Cnidoscolus mcvaughii, Oliveira, Cellini Castro De, Melo, André Laurênio De & Silva, Marcos José Da, 2021
Oliveira, Cellini Castro De, Melo, André Laurênio De & Silva, Marcos José Da, 2021, Synopsis of Cnidoscolus (Euphorbiaceae) in midwestern Brazil, including taxonomic updates, a new species, and a reestablishment of C. neglectus, Phytotaxa 500 (3), pp. 179-200: 187-197
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4. Cnidoscolus mcvaughii C.C. Oliveira & M.J. Silva, sp. nov.
Diagnosis: —A species unique in the combination of the shrubby habit up to 1.8 m tall; leaves with a pair of basilaminar glands and 3- or 5-palmatilobed, the lobes oblong, oblong-elliptic or lanceolate, the lateral ones reduced and facing downwards; dichasia with 3 or 4 levels of ramification; staminate flowers with 10 fertile stamens (5 internal and 5 external) in three whorls, one of five, one of three, and one of two, the external ones free and villlous basally, and the internal ones joined up to half its length; fruits oblong; and seeds with a caruncle visible on both surfaces.
Type:— BRAZIL. Goiás: São Domingos, Parque Estadual de Terra Ronca , em cima da gruta, 13º44′04.9″S 46º21′31.7″W, 716 m, 14 December 2016 (fl, fr), C. C. Oliveira 514 (holotype: UB!; isotype: UFG!). ( Figs. 4 View FIGURE 4 and 5 View FIGURE 5 ) GoogleMaps .
FIGURE 6. Distribution map of Cnidoscolus mcvaughii C. C. Oliveira & M. J. Silva (●).
Shrubs 0.8–1.8 m tall, erect, dichotomously ramified near the apex; branches, leaves, flowers and fruits with aciculiform stinging hairs 6–8 mm long, the last ones densely distributed in the main stem, and sparsely in their terminal branches and petioles, the last two also pubescent together both leaf surfaces.Main stem thickened, subwoody, cinereous, greenish or green-yellowish, young branches greenish. Stipules 1–1.5 × 0.9–1.1 mm, triangular, caducous, papillose at apex and internally. Leaves 15.5–43.3 cm long, alternate, spiral, regularly distributed along the stem or from their dichotomies; petiole 7.5–18 cm long, cylindrical, light ou dark green; glands 2, basilaminar, triangular, papillose at apex; leaf blade 11–19.2 × 14–23.7 cm, concolorous, membranaceous, deeply 3–5-palmatilobed, base truncate; lobes 6–20.2 × 2–3.8 cm, oblong, oblong-elliptic or lanceolate, when in the 5-lobed leaves the lateral ones reduced and facing downwards, margin entire or sparsely and irregularly denteate, flat, apex shortly acumuminate; venation brochidodromous, primary and sencodary veins impressed on adaxial surface and prominent on abaxial surface. Dichasium 8–15.5 cm long, with 3 or 4 levels of ramification, erect, pubescent, congested or lax, terminal or in the axils of the branches, peduncle 6.5–10.5 cm long; bracts 1.2–2 mm long, lanceolate, glabrous, margin entire, apex acute; staminate buds 0.9–1.2 cm long, oblong-obovoid, slightly constricted near the apex, sessile, glabrescent. Staminate flowers white, 0.9–1.2 × 0.8–1 cm, calyx hipocrateriform, tube 6–8 × 2–2.5 mm, lobes 3.5–4.5 × 2–2.5 mm, oblong or ovate-oblong, apex obtuse or rounded, glabrous internally, adroecium monadelphous with 10 fertile stamens, 5 internal and 5 external, distributed in three whorls (one of five, one of three and one of two stamens), the external free, the internal joined up to half its length, 6–6.5 mm long, villous basally, free portion of the stamens 2–5 mm long, anthers 0.9–1 × 0.5–0.7 mm, dorsifixed, oblongoid, staminodes 1–3, filiform, 0.3–0.5 mm long, disc 0.5–0.6 × 0.9–1.1 mm, annular, villous; pistillate buds 0.6–0.9 cm long, similar to the staminates, sessile, glabrescent; pistillate flowers white 8–9 × 7.5–8.5 mm, calyx hipocrateriform, tube 4.9–5 × 2–2.7 mm; lobes 3–4 × 1.2–2 mm, oblong, ovate-oblong, apex rounded, glabrous internally; ovary 2–2.5 × 1,3– 1.5 mm, ovoid, glabrescent, styles 1.9–2.1 mm, multifid; disc 0.4–0.5 × 1.5–1.6 mm, annular, villous. Fruits 7–9 × 6–7 mm, dehiscent, oblong, loculicidal and septicidal, apex obtuse or rounded, light green along the mericaps and dark green in their suture region, columela 7 –8 mm long, trifaceted with membranaceous and lacerate lateral projections. Seeds 7–8 × 3.5–3.8 mm, elipsoid, slightly concave dorsally, convex or slightly flat ventrally, base truncate, apex obtuse, cinereous with black spots; caruncle 1.2–1.5 × 1.9–2.1 mm, reniform, whitish, visible on both sides.
