Pachygrapsus transversus ( Gibbes, 1850 )

Poupin, Joseph, Davie, Peter J. F. & Cexus, Jean-Christophe, 2005, A revision of the genus Pachygrapsus Randall, 1840 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura, Grapsidae), with special reference to the Southwest Pacific species, Zootaxa 1015 (1), pp. 1-66: 44-50

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.1015.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:67DBD7AA-FA11-4F32-811B-0A9EFF4C668F

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/6C3D8794-ED6C-FFC9-6C1C-FC15FBF8FDE0

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Pachygrapsus transversus ( Gibbes, 1850 )
status

 

Pachygrapsus transversus ( Gibbes, 1850)   ( Figures 13a–e View FIGURE 13 , 14l View FIGURE 14 , 15l View FIGURE 15 , 16 View FIGURE 16 )

Grapsus transversus Gibbes, 1850: 181   [type locality: Key West , Florida]

Goniograpsus innotatus Dana, 1851: 249   ; Dana, 1852: 345 (uncertain, probably South American coast)

Leptograpsus rugulosus H. Milne Edwards, 1853: 172   ( Brazil)

Metopograpsus dubius de Saussure, 1858: 445   [29], pl. 2, fig. 16 (St. Thomas, Virgin Is.)

Metopograpsus miniatus de Saussure, 1858: 444   [28], pl. 2, fig. 17 (St. Thomas, Virgin Is.)

Pachygrapsus innotatus   — Stimpson, 1858: 48 [102] (Madeira); 1907: 116 (Madeira).

Grapsus declivifrons Heller, 1862: 521   ( Brazil).

Pachygrapsus intermedius Heller, 1865: 44   ( Brazil).

Pachygrapsus socius Stimpson, 1871: 114   ( Perú, Panamá, San Salvador, Manzanillo, Cabo San Lucas; see remarks).

Pachygrapsus transversus   — Ortmann, 1894: 709 ( Brazil). — Rathbun, 1918: 244 (Cape Cod, Massachusetts; South Carolina; Bahamas; Florida; Texas; México; Cuba; Jamaica; Puerto Rico; St. Thomas; Trinidad; Curaçao; Brazil; Bermuda; Cape Verde Is.; Lower California; Mexico; Costa Rica; Panamá; Galápagos; Perú; part, see remarks, not specimens from Sydney and Easter I., p. 248, which are P. laevimanus   ); 1921: 444, pl. 40, fig. 2­3 ( Congo); 1933: 88 ( Puerto Rico). — Tesch, 1918: 76 (Key). — Bouvier, 1940: 290 (Mediterranean). — Garth, 1946: 507, pl. 87 fig. 2 (Galápagos; differences with P. crassipes   ); 1992: 4 (Revillagigedo Is.). — Capart, 1951: 186, fig. 73, pl. 3, fig. 20 (West Africa). — Monod, 1956: 415, fig. 568, 570, 572, 573 (West Africa). — Holthuis & Gottlieb, 1958: 100 (Mediterranean coast of Israel). —Zariquiez Álvarez, 1968: 425, fig. 140c, 141a ( Spain). — Chace & Hobbs, 1969: 169 (West Indies; references, distribution). — Christiansen, 1969: 92, fig. 38 ( Denmark). — Manning & Holthuis, 1981: 234 ( Nigeria, Canary Is., Morocco, Senegal, Liberia, Cameroon; synonymy, references, distribution). — Williams, 1984: 459 (from “Cape Lookout, N.C. to Montevideo, Uruguay ”; references, distribution). — Falciai & Minervini, 1992: 234. — González Pérez, 1995: 223, photo 165 (Canary Is.). — Hendrickx, 1995: 140 (references, east Pacific distribution; from California (unknown locality), USA, and Cedros I., west coast of Baja California, Mexico, south to San Lorenzo I., Perú, Revillagigedo, and Galápagos Is.). — Melo, 1996: 454 ( Brazil); 1998: 499 ( Brazil). — Cuesta & Schubart, 1998: 1499 (Pacific and Atlantic coasts of Panamá, Florida, Jamaica, Antigua, Puerto Rico, Grenada, Curaçao, Spain; morphometry and DNA sequences). —Flores & Negreiros­Fransozo, 1999: 1051 ( Brazil; secondary sexual characters and allometry). —d’Udekem d’Acoz, 1999: 256 (references, distribution, ecology). —Hickman & Zimmerman, 2000: 126, photograph (Galápagos).

