Phyllonorycter ivani, Kirichenko, Natalia, Triberti, Paolo & Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos, 2019

Kirichenko, Natalia, Triberti, Paolo & Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos, 2019, New species of leaf-mining Phyllonorycter (LepidopteraGracillariidae) from Siberia feeding on Caragana (Fabaceae), ZooKeys 835, pp. 17-41 : 22-24

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Phyllonorycter ivani

sp. n.

Phyllonorycter ivani View in CoL sp. n. Figs 2A, B, 3, 4, 5


Forewing yellow ochre and white markings, with a basal streak, an angulated fascia in the median third and three costal and dorsal strigulae, all margined, often indistinctly, with darkish colour. Male genitalia asymmetric with a wide left valva, long spines apically and a thin right valva. Female genitalia with sterigma membranous and a large ostium bursae, signum consisting of an oval plate with two opposite spines in the centre.

The forewing pattern of P. ivani is similar to P. caraganella and P. viciae . It differs by the reduced or absent dark margins of all markings, a much angulated median fascia, an often present third strigula, and an indistinct apical spot, clearly defined in the other two species. In male genitalia, P. ivani is significantly different from P. caraganella by the asymmetrical valvae. For this character, P. ivani is similar to P. viciae but it is distinguishable for the just outlined saccus, which is very evident in P. viciae , a different curvature of the right valva and the sternum VIII rounded and not rectangular ( Kumata 1963). In female genitalia, P. ivani differs from P. caraganella for the lobate posterior margin of the segment VII in the latter and for the spines in the signum which are opposite, on a horizontal plane, while are not aligned in P. caraganella . In P. viciae signum is similar to P. ivani but there is a very different fan-shaped lamella antevaginalis ( Kumata 1963).

Type material.

Holotype ♂ (Fig. 2A): Russia, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok, the river Yenisei (left bank), "Krasiviy bereg", 55.99N, 92.76E, 256 m, ex. Caragana arborescens , 2.VII.2015 (larva), 8.VII.2015 em., N Kirichenko leg., NK-69-15-6, genitalia slide TRB4117♂ (SIF SB RAS).


6♂, 2♀ (Fig. 2B). Same location, date and host plant, N Kirichenko leg., NK-69-15-3 (♀), genitalia slide TRB4290♀ (MSNV); NK-69-15-9 (♂), genitalia slide TRB4129♂ (MSNV); NK-69-15-8 (♂), genitalia slide TRB4128♂ (MSNV); NK-69-15-1 (♂), genitalia slide NK-69-15-1♂; NK-69-15-2 (♂), genitalia slide NK-69-15-2♂; NK-95-15-4 (♂), NK-95-15-5 (♂); NK-95-15-7 (♂) (SIF SB RAS).

Further material examined.

2 larvae. 1 larva, Russia, Transbaikal (Zabaikalsky) Krai, Chita, Viktory park, 52.03N, 113.50E, 75 m, 11.VIII.2015, C. arborescens , N Kirichenko leg., field ID: NK-261-15, sample ID NK510, process ID: MICRU065-15; 1 larva, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok, Yenisei river bank, "Krasiviy bereg", 55.99N, 92.76E, 256 m, 15.VIII.2014, N Kirichenko leg., C. arborescens , filed ID: Kr-22, sample ID NK333, process ID: ISSIK282-14 (INRA).


The species name, ivani is derived from the first name of Natalia Kirichenko’s father, Ivan, who has continuously supported her interest in entomology.


Male and female. Alar expanse: 6.5-7 mm (Fig. 2A, B).

Head. Vertex rough, white, with mixture of ochreous piliform scales anteriorly; frons smooth, with broad, lustrous white scales. Antenna light ochre, length approximately 0.7 × that of forewing, each flagellomere ringed with dark brown apically, scape and pedicel yellow white, the first sometimes spotted with dark brown above, pecten of a few piliform scales. Maxillary and labial palpi white, the first very reduced, about 1/5 of the labial palpi.

