Crossopriza lyoni ( Blackwall, 1867 )

Huber, Bernhard A., 2022, Revisions of Holocnemus and Crossopriza: the spotted-leg clade of Smeringopinae (Araneae, Pholcidae), European Journal of Taxonomy 795 (1), pp. 1-241 : 193-204

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2022.795.1663

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:7394D45E-46E1-453C-BF7E-1FE1B2CEBB0A

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/671CB865-FF6F-FF30-FDD4-FCF5FD9F8A66

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Crossopriza lyoni ( Blackwall, 1867 )
status

 

Crossopriza lyoni ( Blackwall, 1867)

Figs 351 View Fig , 702–705 View Figs 698–705 , 783–805 View Figs 783–785 View Figs 786–795 View Figs 796–802 View Figs 803–805

Pholcus Lyoni Blackwall, 1867: 392 .

Crossopriza brasiliensis Mello-Leitão, 1935: 94 , fig. 13a–c. Synonymized in Huber et al. 1999. Crossopriza mucronata Mello-Leitão, 1942: 389 , figs 1–2. Synonymized in Huber et al. 1999. Crossopriza françoisi Millot, 1946: 154 , figs 29a–b, 30b. Synonymized in Huber et al. 1999. Crossopriza stridulans Millot, 1946: 156 , fig. 31a–b. Synonymized in Huber et al. 1999.

Crossopriza nigrescens Millot, 1946: 155 , fig. 30a. syn. nov.

Tibiosa caracensis González-Sponga, 2006: 11 , pl. 1 figs 1–10. Synonymized in Huber 2009b.

Tibiosa casanaimensis González-Sponga, 2006: 14 , pl. 2 figs 1–9. Synonymized in Huber 2009b. Tibiosa coreana González-Sponga, 2006: 17 , pl. 3 figs 1–9. Synonymized in Huber 2009b.

Tibiosa guayanesa González-Sponga, 2006: 20 , pl. 4 figs 1–9. Synonymized in Huber 2009b.

Tibiosa moraensis González-Sponga, 2006: 23 , pl. 5 figs 1–9. Synonymized in Huber 2009b.

Smeringopus lyonii – Thorell 1895: 70; 1898: 274.

Crossopriza lyoni – Pocock 1900: 240. — Strand 1907: 125. — Simon 1909: 80. — Sherriffs 1919: 229. — Chamberlin 1924: 4. – Dyal 1935: 168, pl. 15 figs 90–96. — Zhu & Wang 1963: 462, figs 4, 7–8. — Chrysanthus 1967: 96, figs 20–24. — Tikader & Biswas 1981: 18, pl. 1 figs 13–15. — Yaginuma 1982: 15; 1986: 31, fig. 17.5a, e, p. — Kim 1988: 35, figs 1–6. — Chikuni 1989: 29, fig. 7. – Chen & Zhang 1991: 72, fig. 61.1–3. — Edwards 1993: 1, figs 1–2. — Majumder & Biswas 1993: 2. — Roth 1994: 145. — Huber et al. 1999: 1, figs 1–12; 2014a: 6. — Song et al. 1999: 52, fig. 22h–o. — Huber 2000: fig. 98; 2001: 136; 2009b: 65; 2014: 140; 2019: 51. — Murphy & Murphy 2000: 247. — Irie 2001: 7, figs 1–2(1–8); 2009: 106, figs (2-2-13) 3–5, pl. 4 fig. 2. — Van Keer & Van Keer 2001: 82; 2004: 79. — Guarisco & Cutler 2003: 105, fig. 1. — Van Keer 2007: 53 View Cited Treatment . — Jäger 2007: 34 View Cited Treatment . — Colmenares García 2008: 88, fig. 2a–c. — Beatty et al. 2008: 9, figs 17–18, 46–47. — Carvalho & Avelino 2010: 6. — Huber & Warui 2012: 8 View Cited Treatment . — Jäger et al. 2012: 80, fig. 3. — Yin et al. 2012: 163, fig. 30. — Huber & Kwapong 2013: 7 View Cited Treatment , fig. 16. — Tong 2013: 61. — Raychaudhuri & Saha 2015: 85, pl. 19 figs 514–518. — Bauer et al. 2016: 4, figs 1–7. — Huber & Villarreal 2020: 57 View Cited Treatment .

Crossopriza stridulans – Roth 1985: B33-1.

Justification of new synonymy

Even though the type material of C. nigrescens (a single juvenile specimen) is apparently lost, the name is here synonymized, for three reasons. First, all adult Madagascan specimens of Crossopriza studied are C. lyoni ( Huber et al. 1999; Irie 2001; herein); second, the type of C. nigrescens was collected in a house, suggesting a synanthropic species; third, the character that Millot (1946) considered diagnostic (the dark coloration) varies considerably among specimens, even within a locality.

Diagnosis

Distinguished from known congeners by details of male palp ( Figs 786–791 View Figs 786–795 ; procursus ventral sclerite with transparent retrolateral branch; procursus tip with wide and rounded dorsal process; distal bulbal sclerite with distinctive row of apophyses on prolateral side); from the similar C. surobi sp. nov. (identical male chelicerae) also by shorter epigynum and elongate pore plates ( Figs 794–795 View Figs 786–795 ); from the similar C. maculipes also by male chelicerae ( Fig. 793 View Figs 786–795 ; lateral apophyses in lateral view long) and by female internal genitalia ( Fig. 795 View Figs 786–795 ; pore plates elongated).

Type material

Syntypes of Pholcus lyoni

INDIA • ♂♂, ♀♀ (unspecified number); Delhi; 28.6° N, 77.2° E; Meerut; 28.97° N, 77.70° E; and Agra; 27.2° N, 78.0° E; dates and collector(s) unknown; possibly lost GoogleMaps .

Syntypes of Crossopriza brasiliensis

BRAZIL • 1 ♂, 1 ♀, 1 juv. (examined); Bahia, Paraguassú ; 12.80° S, 38.87° W; date unknown; O. Leonardos leg.; MNRJ 42313 GoogleMaps .

Syntypes of Crossopriza mucronata

ARGENTINA • 1 ♀, 1 juv. (examined); Santiago del Estero, Beltrán ; 27.83° S, 64.06° W; date unknown; M. Birabén leg.; MLP 15800 View Materials GoogleMaps 1 ♀ (not examined) (see Huber et al. 1999); same collection data as for preceding; with P. Brignoli`s (unpublished) lectotype designation; MLP GoogleMaps .