Type material Type not extant, according to Rathbun (1918: 244).

Material examined

Mediterranean Sea. Egypt: Port Said, coll. H. C. Kellers, July 1922, 1 M 21.6 x 26.3 mm, 1 F 15.1 x 18.9 mm ( USNM 57443 View Materials )   .

East Atlantic. Senegal: Dakar, littoral zone, coll. D. E. Harvey, 2 August 1966, 3 M 4.7 x 6.6–10.8 x 14.2 mm, 3 ov. F 9.2 x 12.2–10.9 x 14.1 mm, 3 F 5.5 x 7.6–8.3 x 10.8 mm, 1 juv. ( USNM 125805 View Materials )   .

West Atlantic. Florida: Tortugas, coll. W. L. Schmitt, July 1930, 1 M 11.2 x 14.4 mm ( USNM 71091 View Materials )   . — French Guiana, coll. F. Geay 1906, 1 M 17.5 x 22.5 mm ( MNHN B16013 View Materials ; plus 3 other specimens not examined)   . — Brazil, stony beach south of hotel, Villa Bella , São Sebastiao I   ., coll. W. L. Schmitt, 21 September 1925, 1 M 8.4 x 10.5, 1 F 8.3 x 11.4 mm ( USNM 70955 View Materials )   . Abrolhos Is., coll. RV Albatross, 27 December 1887, 3 M 6.0 x 8.1–15.0–19.5, 1 F 11.7 x 15.5 mm ( USNM 22095 View Materials )   .

East Pacific. Costa Rica: Puntarenas, coll. J. F. Tristan, February 1905, 1 F 9.0 x 12.6 mm ( USNM 32363 View Materials )   . Perú: Praita, first point of rocks N. of railway station, coll. W. L. Schmitt, 6 October 1926, 4 M 12.2 x 15.2–14.0 x 17.5 mm, 2 F 8.8 x 11.5, 12.0– 15.5 mm, 1 ov. F 9.7 x 12.7 mm, 2 juv. ( USNM 70963 View Materials )   .

Clipperton Atoll. Beach, Jean­Louis Etienne Expedition to Clipperton, stn 11, coll. L. Albenga, J. M. Bouchard, 18 January 2005, 1 M 10.0 x 12.0 mm, 2 F 6.5 x 8.0 mm, 8.5 x 11 mm ( MNHN B29857 View Materials )   .

Diagnosis

Carapace weakly convex, coarsely striated on gastric, hepatic and branchial regions; striae glabrous or only with short setae; cardiac, intestinal regions with shorter striae; lateral margins convergent posteriorly (more pronounced on the smallest specimens), with tooth behind exorbital angle ( Fig. 13a View FIGURE 13 ). Front 0.5 times (to 0.6 on larger specimens) exorbital width; anterior margin sinuous ( Fig. 13b View FIGURE 13 ). Infraorbital margin denticulated over entire length; with deep outer notch ( Fig. 14l View FIGURE 14 ).

Outer face of palm smooth, regularly convex; with marked longitudinal stria running near lower margin from tip of finger to near carpal articulation; upper margin of palm smooth or with faint carina and few oblique lines on inner face in larger specimens; cutting edges of fingers narrowly gaping with large triangular teeth; tip of fingers corneous, spoon­like, glabrous ( Fig. 13c View FIGURE 13 ).

Ambulatory legs with brush of setae on P2 propodi that tends to disappear in larger males (see remarks); lower margin of P5 merus smooth or slightly incised by oblique striae of outer face; submedian tubercle usually absent, sometimes present on smallest specimens (6 x 8 mm); distoventral angle with 3–4 spines ( Fig. 13d View FIGURE 13 ).

Abdominal tergites smooth. Sixth somite of male abdomen subrectangular, not forming a triangle with telson ( Fig. 13e View FIGURE 13 ). G1 with elongated, petal­like tip ( Fig. 15l View FIGURE 15 ).