Morphological relationships, characterization and systematic position: — Cnidoscolus mcvaughii resembles C. cervii Fernández Casas (2004a: 178) and C. neglectus Pohl (1827: 60) by having a shrubby habit, 3–5-palmatilobed leaves, an androecium with 10 stamens in two whorls, the outer ones free and the inner ones connate up to half the length, and pistilate flowers with cylindrical tubular tepals. It differs from the first by the leaf blade with a truncated base and irregularly dentate margin (vs. cordate and serrated in C. cervii ), stipules discretely papillate (vs. conspicuously so), villous stamens basally with glabrous disc (vs. glabrous, and villous, respectively), glabrescent ovary with styles 1.9–2.1 mm long (vs. pubescent with styles seasuring 3–4 mm long), oblong capsules (vs. oblong-ellipsoid) and ellipsoid seeds with whitish reniform caruncle (vs. elliptical-obovoid with cream-colored triangular caruncle). From C. neglectus it also differs in the general aspect of the blade or leaf lobes, which in the former are widely oblong-obovate or oblong-elliptical (vs. narrowly oblong or lanceolate in C. mcvaughii ), with a cordate or hastate base and entire margin (vs truncated and irregularly dentate), stamens glabrous basally with a villous disc (vs. villous basally with a glabrous disc), and oblongoid seeds (vs. ellipsoid).
For having a shrubby habit, 3–5-lobed, palmately veined leaves; glands persistent composed of multiple papilliform structures; staminate flowers with (8–)10(–12) stamens connate into a 2-whorled column; a 3-carpellate ovary and dry fruits we suggested that C. macvaughii belongs to Cnidoscolus sect. Jussieuia ( Houstoun 1781) Pax & K. Hoffm. (1931: 164) , a newly re-circumscribed taxa by Maya-Lastra & Steinmann (2019) which houses 25 species, the most of them (23), endemic or microendemic to Brazil, except for C. urens ( Linnaeus 1753: 1007) , which has a wide neotropical distribution, and Cnidoscolus texanus ( Müller Argoviensis 1865: 211) Small (1903: 706) and C. stimulosus ( Michaux 1803: 216) Engelm & A. Gray (1845: 234) which are restricted to the Northern Hemisphere.
Distribution and habitat: —Species distributed in the northeastern portion of the state of Goiás (Fig. 6), in the municipalities of Guarani de Goiás and São Domingos, growing in seasonally dry forest located in the Cerrado Biome on hill tops or slopes on rocky soils, between 448 and 716 meters of elevation.
Phenology:—Flowering and fruting from April to December.
Etymology:—The specific epithet honors American botanist Rogers McVaugh for his contributions to our taxonomic knowledge of the genus Cnidoscolus .
Preliminary Conservation Status: —Endangered species, EN (B1 ab [iv, v]) with Extent of Occurence estimated at 1,325 km 2.
Additional specimens examined (paratypes):— BRAZIL. Goiás: Guarani de Goiás, Fazenda Forquilha, entrada na porteira a direita a 19 km de Guarani para São Domingos , 12 April 2003 (fl), C. W. Fagg 1248 (FURB, HUEFS); São Domingos, estrada Nova Roma a São Domingos, após a balsa no Rio Paranã, ao lado da Fazenda Cedro, 13º31′42″S 46º49′50″W, 448 m, 24 April 2009 (fl, fr), L. P. de Queiroz 14152 (HUEFS); ibd., Parque Estadual de Terra Ronca , em cima da gruta, 13º44′04.9″S 46º21′31.7″W, 716 m, 14 December 2016 (fl, fr), C. C. Oliveira 515 (UB), C. C. Oliveira 516 (UB) GoogleMaps .
5. Cnidoscolus maracayensis (Chodat & Hassl.) Pax & K. Hoffm. (1931: 164) ≡ Jatropha maracayensis Chodat & Hassl. (1905: 613) . ≡ Cnidoscolus maracayensis (Chodat & Hassl.) Pax & Hoffm. ex Fernández Casas (2002: 72) , comb. superfl. Type:— PARAGUAY. Canindeyú: “In Campo Nandurucay, Sierra de Maracayú” 1898–1899 (fl), É. Hassler 4931 (lectotype G-00307052!, designated by Maya-Lastra & Steinmann (2018); isolectotypes: BM-000504582!, F- V0056810F!, G-00307051!, G-00307053!, G-00307054!, G-00307055!, K-000254141!, NY-00804016!, P-00545642!, P-00545643!, W!).