Holotype of Crossopriza francoisi

MADAGASCAR • ♂ (examined); Mahajanga, Maevatanana ; 16.95° S, 46.83° E; Jul. 1945; J. Millot leg.; in bathroom; MNHN. GoogleMaps

Holotype of Crossopriza stridulans

MADAGASCAR • ♀ (examined); Mahajanga, Majunga [= Mahajanga]; 15.71° S, 46.32° E; date and collector unknown; MNHN. GoogleMaps

Holotype of Crossopriza nigrescens

MADAGASCAR • 1 juv.; Antsiranana, Ankarana Sud ; 12.97° S, 49.14° E; 1945; J. Millot leg.; apparently lost (not found in MNHN). GoogleMaps

Tibiosa spp.

VENEZUELA. See Huber & Villarreal (2020).

Other material examined

Arranged from West to East and (within longitudes) from North to South.

USA – California • 1 ♀; Orange County, Orange ; 33.80° N, 117.85° W; 23 Feb. 2000; J. Coleman leg.; CAS 9027397 View Materials . – New Jersey GoogleMaps 1 ♀; Somerset County, Neshanic ; 40.498° N, 74.720° W; date unknown GoogleMaps ;

E.S. Gaffney leg.; AMNH. – Texas • 1 ♂, 3 ♀♀; Brazos County, College Station ; 30.63° N, 96.33° W; date unknown; R.G. Breene leg.; AMNH GoogleMaps .

NICARAGUA • 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀; Ciudad de León; 12.43° N, 86.88° W; 10 Aug. 1995; L.F. Armas leg.; in house; MELN GoogleMaps 1 juv.; Managua, Laguna Xiloa ; 12.209° N, 86.320° W; 13 Jul. 1995; L.F. Armas, J.M. Maes, and J.T. Goodwin leg.; MELN GoogleMaps .

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC • 1 ♂, 1 ♀ (in pure ethanol); Barahona; 18.217° N, 71.100° W; 30 m a.s.l.; 9 Dec. 2007; B.A. Huber leg.; in building; ZFMK Hai 103 GoogleMaps .

COLOMBIA • 1 ♂, 1 ♀; Meta, Puerto Lleras, Lomalinda ; 3.305° N, 73.364° W; 300 m a.s.l.; Mar. 1994; B.T. Carroll, V. and B. Roth leg.; CAS 9027460 View Materials GoogleMaps 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀; same locality as for preceding; date unknown; Roth leg.; CAS 9027261 View Materials GoogleMaps 1 ♀; same locality as for preceding; May 1987; B.T. Carroll leg.; CAS 9027465 View Materials GoogleMaps .

VENEZUELA • approximately 40 ♂♂, 40 ♀♀; see Huber & Villarreal (2020) .

BRAZIL – Mato Grosso • 1 ♂; Corumba ; 19.01° S, 57.65° W; 21 Sep. 1956; C. Sincole leg.; under rocks; CAS 9027331 View Materials GoogleMaps . – Mato Grosso do Sul • 1 ♀; Upper Paraguay River, Porto Esperança ; 19.61° S, 57.45° W; date and collector unknown; AMNH GoogleMaps . – Minas Gerais • 1 ♂, 1 ♀, 1 juv.; Governador Valadares, Ibituruna ; 18.845° S, 41.943° W; 9 Sep. 1982; L. Sorkin et al. leg.; in building; AMNH GoogleMaps 1 ♀; Governador Valadares , northern part of city; 18.84° S, 41.95° W; 1 Sep. 1982; L. Sorkin and C.E. de Assis Bandeira leg.; AMNH GoogleMaps 1 ♂, 5 ♀♀; Governador Valadares ; 18.86° S, 41.95° W; 26 Mar. 1981; L. Sorkin and T. Spitzman leg.; ceiling in marketplace; AMNH GoogleMaps 2 ♀♀; Curvelo ; 18.75° S, 44.43° W; 23 Oct. 1943; F. Pough leg.; AMNH GoogleMaps . – Pará • 1 ♂, 1 ♀; Itaituba ; 4.26° S, 56.00° W; 7 Dec. 1991; A.A. Lise leg.; MCN GoogleMaps 1 ♂, 3 ♀♀; same locality as for preceding; 7 Dec. 1991; F. Guilhow leg.; MCP 4629 View Materials , 4630 View Materials GoogleMaps . – São Paulo • several ♀♀ and juvs (not counted); Jaboticabal ; 21.25° S, 48.32° W; 1979; W. and L. Miller leg.; MCZ GoogleMaps .

PARAGUAY • 1 juv.; Boquerón, 19 km N of Filadelfia, Estancia Iparoma ; 22.150° S, 60.034° W; 5. Oct. 1978; K.L. Anderson leg.; AMNH GoogleMaps .

ARGENTINA – Chaco • 1 ♀; Resistencia ; 27.45° S, 59.00° W; Oct. 1942; Freiberg leg.; MACN Ar 4347 GoogleMaps 1 ♀; Parque Nacional Chaco; 26.8081° S, 59.6075° W; 80 m a.s.l.; 11–13 Nov. 2007; C. Grismado et al. leg.; MACN Ar 13662. – GoogleMaps La Rioja • 1 ♀; La Rioja ; 29.41° S, 66.86° W; Apr. 1914; E. and P. Boman leg.; AMNH GoogleMaps 1 ♂, 1 ♀, 1 juv.; same locality as for preceding; 15 Apr. 1914; Boman et al. leg.; MACN Ar 4345 GoogleMaps 1 ♂, 3 ♀♀, 3 juvs; “Guayapa”, Patquia ; 30.04° S, 66.88° W; Oct. 1963; E. Galiano leg.; MACN Ar 20118 GoogleMaps 3 juvs; same locality as for preceding (“ Guayapa ”); Oct. 1965; Maury leg.; MACN Ar 20033 GoogleMaps . – Santiago del Estero • 2 ♀♀; Santiago del Estero ; 27.786° S, 64.266° W; Nov. 1966; E. Galiano leg.; MACN Ar 19949 GoogleMaps 4 ♀♀; same locality as for preceding; Aug. 1939; A. Prasen leg.; MACN Ar 4346 GoogleMaps 1 ♂; same locality as for preceding; 20 Sep. 1963; collector unknown; MACN Ar 20119 GoogleMaps . – Tucumán • 1 ♂, 4 ♀♀; San Miguel de Tucumán ; 26.81° S, 65.22° W; 1–15 May 1950; M.L. Aczel leg.; AMNH GoogleMaps .

