Cryptostigma reticulolaminae Morrison

Kondo, Takumasa, 2010, Taxonomic revision of the myrmecophilous, meliponiphilous and rhizophilous soft scale genus Cryptostigma Ferris (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) 2709, Zootaxa 2709, pp. 1-72: 45-49

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Cryptostigma reticulolaminae Morrison


Cryptostigma reticulolaminae Morrison  

( Figs 1D, 18 & 19)

Cryptostigma reticulolaminae Morrison   ; Morrison 1929: 51.

Material examined. Holotype. Adult ♀. PANAMA (AS CANAL ZONE): Frijoles, 28.iii.1923, coll. W.M. Wheeler (#232), ex Cordia alliodora   , 1 (1) ( USNM)   . Paratypes. Same data as holotype, but #186, 3 (3) ( USNM)   .

Other material examined. COSTA RICA: Guanacaste Prov., Palo Verde, 15.vii.1979, coll. R.F.D. (II-2- 80), ex stem of Triplaris Americana   , tended by Pseudomyrmex triplaridis   , 6 (7) ( USNM); MEXICO: Chamela, -. ix.2005, coll. D. Gordon and R. Dirzo, ex Cordia alliodora   , inside hollow stem and tended by ants, 3 (3: 2 adult females + 1 third-instar nymph) ( BME); PANAMA ( AS CANAL ZONE): Barro Colorado Island, 2.viii.1924, coll. W.M. Wheeler (#832), 2 (2) ( USNM); Ancon, 18.iii.1923, coll. W.M. Wheeler (#186), ex Cordia alliodora   , 2 (20: 6 first-instar nymphs + 14 embrionic larvae) ( USNM).

Adult female ( Figs 1D & 18)

Unmounted material. “Specimens varying in size and shape, average length 5 mm., width 4.5 mm., height 2.5 mm., deeply invaginated beneath in the abdominal region; color of alcoholic specimens dark reddish brown with blackish infusion along margin and anterior to anal plates; body surface smooth, rather shining, bearing numerous tiny pits corresponding in position to sclerotic plates of derm” ( Morrison, 1929).

Mounted material. Body outline oval to elongate oval, 2.8–6.0 mm long, 2.2–5.0 mm wide (n=9).

Dorsum. Derm membranous, with numerous subcircular sclerotic pores arranged in a reticulate pattern, each pore 30–107 µm wide. Dorsal setae sharply to bluntly spinose, with a swollen or spatulate apex, each 11– 22 µm long, scattered evenly on dorsum between sclerotic pores. Simple pores not detected. Dorsal microducts heavily sclerotized, each 4–5 µm wide, outer ductule deep, broadened near duct opening; outer ductule appearing longer than inner ductule; numerous, evenly distributed on dorsum. Preopercular pores absent. Narrow sclerotic crescent present around anal plates. Anal plates together quadrate, with rounded angles, each plate 149–181 µm long, 64–90 µm wide, anterolateral margin 75–113 µm long, posterolateral margin 117–134 µm long; with about 4 setae on dorsal surface, plus about 3 ventral subapical setae on each plate; plates located about 1/4 of body length from posterior margin. Anal ring with 10 setae. Eyes absent.

Margin. Margins becoming heavily sclerotized at maturity, with sclerotic pores around body margin. Marginal setae not differentiated from dorsal setae. Stigmatic clefts very deep; stigmatic sclerotization highly sclerotized, forming a subcircular crescent, each with 3 stigmatic setae, each seta 6–18 µm long and bluntly spinose or conical, subequal in length, often broken off.

Venter. Derm membranous. Ventral setae slender, straight or slightly bent, each 10–19 µm long, those on abdominal segments usually longer, shortest around body margin. Ventral microducts with a long inner ductule, duct rim about 2 µm wide, scattered evenly on venter. Tubular ducts absent. Clypeolabral shield 216– 243 µm wide. Multilocular disc-pores each 6–8 µm wide with 5–7 loculi; scarce, restricted to a small group on each side of vulva. Spiracular disc-pores each 4–5 µm wide, with 5 loculi, present around spiracles and extending to near opening of stigmatic cleft. Antennae 1 segmented, reduced to a small round sclerotized plate; total width of plate 27–50 µm. Legs represented by a remnant claw, 1 pair of digitules, several pores and numerous small setae. Spiracles located near margin; anterior peritremes each 96–119 µm wide, posterior peritremes each 121–141 µm wide.

Diagnosis. The adult female of C. reticulolaminae   can be diagnosed by the following features: (i) presence of numerous subcircular sclerotic pores arranged in a reticulate pattern, (ii) dorsal setae sharply to bluntly spinose, with a swollen or spatulate apex, (iii) dorsal microducts heavily sclerotized, with a deep outer ductule broadened near duct opening, (iv) preopercular pores absent, (v) presence of about 4 setae on surface of each anal plate, (vi) marginal setae not differentiated from dorsal setae, (vii) stigmatic sclerotization each with 3 stigmatic setae, (viii) antennae 1 segmented, reduced to a small round sclerotized plate (ix) ventral microducts with a swollen inner ductule, (x) multilocular disc-pores restricted to a small group on each side of vulva, (xi) legs vestigial, setose, and (xii) ventral tubular ducts absent.