Taxonomic Notes: —Maya-Lastra & Steinman (2018) consider the combinations proposed by Fernández Casas (2002) to validate those initially made by Pax & Hoffmann (1931) as superfluous, an opinion corroborated here, since although Pax & Hoffmann did not make reference to the basionym, their combinations were published before January 1, 1953, which according to Article 41.4 of the ICN ( Turland et al. 2018) is correct.
FIGURE 9. Map of Brazil showing the distributions of species, particularly in the region studied. A. Cnidoscolus albomaculatus (◌) and C. aurelii (●). B. C. cervii (◌) and C. maracayensis (●). C. C. neglectus (◌), and C. paucistamineus (●), and D. C. tridentifer (◌), and C. vitifolius (●).
Morphological characterization: —Species possible to be confused with C. albomaculatus by sharing a subshrubby habit up to 50 cm tall, unlobed leaves with basal glands, triangular stipules, stamens united in a column, pistilate flowers with tepalous free and globose fruits. However, C. maracayensis has sessile, unlobed leaves distributed along the branches (vs. petiolate, unlobed or lyrate-pinatisect distributed at the base of the plant or ends of branches in C. albomaculatus ), a glabrous staminal column (vs. staminal column basally villous), disc of pistilate flowers nondenticulate (vs. denticulate), and seeds ellipsoid (vs. oblong).
Distribution and habitat: —A species distributed in Paraguay and Brazil (Fig. 9B), for the latter registered only from southern Mato Grosso do Sul, where it grows in campos limpos or cerrados ralos.
Preliminary Conservation Status: —Classified as Vulnerable, VU (B1 ab [iv, v]) with Extent of Occurence estimated at 14. 964 km 2.
Additional specimens examined:— BRAZIL. Mato Grosso do Sul: Amambai, área indígena, 14 February 1983 (fl), G. Hatschbach 46230 (MBM); Tacuru, 5 km O, 16 July 1983 (fl) G. Hatschbach & R. Callejas 47305 (ESA, MBM) . PARAGUAY: Hernandarias : locality? 12 October 1981 (fl), E. Buttura 713 (EVB, MBM) .
6. Cnidoscolus neglectus Pohl (1827: 60) ≡ Jatropha urens var. neglecta (Pohl) Müller Argoviensis (1874: 501) ≡ Cnidoscolus urens var. neglectus (Pohl) Lourteig (1955: 85) . Type:— BRAZIL. Goiás: “Habitat in siccis aridis, pretrosis pascuis, inter frutices circa Villa Boa Capitaniae Goyas ”, April 1819 (fl), J. B. E. Pohl 3918. (holotype: W- 0060510!).
Jatropha loefgrenii Pax & K. Hoffm. (1910: 107) , syn. nov. ≡ Cnidoscolus loefgrenii (Pax & K. Hoffm.) Pax & K. Hoffm. (1931: 166) Type:— BRAZIL. São Paulo: Araraquara, Matta , 20 March 1899 (fl) A. Löfgren 4300 (lectotype designated here: SP-00277390!).
Cnidoscolus calyptratus Fernández Casas (2001: 33) , syn. nov. Type:— BRAZIL. Goiás: Serra dos Pirineus, 50 km N of Corumbá de Goiás on road to Niquelândia , in valley of rio Maranhão, ad 800 m, forested calcareous outcrop, 25 January 1968 (fl, fr), H. S. Irwin, M. Maxwell & D. C. Wasshausen 19188 (holotype: MO-2344919!; isotypes: COL-168782!, MG-56238!, NY-862894!, R-000159414!, UB-19230!).
Cnidoscolus minarum Fernández Casas (2004d: 226) , syn. nov. Type:— BRAZIL. Minas Gerais: Salto da Divisa, Fazenda Santana GoogleMaps , 16º04′04″S 40º03′13″W, 111 m, 19 July 2003 (fl), J. A. Lombardi, R. C. Mota, J. R. Stehmann & L. G. Temponi 5277 (holotype: BHCB-82574!, isotype: MA-716703!).
Cnidoscolus monsanto Fernández Casas (2004e: 235) , syn. nov. Type:— BRAZIL. Bahia: Itarantim, Serra da Felicíssima GoogleMaps , fazenda Bom Jardim GoogleMaps , 15º49′01.2″S, 40º06′57.5″W, 180–300 m, Floresta Estacional Semidecidual Submontana, fragmento florestal com matacões de granito no interior, 08 October 2003 (fl, fr), A. Salino, P. H. A. Melo, N. F. O. Mota & R. C. Mota 9166 (holotype: BHCB-85021!; isotype: MA-716702!). ( Fig. 7A–F View FIGURE 7 ).
Taxonomic Notes: — Cnidoscolus neglectus was described by Pohl (1827) based on his own collection (Pohl 3918) from Goiás state. Müller Argoviensis (1874) proposed the combination Jatropha urens var. neglecta , and listed the Pohl specimens from Goiás, in addition to Riedel s.n., Glaziou 1386 and Regnell 179 from Rio de Janeiro, Warming s.n. from Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais, and Salzmann 490 from Bahia forhis variety. Pax (1910) used the same concept proposed by Müeller Argoviensis (1874) for Jatropha urens var. neglecta and provided two more collections from the state of Goiás (Pohl 1665 and Pohl 3918).