GERMANY • 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀; see Bauer et al. (2016) .

SENEGAL • 1 ♀; see Huber & Kwapong (2013).

THE GAMBIA • 1 ♂, 4 ♀♀; see Huber & Kwapong (2013) .

MALI • 1 ♂; Bamako ; 12.6° N, 8.0° W; May–Jun. 1977; W.S. Settle leg.; CAS GoogleMaps 1 ♂, 3 ♀♀, 2 juvs; Gao ; 16.275° N, 0.050° W; 23–25 Nov. 1948; B. Malkin leg.; AMNH GoogleMaps 3 ♂♂, 9 ♀♀; see Huber & Kwapong (2013).

GUINEA • 6 ♂♂, 9 ♀♀; see Huber & Kwapong (2013) .

SIERRA LEONE • 1 ♀; see Huber & Kwapong (2013) .

IVORY COAST • 5 ♂♂, 14 ♀♀; see Huber & Kwapong (2013) .

BURKINA FASO • 12 ♂♂, 18 ♀♀; see Huber & Kwapong (2013) .

GHANA • 13 ♂♂, 13 ♀♀; see Huber & Kwapong (2013) .

BENIN • 5 ♂♂, 12 ♀♀; see Huber & Kwapong (2013) .

NIGER • 8 ♂♂, 28 ♀♀; see Huber & Kwapong (2013) .

NIGERIA • 1 ♂, 1 ♀; Oguta Lake ; 5.71° N, 6.80° E; 10–24 Feb. 1992; H. Segers leg.; motel; MRAC 174630 View Materials GoogleMaps 1 ♀; Ile-Ife, Obafemi, Awolowo University Campus ; 7.43° N, 3.89° E; 1991; H. Segers leg.; MRAC 174602 View Materials part GoogleMaps 1 ♀; Lagos, Lagos University ; 6.519° N, 3.392° E; 1973; Usua leg.; BMNH GoogleMaps .

CHAD • 4 ♂♂, 1 ♀, 5 juvs; Bol ; 13.46° N, 14.71° E; 9–15 Dec. 1978; A. Spielman leg.; MCZ GoogleMaps approximately 6 ♂♂, 13 ♀♀, + juvs; between Bongor (“ Bougar ”) and N’Djamena (“ Fort Lamy ”), “depression inondée de la Karaska”; 11.1° N, 15.1° E; Oct.–Dec. 1965; Y. Brandily leg.; MRAC 132894 View Materials , 132896 View Materials , 132897 View Materials GoogleMaps approximately 9 ♂♂, 12 ♀♀, + juvs; N’Djamena , Gardolé (“ Fort Lamy ”); 12.12° N, 15.04° E; 1 Nov. 1965; Y. Brandily leg.; MRAC 132914 View Materials to 132916 View Materials GoogleMaps 1 ♂, 3 ♀♀, 3 juvs; Bébédja ; 8.68° N, 16.57° E; 1–10 Jul. 1977; G. Ruella leg.; MRAC 151455 View Materials GoogleMaps .

CAMEROON • 3 ♂♂, 5 ♀♀; Extrême-Nord, Yagoua ; 10.34° N, 15.23° E; 1–5 Aug. 1971; F. Puylaert leg.; MRAC 143673 View Materials GoogleMaps 2 ♀♀; see Huber et al. (2014b).

GABON • 3 ♂♂, 1 ♀; see Huber et al. (2014b) .

SUDAN • 1 ♂, 1 ♀; Khartoum; 15.55° N, 32.55° E; 1 May 2016; M. Siyam leg.; in houses; ZFMK Ar 22451, Ar 22452 GoogleMaps .

ETHIOPIA • 2 ♂♂, 8 ♀♀, 2 juvs (in pure ethanol); Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s Region, Arba Minch, Nech Sar National Park ; 6.0002° N, 37.5429° E; 1390 m a.s.l.; 19 Jun. 2011; M. Moradmand, V. Hula, and J. Niedobová leg.; in houses; SMF GoogleMaps .

UGANDA • 3 ♀♀; see Huber & Warui (2012).

KENYA • 1 ♀; see Huber & Warui (2012).

TANZANIA • 1 ♂; Dar es Salaam; 6.82° S, 39.27° E; 25–26 Oct. 1995; D. Ubick leg.; in house; CAS GoogleMaps .

ZIMBABWE • approximately 8 ♂♂, 16 ♀♀; Kariba ; 16.52° S, 28.85° E; 10 Feb. 1995; W.J. Pulawski leg.; CAS GoogleMaps 4 ♂♂, 8 ♀♀, + juvs; Victoria Falls ; 17.93° S, 25.83° E; 1–8 Feb. 1995; W.J. Pulawski leg.; CAS (4 vials) GoogleMaps approximately 3 ♂♂, 8 ♀♀; same locality as for preceding; 19–22 Dec. 1995; W.J. Pulawski leg.; CAS GoogleMaps 6 ♂♂, 6 ♀♀; same locality as for preceding; 29 Nov. 1996; W.J. Pulawski and V. Ahrens leg.; CAS GoogleMaps .

MADAGASCAR – Toliara • 1 ♂; Toliara ; 23.35° S, 43.67° E; 17 Sep. 1993; W.E. Steiner and R. Andriamasimanana leg.; USNM GoogleMaps 1 ♀; 20 km N of Toliara “on Ferme d’Auberge rd”; 23.429° S, 43.830° E (the coordinates are not N but SE of Toliara); 200 m a.s.l.; 15–16 Dec. 1999; E.I. Schlinger and M.E. Irwin leg.; CAS GoogleMaps .

SEYCHELLES • 1 ♀; Mahé , Bel Ombre; 4.6187° S, 55.3971° E; 30 m a.s.l.; 6 Mar. 2013; C. Hoareau leg.; on wall near buildings; ZFMK Ar 22453 GoogleMaps .

