetric (apparently not an artifact of preparation).
The single female from Yazd Province is assigned tentatively because the epigynal pockets are slightly closer to the epigynal margin and no male is available from this province. The single female from Iraq (not cleared) seems to have a more prominent median internal structure in the ventral arc; tibia 1: 8.6. In females from Afghanistan the epigynum is slightly longer (length/width: 0.51 vs 0.45 in females from Iran); they are also significantly larger (tibia 1 in 16 females: 8.3–11.2; mean: 9.9).
Widely distributed in the Zagros Mountains of western and south-western Iran ( Fig. 352 View Fig ). Specimens from Iraq and Afghanistan are assigned tentatively (see above).
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