Remarks. C. reticulolaminae   was originally collected in Panama, but it also occurs in Costa Rica and Mexico, suggesting a much wider distribution.

First-instar nymph ( Fig. 19)

Unmounted material. Not available for study.

Mounted material. Elongate oval, 631–712 µm long, 415–852 µm wide (n=24).

Dorsum. Dorsal derm membranous. Dorsal setae each 18–22 µm long; about 5 pairs present in 2 middorsal longitudinal rows extending from head region towards area dorsad to between meso- and metathorax. Trilocular pore present on each side of head near margin close to eye. Dorsal microducts each about 2 µm wide, appearing unilocular, present in about 10 longitudinal rows. Simple pores each 3–4 µm wide, present submedially and submarginally in irregular rows. Anal plates together quadrate, dorsal surface of a shingled texture, each plate 100–113 µm long, 47–64 µm wide; dorsal surface with 1 seta present on mid-area of plate near margin, plus 4 apical setae; ventral surface with 1 fringe seta. Anal ring as in generic diagnosis. Eyespots present just above level of antennal scape.

Margin. Outline smooth. Marginal setae each sharply spinose and 20–27 µm long, totalling 70–72, with 10 anteriorly between eyes and, on each side, 8 between each eye and anterior stigmatic setae, 9 or 10 between anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, and 12–14 between posterior stigmatic setae and body apex. Stigmatic setae each bluntly spinose and 9–15 µm long; with 3 in each anterior stigmatic cleft and 4 or 5 in each posterior cleft.

Venter. Ventral derm membranous. Antennae 5 segmented, total length 216–270 µm. Pairs of submedian abdominal setae present on last 3 abdominal segments. Interantennal setae 1 pair. Submarginal setae slender, with 7 pairs on abdomen, 1 pair between each anterior and posterior stigmatic areas, and 1 pair on head region. Ventral microducts each about 2 µm wide, with 2 on each side between each antennal scape and margin, 1 on each side anterior to anterior stigmatic areas; 5 between each anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, and 7 between each posterior stigmatic setae and body apex. Spiracular disc-pores each 3–4 µm wide with 3–6 (mostly 5) loculi; with 4 or 5 pores in each anterior stigmatic furrow and 5–7 in each posterior furrow. Spiracular peritremes each 11–13 µm wide. Clypeolabral shield 117–149 µm wide. Legs well developed; trochanter with a very long seta, trochanter + femur 119–134 µm long, tibia + tarsus 128–134 µm long; microctenidia present on apex of tibia. Tarsal digitules similar, slender. Claw without a denticle; claw digitules slender, knobbed.

Diagnosis. The first-instar nymph of C. reticulolaminae   can be diagnosed by the following combination of features: (i) dorsal setae present in 2 longitudinal rows of 5 pairs, (ii) each anterior stigmatic cleft with 3 stigmatic setae; each posterior cleft with 4 or 5, (iii) with 9 or 10 marginal setae between anterior and posterior stigmatic setae, (iv) antennae 5 segmented, (v) with pairs of submedian abdominal setae on last 3 abdominal segments, (vi) anterior stigmatic furrows each with 4 or 5 pores, posterior furrows each with 5–7 pores, (vii) ventral microducts with a long inner ductule, and (viii) dorsal surface of anal plates of a shingled texture. C. reticulolaminae   is the only species in the genus with first-instar nymphs that have ventral microducts with a very long inner ductule.

Remarks. Despite the resemblances of adult female C. reticulolaminae   to those of Myzolecanium   , the first-instar nymphs of C. reticulolaminae   are typical of Cryptostigma   , with 5-segmented antennae (5- or 6- segmented antennae in Cryptostigma   , and always 6-segmented antennae in Myzolecanium   ); absence of setae near each coxa (a seta always present next to each coxa in Myzolecanium   ); presence of 1 or 2 membranous folds just anterior to anal plates and with folds showing some sign of sclerotization (no membranous folds just anterior to anal plates in Myzolecanium   ); and with 3 pairs of ventral submedian setae posteriorly on abdomen (usually 3 pairs in Cryptostigma   but always 6 pairs in Myzolecanium   ).

Host plants. Boraginaceae   : Cordia alliodora   ; Polygonaceae   : Triplaris americana   .

Associated Hymenoptera   . Formicidae   : Pseudomyrmecinae   : Pseudomyrmex triplaris   .

Males. Unknown.

Distribution. Neotropical Region: Costa Rica, Mexico, Panama.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Cryptostigma reticulolaminae Morrison

Kondo, Takumasa 2010

Cryptostigma reticulolaminae

Morrison, H. 1929: 51