PAKISTAN • 2 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀; Lahore, University of the Punjab; 31.5° N, 74.3° E; Sep. 2013; collector unknown; ZFMK Ar 22454 GoogleMaps .

INDIA – Andhra Pradesh • 1 ♀; Deccan highlands; 14° N, 77° E; date and collector unknown; SMF RII/3735 GoogleMaps . – Delhi • 1 ♂, 3 ♀♀, 1 juv.; New Delhi, Russian Embassy ; 28.593° N, 77.186° E; 1–2 May 1999; Y.M. Marusik leg.; ZFMK Ar 5206 GoogleMaps . – Haryana • 1 ♂; Kasauli ; 30.1210° N, 76.4075° E; 240 m a.s.l.; 9 Mar. 2011; P. Jäger leg.; in house and surroundings, farmland; SMF GoogleMaps . – Karnataka • 2 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀; Mysore ; 12.30° N, 76.65° E; Dec. 1987; J. Murphy leg.; MMUE Murphy #15830, 15831 GoogleMaps . – Maharashtra • 1 ♀; Pune, Agharkar Research Institute ; 18.520° N, 73.832° E; 2 Sep. 1992; G.W. Kendrick leg.; WAM 99 View Materials /1489 GoogleMaps 2 ♀♀, 2 juvs; “Kirkoskarvadt, Distr. South Sathra”, probably Kirloskarvadi ; 17.08° N, 74.42° E; date unknown; W. Bindermann leg.; SMF. – Punjab GoogleMaps 2 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀, 2 juvs; Patiala, University campus; 30.35° N, 76.45° E; 24–25 Jun. 1999; Y.M. Marusik leg.; ZFMK Ar 5205 GoogleMaps 1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding; 3–8 May 1999; ZFMK Ar 5201 GoogleMaps 7 ♀♀, 2 juvs; Patiala (“ Patriala ”); 30.35° N, 76.45° E; date and collector unknown; SMF RII/6617 GoogleMaps 1 ♂, 1 ♀; Balanda ; 31.0441° N, 75.4265° E; 220 m a.s.l.; 9 Mar. 2011; P. Jäger leg.; in house, courtyard, and farm; SMF GoogleMaps . – Rajastan • 1 ♂, 1 ♀; Pushkar ; 26.49° N, 74.55° E; 11 Nov. 1989; V. Roth leg.; in building; CAS GoogleMaps . – Tamil Nadu • 1 ♀; Chennai (“ Madras ”); 13.07° N, 80.25° E; Aug. 1924; collector unknown; SMF Roewer #1148 GoogleMaps 1 ♀; 10 mi SW of Gudiyattam ; 12.86° N, 78.80° E; 3 Apr. 1962; Ross and Cavagnaro leg.; CAS GoogleMaps 1 ♂, 1 ♀; Alagar [koil], 21 km NE of Madurai; 10.074° N, 78.215° E; 27–28 Dec. 1989; V. and B. Roth leg.; CAS GoogleMaps 1 ♂, 12 ♀♀; Coimbatore ; 11.017° N, 76.960° E; 430 m a.s.l.; 8 Mar. 1962; E.S. Ross and D.Q. Cavagnaro leg.; CAS GoogleMaps 1 ♀; 80 km S of Madras, Mahabalipuram ; 12.62° N, 80.19° E; 5 Mar. 1994; J.M. Waldock leg.; in house; WAM 99 View Materials /1802 GoogleMaps approximately 6 ♂♂, 11 ♀♀; Vellore ; 12.91° N, 79.13° E; date unknown; Löwenthal leg.; ZMUC GoogleMaps 1 ♀; Mandapam Camp ; 9.28° N, 79.12° E; 5 Oct. 1957; H. Lemche leg.; ZMUC GoogleMaps . – Uttarakhand • 1 ♂, 1 ♀; Dehradun City, Forest Research Institute , campus and nearby; 30.342° N, 78.000° E; 660 m a.s.l.; 6–13 May 1999; Y.M. Marusik leg.; ZFMK Ar 5204 GoogleMaps 2 ♀♀; Dehradun Valley ; 30.34° N, 78.00° E; ~ 700 m a.s.l.; 4–13 Aug. 1978; collector unknown; ZMUC GoogleMaps . – West Bengal • numerous ♂♂ and ♀♀ (not counted); Kanchrapara ; 22.93° N, 88.43° E; 1–12 Aug. 1944; M. Cazier leg.; AMNH GoogleMaps .

NEPAL • 1 ♀; Kathmandu valley , Baneshwar, Ganaba-hal; 27.70° N, 85.32° E; 1350 m a.s.l.; 16–20 Aug. 1980; Martens and Schawaller leg.; SMF GoogleMaps .

SRI LANKA • 4 ♂♂, 12 ♀♀; see Huber et al. (1999) and Huber (2019).

MYANMAR • approximately 10 ♂♂, 20 ♀♀; Rangoon; 16.806° N, 96.150° E; date unknown; Lövendal leg.; ZMUC GoogleMaps .

THAILAND • 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀; Saraburi Province, 8 mi SE of Saraburi ; 14.45° N, 100.95° E; 100 m a.s.l.; 28 Jul. 1962; Ross and Cavagnaro leg.; CAS GoogleMaps 2 ♀♀, + juvs; Bangkok (= Krung Thep), Chulalong University ; 13.74° N, 100.53° E; 18–19 Oct. 1957; N. Meinkoth leg.; MCZ 76654 View Materials GoogleMaps 1 ♀; Lopburi Province, Khok Samrong District, Khao Wong Phrachan ; 14.9633° N, 100.7103° E; 600 m a.s.l.; 24 Jun. 2014; P. Schwendinger leg.; dry secondary forest with bamboo; MHNG GoogleMaps 1 ♂; Prachuap Khiri Khan Province, Reclining Buddha Cave ; 11.864° N, 99.823° E; 70 m a.s.l.; 13 Mar. 2015; B.A. Huber and B. Petcharad leg.; among rocks outside cave; ZFMK Ar 23880 GoogleMaps 1 ♂, 1 ♀ (in pure ethanol); same collection data as for preceding; ZFMK Mal 367 GoogleMaps .

