Cremastosperma megalophyllum R.E.Fr.

Pirie, Michael D., Chatrou, Lars W. & Maas, Paul J. M., 2018, A taxonomic revision of the Neotropical genus Cremastosperma (Annonaceae), including five new species, PhytoKeys 112, pp. 1-141: 1

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Cremastosperma megalophyllum R.E.Fr.


19. Cremastosperma megalophyllum R.E.Fr.   Figs 2a View Figure 2 , 23 View Figure 23 , 28 View Figure 28 , Map 7 View Map 7

Cremastosperma megalophyllum   R.E.Fr., Acta Horti Bergiani 10: 329. 1931.


PERU, Loreto: Boca de Pebas, 23 Oct 1927, Ducke, A. RB19620 (holotype: S! [S-R-6963]; isotypes: B! [B 10 0242368], RB! [RB00534080, RB00534176]).


Tree or shrub 3-15 m tall, 2 –15(– 35) cm diam.; young twigs and petioles glabrous. Leaves: petioles 5-22 by 1.5-9 mm; lamina obovate to elliptic or narrowly so, 13-57 by 3-26 cm (index 2-5.1), chartaceous to coriaceous, shiny on both sides, secondary veins often impressed above (giving slightly bullate appearance), (dark) greyish-green or brown above, more brown or green below, glabrous on both sides, base obtuse to rounded, rarely acute or decurrent, apex acuminate (acumen (5-)10-30 mm long), primary vein conspicuously grooved in basal half, 1-5 mm wide at widest point, secondary veins (5 –)8– 21, intersecondary veins often 1 –2(– 3), distance between from 5-25 mm at the base to 9 –35(– 43) mm closer to the apex, angles with primary vein from (30 –)45–70(– 80)° at the base to (30 –)40– 75° closer to the apex, rarely branching, forming distinct loops, smallest distance between loops and margin 1-5 mm, tertiary veins percurrent. Inflorescence of single flowers, solitary or clustered in groups of up to 3, on leafy or leafless twigs or on the main trunk; short axillary shoot, 4 –7(– 8) by 0.7-1 mm (in flower), 4-10 by 1.5-4 mm (in fruit), glabrous or sparsely covered with whitish appressed hairs to 0.1 mm long; pedicels 10 –20(– 32) by ca. 1 mm at the base, up to 2(-2.5) mm at the apex (in flower), 15 –30(– 40) by 1.5-3 mm at the base, up to 4 mm at the apex (in fruit), glabrous; 3 lower bracts, deltate, ca. 1 by 1 mm, acute, soon falling off, sparsely covered with whitish appressed hairs to 0.1 mm long or glabrous; upper bract attached in apical half of pedicel, broadly ovate, 1-3 by 1-2 mm, obtuse, glabrous; closed flower buds depressed ovoid, opening loosely in development; flowers green maturing to yellow in vivo, black in sicco, sepals and petals glabrous; sepals free or connate for 1 mm, broadly ovate to triangular, appressed, open and conspicuous whilst petals still closed in young buds, 4-6 by 4-6 mm, obtuse to acute, sometimes briefly or partly persistent; outer petals broadly elliptic, 11-18 by 9-15 mm, obtuse, inner petals obovate, 10-16 by 5-7 mm, obtuse; androecium diam. unknown, stamens 1.3-1.8 mm long, connective appendage 0.7-1 mm wide; gynoecium diam. unknown, carpels 1.5-2 mm long. Monocarps 6-32, ellipsoid to broadly ellipsoid, (slightly) asymmetrical, 12-20 by 9-14 mm, green maturing to yellow, orange, purple and black in vivo, reddish or dark brown or black in sicco, often with an excentric apicule; stipes 10-30 by 1-2 mm; fruiting receptacle 3-12 mm diam.; monocarps, stipes and receptacle glabrous. Seeds broadly ellipsoid, reddish-orange, pitted, ca. 12 by 9-10 mm, raphe raised (more so when seeds immature), regular.


Amazonian Colombia ( Caquetá, Putamayo), Ecuador (Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pastaza, Sucumbíos, Zamora-Chinchipe) and Peru (Amazonas, Loreto).

Habitat and ecology.

Primary and secondary premontane or lowland rainforest, sometimes inundated, on red (oxisols/lateritic) or sometimes volcanic soils. At elevations of 100-1200 m. Flowering: April-June, September-January; fruiting: throughout the year.

Vernacular names.