After analyzing the protologue, examining several collections from the entire range of the Cnidoscolus urens and C. neglectus , including its type collection of the latter, and observing various populations of them in the field, we conclude that although C. urens is morphologically similar to C neglectus , both are distinct species. Thus, C. neglectus , here reestablished. Both species have 3–5-palmatilobed leaves, stipules that are caducous and papillose at the apex and internally, dichasia with 3 or 4 levels of ramification, and staminate flowers with 10 stamens fertile. However, they are clearly distinguished by the deltoid stipules 1–1.5 × 0.5–0.8 mm in C. neglectus (vs. 0.5–1 × 0.7–1 mm, triangular in C. urens ), petioles measuring 5.5–24 cm long (vs. 6.5–14 cm long), staminate flowers with the base of the androecium or disc glabrous (vs. villous), bracts pubescent, 1.5–4 mm long and margin entire (vs. velutinous, 1–2 mm long and margin irregularly dentate), staminate buds 1–1.2 cm long, pubescent (vs. 7–9 mm long, pubescent or velutinous), pistillate buds 1–1.1 cm long (vs. 6–8 mm long), pistilate flowers with connate tepalous (vs. free tepalous), ovary 6–7 × 1.7–1.9 mm, ovoid or pyriform, and glabrous (vs. 4.5–5 × 1.8–2 mm, oblongoid or slightly triangular, glabrous), and seeds with caruncle measuring 1.5–2 × 3–4 mm, reniform (vs. 1–1.5 × 2.5–3 mm, triangular). In addition, C. neglectus is found in Bahia, Goiás, Minas Gerais and São Paulo states, in seasonally dry forests, roadside or near streams, on rocky outcrops, while C. urens is common on the coast of the northeast region growing in restinga and mangrove vegetations, as in states Ceará and Pernambuco.
Jatropha loefgrenii was proposed by Pax & Hoffmann (1910) based on collection Loefgren 4300. The study of its protologue and the analysis of its type gathering leaves no doubt that it corresponds to a morphological variation of C. neglectus , which led us to treat it as its synonym.
Cnidoscolus calyptratus was described by Fernández Casas (2001) based exclusively on the collection H.S. Irwin, M. Maxwell & DC Wasshausen 19188 from the state of Goiás. However, although the author provided a description for the species, he did not compare it with any species from the genus and reported that he had mistakenly listed this species in previous work (Fernández Casas 2001) among studied collections of C. froesii . Fernández Casas (2004d) described C. minarum based on a single collection by Lombardi et al. 5277 from the State of Minas Gerais. In this publication, the author points out that the gamotepalous pistilate flowers and the free stamens of the external whorl are diagnostic characters of the species, but he did not comment on morphological similarities with similar species.
Cnidoscolus monsanto was also described by Fernández Casas (2004e), based only on the Salino et al. 9166, from Bahia state. The author cited the same characteristics of C. minarum to it new species, pointed out that C. monsanto has pistillate tepals joined at base without commenting on the similarities and differences between this and other species. After examining the type collections and protologues of these three species and C. neglectus , in addition to various material from all over Brazil and analyzing populations in the field, including in the type localities, we conclude that C. calyptratus , C. minarum and C. monsanto correspond to morphological variations of C. neglectus , and therefore they are all here treated as synonyms.
Morphological characterization: — Cnidoscolus neglectus is an erect shrub up to 2 m tall, with vegetative and reproductive parts covered by aciculiform, stinging hairs. The leaves are 3–5-palmatilobed or unlobed, regularly distributed along the branches, and with a pair of triangular basal glands papillose at apex. The10 stamens are in two whorls, with the external free and the internal slightly connate. Pistilate flowers are tubular-cylindrical.
Distribution and habitat: —Brazilian species registered for Bahia, Goiás, Minas Gerais, and São Paulo. It grows in Caatinga, cerrados típicos, and seasonally dry forests associated with the Cerrado Biome in roadsides or near streams on rocky outcrops (Fig. 9 C).
Preliminary Conservation Status: —Species classified as Least Concern (LC) due to it Extent of Occurence estimated at 619.590 km 2.