LAOS – Vientiane • 1 ♀; Vang Vieng, Nam Song; 18.912° N, 102.456° E; 230 m a.s.l.; 12 Nov. 2009; P. Jäger and S. Bayer leg.; SMF 1 ♂, 2 juvs; Sisathona Distr., Sapanthong Neua; 17.957° N, 102.629° E; 170 m a.s.l.; 26 Mar. 2011; L. Nophasead leg.; SMF. Oudomxai • 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀; 4 km S of Oudomxai, Lipi provincial protected area; 20.653° N, 102.003° E; 870 m a.s.l.; 18 Apr. 2011; L. Nophasead leg.; SMF. Bolikhamsai • 1 ♀, 1 juv.; Nam Kading National Protected Area; 18.341° N, 104.144° E; 23 Mar. 2011; P. Jäger and L. Nophasead leg.; disturbed secondary forest; SMF 1 juv.; same collection data as for preceding; 25 Mar. 2011; SMF 5 ♂♂, 13 ♀♀; see Jäger (2007) and Jäger et al. (2012).

CAMBODIA • 1 juv.; Banteay Meanchey, Sisophon, La Ang Chinchian 5; 13.5905° N, 102.9442° E; 16 Jan. 2017; H. Steiner leg.; ZFMK Ar 22455 GoogleMaps .

VIETNAM • 2 ♂♂, 1 juv.; Kien Giang Prov., Ha Tien, Da Dung mountain ; 10.427° N, 104.476° E; 6 Jan. 2010; H. Steiner leg.; in cave; SMF GoogleMaps 1 ♂; Kien Giang Prov., Kien Luong, Nui Ca Danh mountain ; 10.283° N, 104.565° E; 9 Jan. 2010; H. Steiner leg.; SMF GoogleMaps 1 ♀; Ho Chi Minh (“ Saigon ”); 10.81° N, 106.64° E; Nov. 1966 – Feb. 1967; P. Fleischer leg.; MCZ GoogleMaps .

CHINA • 2 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀; Guilin (“Kweilin”); 25.24° N, 110.18° E; 20 Jul. 1976; A. Jung leg.; CAS GoogleMaps .

TAIWAN • 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀; Taichung, Tunghai University campus, near Tunghai Lake ; 24.1815° N, 120.6086° E; 140 m a.s.l.; 17 Jun. 2013; B.A. Huber leg.; at building; ZFMK Ar 23881 GoogleMaps 1 ♀ (in pure ethanol); same collection data as for preceding; ZFMK Tai81 GoogleMaps .

JAPAN • 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀; Kagawa Pref., Mitoyo-shi, Yamamoto-chô ; 34.18° N, 133.71° E; 7 Jan. 2000; Y. Ihara leg.; ZFMK Ar 5209 GoogleMaps .

MALAYSIA • 1 ♂, 6 ♀♀, 2 juvs; Kedah, Kedah Peak (Gunung Jerai), at foot of mountain; 5.8° N, 100.4° E; 6 Jan. 1985; J.A. Beatty leg.; on buildings; BPBM GoogleMaps .

SINGAPORE • 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀; Pulau Ubin , near park headquarters; 1.403° N, 103.967° E; 20 m a.s.l.; 16 Feb. 2015; B.A. Huber, J. Koh, and D. Court leg.; in building; ZFMK Ar 23882 GoogleMaps 1 ♀ (in pure ethanol); same collection data as for preceding; ZFMK Mal233 GoogleMaps .

PHILIPPINES – Luzon • 1 ♂; Manila, Umber ; 14.37° N, 121.02° E; 27 Aug. 1950; collector unknown; MCZ 76679 View Materials GoogleMaps 1 ♂, 1 ♀; Batangas; 13.76° N, 121.06° E; 4 Aug. 1986; C.K. Starr leg.; in building; AMNH GoogleMaps 1 ♀; Rizal, Alabang ; 14.42° N, 121.04° E; Sep. 1945; B. Malkin leg.; AMNH GoogleMaps 1 ♀; Lingayen ; 16.02° N, 120.23° E; Jun.–Jul. 1945; R.B. Burrows leg.; AMNH GoogleMaps 1 ♂; Banaue ; 16.919° N, 121.058° E; Jan. 1980; P. Schwendinger leg.; MHNG. – GoogleMaps Leyte • 2 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀; Baybay ; 10.68° N, 124.80° E; 3–6 Sep. 1984; C.K. Starr leg.; AMNH GoogleMaps . – Mindanao • 2 ♀♀; Bukidnon Province, Central Mindanao University ; 7.859° N, 125.051° E; 350 m a.s.l.; 10 Feb. 2014; B.A. Huber and E. Mondejar leg.; in building; ZFMK Ar 22456 GoogleMaps .

INDONESIA • 6 ♀♀ (2vials); Papua, Merauke (“Merambe”); 8.49° S, 140.40° E; 1956/57; M. Monulphus leg.; P. Chrysanthus ded.; SMF GoogleMaps .

PAPUA NEW GUINEA • 1 ♂; National Capital District; 9.45° S, 147.21° E; 23 Jul. 1985; D. Court leg.; NMNL ARA 17485 View Materials GoogleMaps .