Colour (from photographs): carapace cream to light brown with striae dark brown; cardiac and intestinal regions with a pattern of dark brown patches, symmetrical to longitudinal axis. Chelipeds dark brown to pink with paler areas on articulations and at tip of fingers. Ambulatory legs with dark brown patches on meri, carpi, and propodi, more or less arranged in bands on propodi; dactyli dark brown.

Measurements: large size; cw greater than 20 mm common; carapace of specimens examined ranging from 4.7 x 6.6–21.6 x 26.3 mm, smallest ovigerous female 9.2 x 12.2 mm.

Distribution

East Pacific. From Lower California to Perú, including the oceanic island groups of Revillagigedo, Clipperton, and the Galápagos. West Atlantic. From Cap Cod to Montevideo, including the Caribbean and Bermuda. East Atlantic. From South Portugal to Namibia, including Madeira, Canary Is., and Cape Verde Is. Mediterranean. From Alboran Sea to the Levant basin. There is one record from Denmark. According to Christiansen (1969), “in Copenhagen about 20 living specimens were found on a ship coming from the Bermudas.”

Pachygrapsus transversus   is a warm­water species but with a few occasional records at high latitudes ( Fig. 16 View FIGURE 16 ): Denmark to Namibia (see d’Udekem d’Acoz, 1999: 256); Cap Cod ( Rathbun, 1914) to Montevideo (William, 1984). Williams (1984: 459) indicates that this species “has been carried to higher latitudes than it normally inhabits by transport on ships’ bottoms, and … the range may have been greatly extended by commerce in modern times”.

Habitat

Intertidal on rocky shores; also recorded on sandy shores and mangroves (see d’Udekem d’Acoz, 1999: 256).

Remarks

Some characters used to identify this species vary according to size and/or sex. The lateral margin of the carapace is only weakly convergent posteriorly in large specimens, but more strongly convergent in small specimens. The striae on the cardiac and intestinal regions also tend to disappear on the smallest specimens. The front is 0.6 times the exorbital width on larger specimens but 0.5 on smaller crabs. The upper margin of the palm has a faint carina and oblique lines that tend to disappear on larger specimens. The brush of setae on P2 propodi is noticeable on small specimens and females but absent on large males. The lower margin of the P5 merus has a submedian tubercle only in small specimens.

Pachygrapsus transversus   is morphologically close to P. laevimanus   , and has been often confused with the former. The differences between the two are discussed under P. laevimanus   .

Cuesta & Schubart (1998) studied the morphological and molecular variation of P. transversus   from east, west Atlantic, and east Pacific populations. Their results suggest sufficient differentiation among these three populations that taxonomic separation can be considered. C. Schubart (pers. comm.) has indicated that a taxonomic revision is currently in progress, with the reinstatement of P.socius Stimpson, 1871   from the east Pacific, based on colour pattern, larval and adult morphometry, and DNA analysis.

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Malacostraca

Order

Decapoda

Family

Grapsidae

Genus

Pachygrapsus

Loc

Pachygrapsus transversus ( Gibbes, 1850 )

Poupin, Joseph, Davie, Peter J. F. & Cexus, Jean-Christophe 2005
2005
Loc

Pachygrapsus socius

Stimpson, W. 1871: 114
1871
Loc

Pachygrapsus intermedius

Heller, C. 1865: 44
1865
Loc

Grapsus declivifrons

Heller, C. 1862: 521
1862
Loc

Metopograpsus dubius de Saussure, 1858: 445

Saussure 1858: 445
1858
Loc

Metopograpsus miniatus de Saussure, 1858: 444

Saussure 1858: 444
1858
Loc

Pachygrapsus innotatus

Stimpson, W. 1858: 48
1858
Loc

Leptograpsus rugulosus H. Milne Edwards, 1853: 172

Milne Edwards, H. 1853: 172
1853
Loc

Goniograpsus innotatus

Dana, J. D. 1852: 345
Dana, J. D. 1851: 249
1851
Loc

Grapsus transversus

Gibbes, L. R. 1850: 181
1850