Additional specimens examined:— BRAZIL. Bahia: Ribeira do Pombal, BR 110, km 150, entre Duas Serras e Ribeira do Pombal , 10º39′55.5″S, 38º25′02.6″W, 302 m, 19 August 2016 (fl, fr), C. C. Oliveira 490 (UB, UFG) GoogleMaps . Goiás: Goianápolis, Parque Estadual Altamiro de Moura Pacheco, trilha Sete de Setembro ou “trilha do Zezinho”, ca. de 500 m da rodovia, pomar de mangueiras, 16º33′58.8″S, 49º09′41.3″W, 805 m, 15 January 2017 (fl, fr), C. C. Oliveira 519 (UB, UFG), C. C. Oliveira 520 (UB, UFG), C. C. Oliveira 521 (UB, UFG); Morrinhos, BR 153, Km 600, próximo ao trevo para Pontalina, sentido Morrinhos - Professor Jamil, fragmento de cerrado à direita na baixada, 17 March 2017 (fl, fr), C. C. Oliveira et al. 527 (UB, UFG) GoogleMaps . Minas Gerais: Jequitinhonha, Reserva Biológica da Mata Escura, Comunidade Jataí , 16º23′16.1″S, 41º01′37.6″W, 359 m, 07 November 2016 (fl, fr), C. C. Oliveira 491 (UB, UFG); ibd., Reserva Biológica da Mata Escura , Fazenda Porto Alegre, 301 m, 15 November 2016 (fl, fr), C. C. Oliveira 502 (UB, UFG); ibd., Reserva Biológica da Mata Escura , Fazenda Porto Alegre, 16º25′31.8″S, 41º06′30.0″W, 15 November 2016 (fl, fr), C. C. Oliveira 505 (UB, UFG); ibd., Reserva Biológica da Mata Escura , Fazenda Porto Alegre, 16º25′29.7″S, 41º04′29.0″W, 229 m, 15 November 2016 (fl, fr), C. C. Oliveira 506 (UB, UFG) GoogleMaps . São Paulo: Araraquara, estrada Abílio Corrêa, sentido Araraquara a direita após ponte do Rio Jacaré Guaçu , 21º52′40.9″S, 48º14′09.8″W, 568 m, 12 March 2017 (fl, fr), C. C. Oliveira et al. 522 (UB, UFG), C. C. Oliveira et al. 523 (UB, UFG), C. C. Oliveira et al. 524 (UB, UFG), C. C. Oliveira et al. 525 (UB, UFG) GoogleMaps .
7. Cnidoscolus paucistamineus (Pax) Pax (1931: 166) . ≡ Jatropha paucistaminea Pax (1910: 110) .— Cnidoscolus paucistamineus (Pax) Pax ex Fernández Casas (2002: 72) , comb. superfl.—Type: BRAZIL. Mato Grosso: bei Corumbá, December 1897 (fl), S. Endlicher 230 (B†, Image at F [F5398]); neotype (here designated):— BRAZIL. Mato Grosso do Sul: Corumbá, Rod. BR-262, próximo a Serra do Urucum, 22 October 1988 (fl), G. Hatschbach, M. Hatschbach & J. M. Silva 52497 (MBM!; isoneotype: U!).
Taxonomic notes: — Cnidoscolus paucistamineus was described by Pax (1931) as Jatropha paucistaminea based S. Endlicher 230 (B) from Mato Grosso state, and there photograph of it deposited in Herbarium F (Field Museum Neg. # F5398). Because the holotype was destroyed during World War II, and by lacking a physical collection or illustration of the species, it must be neotypified (see Art. 9, 9.8 ICN, Turland et al. 2018). We selected as neotype the collection G. Hatschbach, M. Hatschbach & J.M. Silva 52497 (MBM) with duplicate in U, because it corresponds with the original description of C. paucistamineus , was collected in the same region as the type collection, and it is in excellent condition. Maya-Lastra & Steinmann (2018) have already pointed out the need to neotypifing the species, but they did not do so because they had not found collections that would serve as their neotype.
Morphological characterization: —Species recognized by an arborescent habit between 4–20 m tall, stem, branches, petioles, leaves, flowers and fruits with aciculiform stinging hairs interspersed, in the case of branches, by puberulent or tomentose indumentum, leaves slightly or deeply 3–5-palmatilobed with ovate, ovate-elliptical or ovatetriangular lobes, without basal glands, stipules deltoid and deciduous, androecium with seven or eight fertile stamens in two levels, the lower ones with four and the upper with three or four units, flowers pistillate with free tepalous, fruits oblong-elipsoid with acuminate apex and seeds ellipsoid with caruncle visible on both sides.
Distribution and habitat: —Species distributed in Mato Grosso do Sul state in Brazil (Fig. 9C), where it grows in seasonally dry forests, associated or not with roadsides, on stony soils.
Preliminary Conservation Status: —Species allocated in the category Endangered, EN (B1 ab [iii, iv, v]) in view of presenting an Extent of Occurence of 2.306 km 2.