AUSTRALIA – Northern Territory • 1 ♀; Darwin ; 12.45° S, 130.84° E; 20–31 Mar. 1945; B. Malkin leg.; AMNH GoogleMaps 1 ♀; Darwin, Alawa, Eileen St. ; 12.377° S, 130.874° E; 23 May 1992; J.M. Waldock leg.; WAM 99 View Materials /1672 GoogleMaps 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀; 70 mi S of Darwin, Adelaide River ; 13.24° S, 131.10° E; 20–27 Mar. 1945; B. Malkin leg.; AMNH GoogleMaps 1 ♀; 120 mi SE of Darwin, Edge Arnhemland Res., Ben Hole Billabong ; 13.8° S, 131.8° E; Jan.–Feb. 1972; J. Anderson leg.; AMNH GoogleMaps 1 ♀, 3 juvs; Alice Springs ; 23.70° S, 133.88° E; 29 Oct. 1983; E.I. Schlinger and M.E. Erwin leg.; CAS 9027208 View Materials GoogleMaps 2 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀, 1 juv.; Katherine ; 14.47° S, 132.26° E; Dec. 1980; R.R. Jackson leg.; in communal webs; QMB S49735 View Materials GoogleMaps numerous ♂♂ and ♀♀ (not counted); Kakadu National Park, Narramoor ; 12.696° S, 132.373° E; 25 m a.s.l.; 2 Jul. 1987; M.S. Harvey leg.; WAM 99 View Materials /1604 to 99/1613 GoogleMaps 1 ♂; Jabiru Residency ; 12.67° S, 132.84° E; 28 May 1992; Harvey and Waldock leg.; WAM 99 View Materials /1674 GoogleMaps 1 ♀; Nhulunbuy ; 12.18° S, 136.68° E; 8 Aug. 1991; A.F. Longbottom leg.; WAM 99 View Materials /1675 GoogleMaps 1 ♀; Berry Springs ; 12.7° S, 131.0° E; 26 May 1992; Harvey and Waldock leg.; woodland, on house; WAM 99 View Materials /1671 GoogleMaps 1 ♀; Humpty Doo, Marjerrison Rd ; 12.57° S, 131.1° E; 30 Oct. 1985; J.M. Waldock leg.; WAM 99 View Materials /1614 GoogleMaps 1 ♀; Uluru National Park ; 25.3° S, 131.0° E (label: 25.038° S, 131.070° E); 15 May 1999; Gray, Milledge, and Smith leg.; in house; AMS KS 56180 GoogleMaps . – Queensland • 1 ♀, 1 juv.; Widgee , NW of Gympie; 26.170° S, 152.425° E; 16–20 Feb. 1987; J. Gallon leg.; QMB S50290 View Materials GoogleMaps 3 ♀♀, 1 juv.; Lake Broadwater, near Dalby ; 27.35° S, 151.10° E; 26 Jan. 1984; M. Bennie leg.; house; QMB S49726 View Materials GoogleMaps 1 ♀; Gatton Agricultural College ; 27.554° S, 152.336° E; 29 May 1986; Bayer leg.; QMB S50276 View Materials GoogleMaps 1 ♂; Proa Shi , 20 mi S of Nelia; 20.9° S, 142.2° E; 7–13 May 1978; J. Covacevich leg.; QMB S50262 View Materials GoogleMaps 1 ♀, 2 juvs; Mt Isa , township; 20.732° S, 139.485° E; 16–21 Apr. 1996; R. Raven leg.; QMB S33757 View Materials GoogleMaps ♂♂ (not counted); near Edungalba ; 23.72° S, 149.85° E; Jul. 1993; D. Walker leg.; QMB S22175 View Materials GoogleMaps 1 ♀; Torres Strait, Yam Island ; 9.90° S, 142.77° E; 28 Nov.–2 Dec. 1986; K. Saddler and J. Gallon leg.; under bark; QMB S12418 View Materials GoogleMaps 1 ♀, 1 juv.; Palm River Café; 10.96° S, 143.70° E; 21 Oct. 1974; V.E. Davies leg.; QMB S49730 View Materials GoogleMaps 1 ♂; Lockerbie Scrub Wilderness Lodge ; 10.78° S, 142.47° E; 9 Dec. 1980; J. Gallon leg.; QMB S13021 View Materials GoogleMaps 1 ♂, 1 ♀; Townsville ; 19.26° S, 146.82° E; Sep. 1986; collector unknown; QMB S49734 View Materials GoogleMaps 1 ♀; Boulia ; 22.91° S, 139.91° E; Jun. 1981; S. van Dyck and R. Molnar leg.; QMB S49727 View Materials GoogleMaps 1 ♀; Doondi , 50 km SW of St. George; 28.28° S, 148.56° E; 10 Sep. 1979; R. Raven leg.; QMB S49732 View Materials GoogleMaps 1 ♀, 1 juv.; The Lion’s Den Hotel [near Rossville ?]; 15.705° S, 145.223° E; 15 Apr. 1994; J. Thompson, M. Moulds, and F. Mac Killop leg.; AMS KS 45744 GoogleMaps . – Western Australia • 2 ♀♀, 1 juv.; Kalumburu ; 14.295° S, 126.640° E; 19 Aug. 1969; A.R. Main leg.; WAM 99 View Materials /1754 to 99/1758 part GoogleMaps 2 ♀♀; Barrow Island , WAPET camp; 20.817° S, 115.433° E; 1–5 Nov. 1993; M.S. Harvey and J.M. Waldock leg.; indoors; WAM 99 View Materials /1739, 99/1740 GoogleMaps 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀; Kununurra ; 15.77° S, 128.74° E; 1962; K. Richards leg.; WAM 99 View Materials /1679 to 99/1683 GoogleMaps 1 ♂; same locality as for preceding; 8 Jun. 1992; M.S. Harvey and J.M. Waldock leg.; WAM 99 View Materials /1653 GoogleMaps 1 ♂, 4 juvs; same locality as for preceding; 25 Nov. 1978; D. Roberts and J. Staddart leg.; in hostel; WAM 99 View Materials /1598 to 99/1602 GoogleMaps 1 ♀; Derby ; 17.317° S, 123.633° E; May 1963; A.R. Main leg.; WAM 99 View Materials /1688 GoogleMaps 1 ♂; same locality as for preceding; 3 Nov. 1961; A.R. Main leg.; WAM 99 View Materials /1702 GoogleMaps 1 ♂, 1 ♀; Drysdale River Station ; 15.702° S, 126.380° E; 15 Jan. 1994; A.F. Longbottom leg.; WAM 99 View Materials /1747, 99/1748 GoogleMaps 1 ♂, 1 ♀; same locality as for preceding; 21 Jun. 1993; A.F. Longbottom leg.; WAM 99 View Materials /1745, 99/1746 GoogleMaps 1 ♀, 1 juv.; Geikie Gorge ; 18.08° S, 125.71° E; 24 Jul. 1987; B.Y. Main leg.; WAM 99 View Materials /1777, 99/1778 GoogleMaps 1 ♀; Geikie Gorge National Park ; 18.110° S, 125.697° E; 7 Jun. 1999; Gray, Milledge, and Smith leg.; under bark; AMS KS 56189 GoogleMaps 1 ♀; Care Spring ; 15.533° S, 128.833° E; 8 Jun. 1992; M.S. Harvey and J.M. Waldock leg.; WAM 99 View Materials /1637 GoogleMaps 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀; Fitzroy Crossing ; 18.19° S, 125.57° E; 11 Aug. 1991; J.M. Waldock leg.; outside of house; WAM 99 View Materials /1589 to 99/1591 GoogleMaps 1 ♀, 1 juv.; Meda Station ; 17.4° S, 124.0° E; 22 Aug. 1987; A.E. de Jong leg.; WAM 99 View Materials /1616, 99/1617 GoogleMaps .

FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIA • 1 ♂, 1 ♀, 1 gynandromorphic specimen; Chuuk (“ Truk ”) Island ; 7.45° N, 151.85° E; 10 Mar. 1969; Sabath leg.; MCZ 76633 View Materials , 76634 View Materials GoogleMaps .

Redescription

Male ( Guinea, ZFMK Ar 10456)

MEASUREMENTS. Total length 6.5, carapace width 2.4. Distance PME–PME 140 µm; diameter PME 140 × 170 µm; distance PME–ALE 50 µm; diameter AME 130 µm; distance AME–AME 45 µm. Leg 1:

63.4 (18.7 + 0.9 + 17.6 + 22.7 + 3.5), tibia 2: 12.4, tibia 3: 9.2, tibia 4: 10.5; tibia 1 L/d: 70; femora 1–4 diameters: 0.36, 0.32, 0.28, 0.31.

COLOR (in ethanol). Carapace ochre-yellow; carapace pit anteriorly light brown; sternum dark brown; legs ochre-yellow, with indistinct darker rings subdistally on femora and tibiae, with black lines on femora and tibiae, patellae brown; abdomen ochre-gray, with whitish internal marks and some dark marks dorsally and laterally; ventrally with distinct black median band, partly disrupted, with three parallel longitudinal marks behind gonopore.

BODY. Habitus as in Figs 702–703 View Figs 698–705 . Ocular area slightly raised. Deep thoracic pit and pair of furrows diverging from pit toward posterior margin. Clypeus unmodified, rim barely more sclerotized than in female. Sternum wider than long (1.7/1.0), unmodified. Abdomen slightly elongated, dorso-posteriorly angular.

CHELICERAE. As in Figs 792–793 View Figs 786–795 , with two pairs of apophyses, lateral pair with 2–3 small processes (distinct in lateral view), median pair with one large modified cone-shaped hair each; distance between tips of modified hairs 80 µm; lateral stridulatory ridges fine but visible in dissecting microscope; distances between ridges: ~7.5 µm ( Huber et al. 1999).

PALPS. As in Figs 783–785 View Figs 783–785 ; coxa with rounded retrolateral hump; trochanter barely modified; femur distally widened, with rounded ventral protrusion, proximally with prolateral stridulatory pick, retrolateral-ventral rim with row of projecting and sclerotized hair-bases, with barely visible retrolateral transversal line, without retrolateral proximal process; femur-patella joints slightly shifted toward prolateral side; tibia large relative to femur, tibia-tarsus joints shifted toward retrolateral side; tarsus without macrotrichia; procursus ( Figs 786–788 View Figs 786–795 ) straight, densely set with long hairs dorsally, few hairs slightly curved upwards; proximally on prolateral side with strong hump set with numerous long hairs and followed distally by thick sclerotized ridge, procursus tip with several distinctive elements: ventral sclerite with transparent retrolateral branch (arrow in Fig. 788 View Figs 786–795 ), rounded dorsal sclerite, semitransparent prolateral pointed process, and pair of crescent-shaped retrolateral elements; genital bulb ( Figs 789–791 View Figs 786–795 ) with simple basal sclerite connected to distal (main) sclerite, sperm duct opening not seen; distal sclerite with retrolateral ridge and distinctive set of one large and four smaller rounded prolateral apophyses.

LEGS. Femur 1 with single row of ~23 ventral spines; without curved hairs; few vertical hairs; retrolateral trichobothrium of tibia 1 at 4%; prolateral trichobothrium absent on tibia 1, present on other leg tibiae; tarsal pseudosegments indistinct except 2–3 distally.

Male (variation)

Tibia 1 in 43 males: 11.5–18.0 (mean 14.5). Dark ventral band on abdomen variably distinct, section behind gonopore with 2–4 longitudinal bands. Small apophyses prolaterally on bulbal sclerite variably distinct, usually one large plus four small apophyses, rarely one large plus three or five small apophyses. Retrolateral branch on ventral sclerite of procursus slightly variable in shape.

Female

In general similar to male ( Figs 704–705 View Figs 698–705 ) but without spines on legs, with smaller and less distinct stridulatory files on chelicerae (sometimes not visible in dissecting microscope; distances between ridges: ~8.5 µm, Huber et al. 1999), and with stridulatory organ consisting of pair of weakly sclerotized but distinct processes posteriorly on carapace and pair of light brown plates anteriorly on abdomen ( Fig. 797 View Figs 796–802 ). Tibia 1 in 57 females: 9.2–15.5 (mean 12.5). Epigynum as in Figs 796–799 View Figs 796–802 , main epigynal plate short and wide, weakly protruding; posteriorly laterally strongly sclerotized, anteriorly weakly sclerotized, with variably distinct light brown median area; with pair of pockets very close to median line on both sides of median ridge (distance between pockets 30 µm), posteriorly barely protruding; internal sclerotized arc and median round structure visible in uncleared specimens; posterior plate short but wide. Internal genitalia ( Figs 794–795 View Figs 786–795 , 800–802 View Figs 796–802 ) with large elongate pore plates converging anteriorly, dorsal arc wide but simple, ventral arc medially slightly modified, with asymmetric sclerites (three females cleared), with simple median pouch.

Gynandromorphic specimen

Specimens that combine male and female morphological characters (sometimes in a left-right asymmetry) are extremely rare in pholcid spiders. The only previously known case was reported by Blackwall (1867), who described a specimen of C. lyoni from India that had a male left palp and a male left chelicera, but a female right palp, female right chelicera, and incompletely developed female genitalia (epigynum) on the right side. He noted that this was the only case of gynandromorphism among “many thousands” of specimens of spiders studied. Surprisingly, the only gynandromorphic pholcid specimen I have ever seen (among roughtly 50,000 specimens) is also a representative of C. lyoni . This specimen (from Chuuk Island, Micronesia), has a half epigynum ( Figs 804–805 View Figs 803–805 ; relatively normally developed on the left side), but an enlarged right palp that reminds of a penultimate instar male palp (arrow in Fig. 803 View Figs 803–805 ). The right chelicera and the right femur are not modified, as would be expected from a penultimate instar male. Surprisingly, however, the female stridulatory apparatus between prosoma and abdomen appears fully and symmetrically developed on both sides (arrows in Fig. 805 View Figs 803–805 ). Leg length is also symmetric.