Ecuador: Ayacara (Quichua; A. Alvarado 298), Cucha casa caspi (Hurtado 3005), Caramoyu (Whitmore 854), Ichilla cara caspi (small bark tree; D. Irvine 374), Lynshtimoia (Quechna; Whitmore 717), Mandachi (Shuar; W. Palacios 10278), Oñetahue (the plant itself), Oñetahuemo (the fruit) (Huaorani; J.S. Miller et al. 794), Tara caspi (Quichua; Grijalva & Grefa 305) or T’zinytala (Quichua; W. Palacios 10278). Peru: Bara (Rimachi Y. 1027).


Despite its name, the size of leaves of Cremastosperma megalophyllum   varies from large to relatively small with respect to those of other species of the genus. This variation is also apparent in the size of the fruits, which are similar to those of C. napoense   , but which in contrast are never borne on a branching inflorescence. C. megalophyllum   is best distinguished by the shape of the glabrous, black-drying flowers: the large sepals open earlier and to a greater extent than the petals (in contrast to those of C. napoense   , bud development of which is open from an early stage and the lighter colour (particularly of the pedicel) of which indicates the presence of indument).

Preliminary conservation status.

Cremastosperma megalophyllum   is one of the more widespread and abundant species of the genus, including occurrences in protected areas in Ecuador. Least concern [LC] (Table 1).

Selected specimens examined.