Specimens examined:— BRAZIL. Mato Grosso do Sul: Corumbá, Limestone cliffs, 06 September 1928 (fl), D. Bourk-Barrouco 8 (K); Morro do Bocaina , 19º02′08″S, 57º38′11″W, 300 m, 19 January 1999 (fl, fr), S. G. V. Borges 6 (COR); ibd., Estrada da Codrasa , 09 June 2001 (fl, fr) C. G. Elaine et al. 8 (COR); ibd., thorn scrube on limestone, Morro do Noroeste , S of Corumbá, 19º01′S, 57º39′W, 200 m, 01 October 1984 (fl), G. L. Webster et al. 25318 (MBM, UB); ib., arredores de Corumbá , 02 August 1985 (fl), F. C. Silva 801 (CEN, FUEL); ibd., Povoado do Amolar , RPPN Eliézer Batista, bifurcação da estrada principal, 28 November 2010 (fl, fr), R. Borges et al. 1028 (RB) GoogleMaps .
8. Cnidoscolus tridentifer Fern. Casas & J.M. Pizarro (2002: 56) . Type:— BRAZIL. Mato Grosso do Sul: Corumbá, Fazenda São Gonçalo, Rio Taquari , 1969 (fr), E.F. Nienstedt 113 (holotype: NY-01027279!) .
Morphological characterization: — Cnidoscolus tridentifer is an erect subshrub up to 60 cm tall, with stem, branches, petioles, leaves, flowers and fruits with aciculiform stinging hairs, stipules 1–1.5, triangular, caducous, papillose at the apex and internally, petioles with a pair of glands at the apex, leaves deeply 3 lobed or unlobed with brochidodromous venation, androecium 15 fertile stamens united in a column pubescent at base, arranged in 3 levels of 5 units each, which makes it unmistakable with the other known congeners.
Distribution and habitat: —Brazilian species distributed in the states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Goiás (Fig. 9D), the latter being a new record. It occurs in campos sujos, edges of cerradão, and clearings of seasonal dry forests.
Preliminary Conservation Status: — Cnidoscolus tridentifer has an Extent of Occurence estimated at 4.528 km 2. Thus, it is allocated in the category Endagered, EN (B1 ab [iii, v]).
Additional specimens examined:— BRAZIL. Goiás: Britânia, proximidades do Rio Araguaia , próximo à ponte de Itacaiú, 05 February 2016 (fl), G. H. Soares 840 (UFG) ; Mato Grosso: Barra do Garças , 04 October 1968 (fl), S. Fonseca & E. Onishi 1066 (UB) ; Mato Grosso do Sul: Corumbá, Fazenda Nhumirim, 03 October 1976 (fl), A. C. Allem 77 (CEN, ICN); ibd., 20 km antes da Serra da Alegria , 09. October 1976 (fl) A. C. Allem 215 (CEN); ibd., Fazenda Sant’Ana Paiaguás, 19 July 1977 (fl), A. C. Allem & G. Vieira 965 (CEN) .
9. Cnidoscolus vitifolius (Miller) Pohl (1827: 61) ≡ Jatropha vitifolia [as ‘vitifolius’] Miller (1768: Jatropha no. 5).— Jatropha vitifolia var. genuina Müller Argoviensis (1866: 1097) , nom inval. Type:—See notes below.
Jatropha vitifolia var. obtusifolia Müller Argoviensis (1866: 1097) . Type:— BRAZIL. Bahia: “Catingas ad v. n. do Rainha”, without date (fl), C.F.P. von Martius s.n. (lectotype G-00434356!, designated by Maya-Lastra & Steinmann 2018).
Cnidoscolus calcareus Fernández Casas (2004a: 172) , syn. nov. Type:— BRAZIL. Mato Grosso do Sul: Porto Murtinho, São João , arredores da aldeia indígena, encosta de morro, 09 October 2003 (fl), G. Hatschbach, M. Hatschbach & E. Barbosa 76103 (holotype: MBM- 288408!; isotype: MA-713809!).
Cnidoscolus mitis Fernández Casas (2005: 258) , syn. nov. Type:— BRAZIL. Mato Grosso: Cuiabá GoogleMaps , 15º35′S 56º05′W, km 45 da BR 354 rodovia Cuiabá–Brasília, Cerrado, 30 January 1978 (fl, fr), K. Kubitzki 78-5 (holotype: HBG-516453!) ( Fig. 8A–G View FIGURE 8 ).
Taxonomic notes: —According to Maya-Lastra & Steinmann (2018), Cnidoscolus vitifolius , described as Jatropha vitifolia Miller (1768 : Jatropha no. 5), is an invalid name, which is here also admitted, given its superficial description, not diagnostic and partly confusing and without indication of a nomenclatural type. Thus, according to the last authors, the best solution is to keep the name Jatropha vitifolia with a preserved type that corresponds to the current use, which is maintained here.
Cnidoscolus calcareus was described by Fernández Casas (2004) based on Hatschbach et al. 76103 from Mato Grosso do Sul state. At the time, the author used the absence of indumentum in the vegetative and reproductive parts as a diagnostic feature, commenting on its similarity with C. hasslerianus ( Pax 1931: 164) Pax (1910: 91) , a species from Paraguay, which differed by the lack of indumentum in the inflorescence and number of whorls in androecium, which are 19 or 20 in C. calcareus .