Natural history

Surprisingly little is known about the biology of this large and widely distributed synanthropic spider. Strickman et al. (1997) give basic bionomic data for spiders collected in Thailand and held at 30°C: eggs were laid 4–6 days after copulation; a mean of 34 spiderlings (range: 5–54) hatched form each eggsac 11–13 days after egg-laying; maturity was reached after only 74 days. Females were significantly heavier than males (mean weight 28.6 mg vs 17.6 mg). As soon as spiderlings started to eat (after the first molt), they were capable of overpowering a mosquito; prey was wrapped by ‘throwing’ silk with the hind legs, without rotating the prey. The prey was not bitten until the moment the spider started feeding, sometimes days after wrapping. No female was observed to eat her own eggs (as reported by Downes 1987). Observations on US populations give slightly to significantly higher numbers of eggs per egg sac (or spiderlings accompanying the female): 53–58 in Edwards (1993), and 72 in Guarisco & Cutler (2003). In Florida, Edwards (1993) observed a wide variety of insect prey in C. lyoni webs. For further observations, see Nandi & Raut (1985) (publication only partly seen) and Irie (2001) (in Japanese).

Distribution

The closest known relatives of C. lyoni ( C. maculipes , C. surobi sp. nov., C. sengleti sp. nov.) live in an area that is mainly composed of Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Iran ( Fig. 353 View Fig ), suggesting that C. lyoni originated from this region. It seems to have expanded from its original area at a time from which few records are available, so the early expansion is difficult to reconstruct. The earliest records from supposedly non-native regions date from the late 19 th century ( Myanmar; Thorell 1895) and the early 20 th century ( China; Strand 1907). Towards the east, C. lyoni may have reached the Philippines and Australia not before the 20 th century (oldest records: 1940s). Towards the west, C. lyoni seems to have reached South America much sooner than North America: while the oldest record from Argentina dates from 1914, and the species was “not rare” in Bahia ( Brazil) by the early 1930s ( Mello-Leitão 1935), it may not have reached the USA before the early 1980s ( Roth 1985, Edwards 1993). In Central Europe, the species appears to be slowly spreading since approximately 2000, but it is still largely confined to buildings ( Van Keer 2007, Bauer et al. 2016).

Mysteriously, this synanthropic species is largely absent from the original area of distribution of Crossopriza ( Fig. 351 View Fig ). Such a pattern is mirrored in some other synanthropic pholcids but remains unexplained (see Discussion).

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

ZFMK

Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig

MCZ

Museum of Comparative Zoology

MACN

Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

SMF

Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

MMUE

Museum of Manchester University

ZMUC

Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen

MHNG

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle

BPBM

Bishop Museum

QMB

Queensland Museum, Brisbane

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Pholcidae

Genus

Crossopriza

Loc

Crossopriza lyoni ( Blackwall, 1867 )

Huber, Bernhard A. 2022
2022
Loc

Tibiosa caracensis González-Sponga, 2006: 11

Gonzalez-Sponga M. A. 2006: 11
2006
Loc

Tibiosa casanaimensis González-Sponga, 2006: 14

Gonzalez-Sponga M. A. 2006: 14
Gonzalez-Sponga M. A. 2006: 17
2006
Loc

Tibiosa guayanesa González-Sponga, 2006: 20

Gonzalez-Sponga M. A. 2006: 20
2006
Loc

Tibiosa moraensis González-Sponga, 2006: 23

Gonzalez-Sponga M. A. 2006: 23
2006
Loc

Crossopriza nigrescens

Millot J. 1946: 155
1946
Loc

Crossopriza brasiliensis Mello-Leitão, 1935: 94

Millot J. 1946: 154
Millot J. 1946: 156
Mello-Leitao C. de 1942: 389
Mello-Leitao C. de 1935: 94
1935
Loc

Crossopriza lyoni

Huber B. A. & Villarreal O. 2020: 57
Bauer T. & Wendt I. & Holstein J. & Gabriel G. 2016: 4
Raychaudhuri D. & Saha S. 2015: 85
Huber B. A. & Kwapong P. 2013: 7
Tong Y. 2013: 61
Huber B. A. & Warui C. M. 2012: 8
Jager P. & Nophaseud L. & Praxaysombath B. 2012: 80
Yin C. & Peng X. & Yan H. & Bao Y. & Xu X. & Tang G. & Zhou Q. & Lui P. 2012: 163
Carvalho L. S. & Avelino M. T. L. 2010: 6
Colmenares Garcia P. A. 2008: 88
Beatty J. A. & Berry J. W. & Huber B. A. 2008: 9
Van Keer K. 2007: 53
Jager P. 2007: 34
Van Keer K. & Van Keer J. 2004: 79
Guarisco H. & Cutler B. 2003: 105
Irie T. 2001: 7
Van Keer K. & Van Keer J. 2001: 82
Murphy F. & Murphy J. 2000: 247
Huber B. A. & Deeleman-Reinhold C. L. & Perez Gonzalez A. 1999: 1
Song D. & Zhu M. & Chen J. 1999: 52
Roth V. D. 1994: 145
Edwards G. B. 1993: 1
Majumder S. C. & Biswas B. 1993: 2
Chen Z. & Zhang Z. 1991: 72
Chikuni Y. 1989: 29
Kim J. P. 1988: 35
Yaginuma T. 1986: 31
Yaginuma T. 1982: 15
Tikader B. K. & Biswas B. 1981: 18
Chrysanthus O. F. M. 1967: 96
Zhu C. & Wang F. 1963: 462
Dyal S. 1935: 168
Chamberlin R. V. 1924: 4
Sherriffs W. R. 1919: 229
Simon E. 1909: 80
Strand E. 1907: 125
Pocock R. I. 1900: 240
1900
Loc

Smeringopus lyonii

Thorell T. 1898: 274
Thorell T. 1895: 70
1895
Loc

Pholcus Lyoni

Blackwall J. 1867: 392
1867