Thorax (Fig. 2 A–B). Yellow ochre with three longitudinal white lines, venter white. Forewing yellow ochre to orange, with a basal streak at basal one third, an angulated fascia in the median third and three costal and dorsal white strigulae, all the signs are slightly margined with dark colour, sometimes third dorsal strigula not perceptible; an indistinct apical dark spot, almost always represented by a few dark scales; cilia whitish. Hindwing pale grey, cilia pale ochreous grey. Legs mostly fuscous dorsally, white ventrally, fore and mid tarsi more or less annulated with brownish, hind tarsi white.

Abdomen. Sternum VIII of male shorter than right valve, with a round apex.

Male genitalia (Fig. 3 A–B). Tegumen long, pointed, no apical microsetae. Valvae asymmetrical: left valva broad, variable in width, much broader near middle, about three times the width of right valva, and with a stout, sinuate spine arising near apex, length of spine about the width of valva; right valva slender, curved, with a big seta subapically. Vinculum short, saccus triangular but just outlined. Phallus slender, with a small subapical spine (Fig. 3A), length approximately equal to right valva.

Female genitalia (Fig. 4 A–C). Papillae anales rather reduced, posterior apophyses almost twice the length of the anterior one (Fig. 4A, C). Sterigma membranous, ostium bursae rather large, antrum narrower, approximately half of the ostium, weakly sclerotized. Ductus bursae thin, membranous, extended to the segment II; bursa rounded with signum consisting of two opposite spines, arranged horizontally, in the centre of a small sclerotized plate (Fig. 4B, C). Ductus spermathecae with efferent canal forming 35-36 coils of equal diameter.


(Fig. 5). The mine is similar to other Phyllonorycter species. The early mine is a whitish flat blotch on the lower side of the leaflet (Fig. 5A). The long epidermal tunnel preceding the blotch mine, as often present in the mines of Phyllonorycter caraganella , has not been observed in P. ivani mines. The mine usually begins near the base of the leaflet, growing towards the leaflet tip or in the middle of the leaflet. Later it becomes a tentiform blotch with 2-4 folds on the lower epidermis covering the mine (Fig. 5B, C). Silken threads, which the larva attaches on the lower epidermis inside the mine, contract the epidermis, pulling the leaflet margins downward (Fig. 5D). The resulting narrowed leaflet may help to find the mine when examining leaves from the upper side. The mine may occupy the entire leaflet (Fig. 5D). Frass is in loose gains or in small batches, covered by silk. The larva primarily consumes spongy parenchyma and in the late stage it fragmentally gnaws the layer of palisade parenchyma. The latter results in the presence of small transparent dots that could be observed from the upper side of the leaf. Larva greenish white, before pupation greenish yellow (Fig. 5D, E). Pupation in the mine.


In Siberia, in 2014-2015, mines with late instar larvae were found in early July and with young larvae in August suggesting that the insect develops in two generations. The first generation (egg laying) likely starts in late May - beginning of June and lasts till middle of July (adult appearance), the second starts in mid-July and lasts till the end of August - early September. The overwintering stage of this species is unknown.

Ecology and host plant range.

The host plant is Caragana arborescens ( Fabaceae ). So far, P. ivani has been found in suburban areas. Indeed, the type locality is on the outskirts of Krasnoyarsk (Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia) where the bushes of its host plant are planted as an ornamental fence along the promenade on the left river bank of the river Yenisei. In Chita (Transbaikal Krai), the mines were found on bushes of C. arborescens in the city park.


Russia: Central Siberia (Krasnoyarsk Krai, Krasnoyarsk), Eastern Siberia (Transbaikal Krai, Chita). In 2014-2017, no mines of P. ivani were found on Caragana spp. in other regions of Siberia: Tyumen, Omsk, Novosibirsk Oblasts, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Tomsk, Kemerovo, Irkutsk Oblasts, Altai Krai, the Republics of Tuva and Buryatia, neither in the Russian Far East (Amur Oblast, Sakhalin Island). However, it is highly likely that the species occurs in Eastern Siberia, on the territory between Krasnoyarsk and Transbaikal Krais.