Fernández Casas (2005) established Cnidoscolus mitis based on Kubitzki 78–5 from Mato Grosso and mentioned the lack of indumentum as a diagnostic characteristic to determine it as new species. The author also compared its new species with C. bahianus (Üle) Pax & K. Hoffm. (1931: 164) and C. magni-gerdtii Fernández Casas (2004a: 175) , species he considered similar to C. mitis in the shape of the leaf blade and features of androecium, but differing by the fact of both have branches aculeate (vs. branches not aculeate in C. mitis ) and androecium basally glabrous (vs. densely villous).
After examining the types, protologues, and collections related to the binomials Cnidoscolus calcareus , C. mitis and C. vitifolius and also observing populations of these species in the field in different places, including in the type localities, we conclude that the absence of indumentum, used by Fernández Casas (2004, 2005) to differentiate C. calcareus and C. mitis , is not enough to differentiate them from C. vitifolius . Thus, we proposed the synonymization of C. calcareus and C. mitis under C. vitifolius .
Morphological characterization: — Cnidoscolus vitifolius can be recognized by the combination of the following set of characters: erect shrubby or shrubby habit between 1.5–4 m tall, stem, branches, petioles, leaves, flowers and fruits with or without acicular stinging hairs mixed with pubescent indumentum, petioles with a pair of glands at the apex, leaves slightly 3–5-palmatilobed or less frequently unlobed, androecium with 15–20 stamens united in a column, densely villous basaly and arranged in 3–4 levels of 5 stames each, fruits oblong-ellipsoid, shortly acuminate and slightly triangular in top view and seeds oblongoid.
Distribution and habitat: —It has a wide distribution in the Brazilian territory, being found in all states of the Midwestern region, as well as in the northeast (BA, CE, MA, PE, PI, and RN), north (PA and TO), southeast (ES, MG, SP) regions (Fig. 9D), growing in cerrados típicos, cerrados, cerrados ralos, florestas secas, matas de galeria and caatinga, on clayey or sandy-clayey soils.
Preliminary Conservation Status: —Species with conservartion Least Concern (LC) since it had an estimated Extent of Occurence in 2.657.301 km 2.
Additional specimens examined:— BRAZIL: Bahia: Abaíra, ca. 5 Km SW de Abaíra, ao longo da estrada Piatã- Abaíra, 13º16′03″S, 41º42′27″W, 840 m, 14 February 1992 (fl, fr), L. P. Queiroz 2614 (HUEFS); Campo Alegre de Lourdes, Barra ca. 23 Km NW de Campo Alegre de Lourdes, 09º30′48″S, 43º14′19″W, 516 m, 21 May 2000 (fl), L. P. Queiroz et al. 6298 (IAC); Ceará: Crateús, Serra das almas, s/d, (fl), L. W. Lima-Verde 1168 (EAC); Jati, estrada para São José do Belmonte (PB), 07º43′21.7″S, 38º58′34.5″W, 511 m, 18 February 2009 (fl, fr), J. G. Carvalho-Sobrinho et al. 1966 (UFP); Espírito Santo: Águia Branca, Rochedo, propr. Arlindo Breda, 18º56′45″S, 40º48′10″W, 400-550 m, 16 May 2007 (fl, fr), V. Demuner et al. 3905 (UFG); Goiás: Aragarças, ca. 78 Km S.E. of Aragarças, 700 m, 21 June 1966 (fl, fr), H. S. Irwin et al. s.n. (INPA); Goiânia, no Km 14 da rod. Goiânia para Inhumas, 27 December 1968 (fl), J. A. Rizzo & A. Barbosa 3109 (UFG); ibd., a margem da BR -153 de Goiânia para Brasília, 11 Km de Goiânia, 14 May 1970 (fl), J. A. Rizzo 6778 (UFG); Formoso, Formoso para Campinaçu, alto da Serra Grande, 14 November 1971 (fl), J. A. Rizzo 7186 (UFG); Campinaçu, assentamento Vale do Bijuí, Parcela, proprietária Joana Pereira, 14º01′58″S, 48º41′28″W, 561 m, 08 February 2011 (fl), B. M. T. Walter et al. 6075 (CEN); Cavalcante, Reserva Natural Serra do Tombador, estrada municipal não pavimentada Cavalcante/Minaçu, 