COLOMBIA. Caquetá: Mocoa, 2°00'N, 76°00'W, 4 May 1899, Sprague 351 (K). ECUADOR. Morona-Santiago: Misión Salesiana-Shuar, 3°25'S, 78°35'W, 800 m a.s.l., 8 Jun 1986, Zaruma & Arguello 518 (MO, U). Napo: Yasuní Forest Reserve, 0°40'S, 76°22'W, 200 m a.s.l., 25 Jun 1995, Acevedo-Rodríguez et al. 7523 (US); Hollín-Loreto road, foothills of Volcán Sumaco, 0°44'S, 77°28'W, 600 m a.s.l., 26 Jun 1989, Alvarado 298 (AAU, GB, MO, NY, U); San Pablo de Los Secoyas, 0°15'S, 76°21'W, 300 m a.s.l., 6 Aug 1980, Brandbyge et al. 32566 (AAU, U); Dureno, Comunidad Indigena Cofan, 0°02'S, 76°42'W, 350 m a.s.l., 22 Sep 1986, Cerón 404 (AAU, MO, U); Reserva Biológica Jatun Sacha, 1°04'S, 77°36'W, 450 m a.s.l., 17 Jan 1987, Cerón 612 (MO, QAME, U); Galeras Cordillera, E of Río Pusuno, 0°52'55"S, 77°34'15"W, 900-1200 m a.s.l., 19 Jun 2009, Couvreur et al. 130 (L); La Joya de los Sachas, 0°25'S, 76°37'W, 220 m a.s.l., 23 Nov 1992, A. Grijalva & Grefa 305 (U); Río Suno, W of Río Napo, 0°42'S, 77°10'W, 400 m a.s.l., 23 Jun 1968, Holm-Nielsen et al. 903 (AAU); San José de Payamino, 40 km W of Coca, 0°30'S, 77°20'W, 300-600 m a.s.l., 3 Nov 1983, Irvine 374 (F); Reserva Etnica Huaorani, 0°39'45"S, 76°40'00"W, 300 m a.s.l., Naranjo & B. Freire 399 (MO); Cañón de los Monos, 15 km N of Coca, 0°20'S, 77°01'W, 250 m a.s.l., 5 Apr 1985, Neill et al. 6359 (MO, QAME, U); Coca-Loreto road. 10 km W of Río Payamino, 0°35'S, 77°10'W, 275 m a.s.l., 10 Oct 1987, Neill et al. 7883 (MO, U); INIAP-Payamino Experimental Station, 0°25'S, 77°10'W, 250 m a.s.l., 18 Nov 1991, Neill et al. 10005 (MO); Coca-Loreto road, 8 km after Loreto, 0°35'S, 77°20'W, 800 m a.s.l., 8 Jun 1987, Palacios 1620 (MO, U); Río Payamino, road to Loreto, 0°26'S, 77°06'W, 300 m a.s.l., 15 Dec 1987, Palacios 2311 (MO, U); Puerto de Misahuallí, 1°04'S, 77°37'W, 450 m a.s.l., 7 Sep 1988, Palacios 2937 (U); El Chuncho Floristic Reserve, 0°25'S, 77°01'W, 250 m a.s.l., 23 May 1993, Palacios 10663 (U); Via Los Zorros, Sol Naciente, 0°40'S, 77°07'W, 250 m a.s.l., Aug 1993, Palacios 11016 (U); Río Napo, 20 km W of Coca, 0°35'S, 77°03'W, 300 m a.s.l., 22 Apr 1985, Stein et al. 2577 (AAU, MO, NY, U); Río Tutapishco, 0°36'S, 77°22'W, 480 m a.s.l., 27 Jan 1996, H. Vargas & Cerda 671 (U); Parque Nacional Sumaco, 0°08'S, 77°08'W, 400 m a.s.l., 30 Sep 1996, H. Vargas & Alvarado 1025 (MO); Estación Científica Yasuní, 0°38'S, 76°30'W, 200-300 m a.s.l., 24 Apr 2002, Villa et al. 1499 (F, U); Ridge W of Hac. Cotapino, parallel to Río Cotapino, 0°40'S, 77°20'W, 360 m a.s.l., 18 Oct 1960, Whitmore 717 (K); Payamino-Loreto road, 4-6 km from R Areas, 0°26'S, 77°02'W, 250 m a.s.l., 13 Sep 1986, Zaruma 657 (MO); Parque Nacional Yasuní, 0°31'S, 76°32'W, 240 m a.s.l., 6 Mar 1993, Zuleta 175 (U). Pastaza: Pozo petrolero ‘Masaramu’ de UNOCAL, 0°44'S, 76°52'W, 390 m a.s.l., 1 May 1990, Espinoza 129 (MO, NY, U); Río Landayacu, 1°34'S, 77°25'W, 580 m a.s.l., 25 Nov 1990, Gudiño 1123 (U); Curaray, NE of Destacamento, 1°21'S, 76°56'W, 250 m a.s.l., 19 Mar 1980, Holm-Nielsen 22082 (AAU, U); Pozo petrolero Villano 2 de ARCO, 1°25'S, 77°20'W, 400 m a.s.l., 1 Dec 1991, F. Hurtado 3005 (U); Río Tigüeno, 1°16'S, 77°11'W, 200 m a.s.l., 4 Jun 1995, J.S. Miller et al. 794 (U); Pozo Petrolero Villano 2, 1°29'S, 77°27'W, 500 m a.s.l., 24 Jul 1992, Palacios 10278 (U); Vía Auca, 115 km S of Coca, 6 km S of Río Tigüino, 1°15'S, 76°55'W, 320 m a.s.l., 31 Mar 1989, Zak & Rubio 4202 (MO, U). Sucumbíos: Rio Aguarico, Zabalo village, 0°21'24"S, 75°39'56"W, 22 Nov 1998, Aguinda et al. 458 (F); Campo Bermejo 6 Norte, 0°14'S, 77°13'W, 1050 m a.s.l., 23 Mar 1990, Cerón et al. 9324 (U); Reserva Cuyabeno, 0°00'S, 76°12'W, 265 m a.s.l., 1 Apr 1988, R. Valencia et al. 67352 (AAU, U); Dureno, 0°02'07"S, 76°45'17"W, 250 m a.s.l., 31 May 2007, Vriesendorp 428 (L). Zamora-Chinchipe: Jamboe Bajo, 4°05'S, 78°55'W, 1100 m a.s.l., 3 Nov 1996, Clark et al. 3158 (U); Cordillera del Condór, 4°26'14"S, 78°37'12"W, 900-1400 m a.s.l., 19 Jun 2005, Quizhpe et al. 1505 (MO, U). PERU. Amazonas: Atalaia do Norte. Río Javari, 4°33'S, 71°40'W, 2 Jan 1989, Cid Ferreira et al. 9959 (NY). Loreto: Río Marañón, San Rafael, 3°46'S, 73°03'W, 11 Sep 1989, Daly et al. 6186 (MO, NY, U); Alto Amazonas, 2°55'S, 76°25'W, 210 m a.s.l., 6 Jun 1981, Vásquez & N. Jaramillo 1969 (MO); Miraflores, Quebreda Tamshiyacu, 4°15'S, 72°40'W, 200 m a.s.l., 24 Feb 1986, Vásquez & N. Jaramillo 7237 (MO, U); Yanamono Explorama Reserve, 3°30'S, 72°50'W, 106 m a.s.l., 28 Sep 1988, Vásquez 11076 (F, U); Iquitos-Nauta road, 4°30'S, 73°30'W, 130 m a.s.l., 8 Nov 1988, Vásquez et al. 11192 (MO, U); Las Amazonas, ExplorNapo Camp, 3°15'S, 72°54'W, 140 m a.s.l., 27 Jun 1991, Vásquez et al. 16885 (MO, U).