13º40′38.4-44.2″S, 47º49′47.0-48.6″W, 799–807 m, 20 February 2013 (fl, fr), J. A. Lombardi et al. 9920 (HRCB); Nova Roma, GO-118, Km 268 à direita, estrada de terra para Nova Roma, chegando no povoado Abobral, 13º28′20″S, 47º07′52″W, 428 m, 01 November 2014 (fl, fr), L. S. Inocencio et al. 201 (UFG). Maranhão: Barra do Corda, 10 Km E of Barra do Corda on road to Presidente Dutra, 05º24′S, 45º10′W, 10 October 1980 (fl), D. C. Daly et al. D553 (INPA). Mato Grosso: Barão de Melgaço, RPPN SESC Pantanal, entre a margem do Rio Cuiabá e Posto Espírito Santo, 16º35′19″S, 56º16′50″W, 130 m, 30 May 2015 (fl), G. Martinelli et al. 18711 (CEN); Barra do Garças, pé da serra, 04 October 1968 (fl), S. G. Fonseca & E. Onishi 1098 (UB); Chapada dos Guimarães, road behind Veu da Noiva, 720 m, 18 October 1973 (fl), G. T. Prance et al. 19169 (INPA); ibd., 16 September 1979 (fl), A. M. Christenson et al. 1175 (CEN); ibd., Fazenda Alto da Serra, 26 August 1989 (fl, fr), M. Silveira 148 (UFG); Cuiabá, entroncamento das rodovias, Cuiabá, Santarém e Porto Velho, arredores do aeroporto, 04 February 1979 (fl), K. G. Silva & A. Pinheiro 4443 (UB); Nova Brasilândia, estrada entre Nova Brasilândia e Chapada dos Guimarães, ca. 4 Km de Nova Brasilândia, 14º58′S, 55º00′W, 06 October 1997 (fl), V. C. Souza et al. 20035 (UFMT); ibd., estrada entre Riolândia (Frieira) e Marzagão, ca. 25 Km NNW (em linha reta) de Nova Brasilândia. 14º45′S, 55º04′W, 07 October 1997 (fl), V. C. Souza et al. 20169 (UFMT), 20197 (UFMT); ibd., ca. 10 Km (em linha reta) de Nova Brasilândia, 14º56′S, 55º01′W, 12 October 1997 (fl), V. C. Souza et al. 20803 (UFMT); Rosário Oeste, ca. 75 Km de Rosário Oeste, estrada entre Riolândia (Frieira) e Marzagão 14º43′S, 55º10′W, 07 October 1997 (fl), V. C. Souza et al. 20228 (UFMT); ibd., ca. 2 Km de Marzagão em direção a Planalto da Serra, 14º39′S, 55º40′W, 07 October 1997 (fl), V. C. Souza et al. 20252 (UFMT); ibd., estrada entre Marzagão e Cuiabá, ca. 12 Km SE (em linha reta) de Marzagão, Fazenda Santa Barbara, 14º43′S, 55º37′W, 11 October 1997 (fl), V. C. Souza et al. 20747 (UFMT); Santo Antônio do Leverger, 04 March 1997 (fl, fr) M. C. M. Amorozo 357 (HRCB); São Félix do Araguaia, estrada São Félix do Araguaia-Alto Boa Vista, ca. 29 Km de São Félix do Araguaia, 11º36′38.3″S, 50º53′19.0″W, 190 m, 14 March 1997 (fl), V. C. Souza et al. 14113 (UFMT); Poconé, centro da Cordilheira Pirizal, Pantanal de Poconé, 18 February 2001 (fl), S. C. Costa 123 (UFMT); Porto Estrela, Salobra Grande Km 78 da MT-343 sentido Cáceres-Barra do Bugres, 10 January 2005 (fl, fr), J. C. Arruda 10 (HRCB). Mato Grosso do Sul: Corumbá, 20 December 1902 (fl) A. Robert 756 (BM, K); ibd., 21 October 1953 (fl), E. Pereira et al. M. 427 (RB); ib., bairro Aeroporto, rua Alan Kardek, morro defronte ao aeroporto, 19º01′20″S, 57º39′55″W, 220 m, 25 January 2001 (fl) M. Groppo Júnior et al. 515 (K, SP, SPF); Coxim, Serra Alegria, 09.X.1976 (fl, fr), A. Allem 214 (CEN); Ladário, estrada da Codrasa, 24 March 1995 (fl) I. M. Bortoloto s.n (COR 3745); Porto Esperança, a 70 Km de Corumbá, 29 October 1993 (fl), V. L. G. Klein 2126 (UFG). Minas Gerais: Jaíba, 30 April 1974 (fl), M. B. Ferreira & G. M. Magalhães 1911 (PAMG); ibd., 04 September 1974 (fl), M. B. Ferreira & G. M. Magalhães 1898 (PAMG); ibd., Fazenda Brasnica, 27 November 2003 (fl) I. R. Andrade sn (BHZB 4205). Pernambuco: Serra Talhada, entre Serra Talhada e Petrolina, próximo à rodovia, 17 April 1971 (fl) E. P. Heringer et al. 55 (UB). Piauí: Oeiras, Exu, próx. à igreja, 190 m, s.d. (fl, fr) F. C. S. Oliveira et al. 82 (UB); Rio Grande do Norte: Mossoró, distrito de Alagoinha, Fazenda Rafael Fernandes, 05º03′07″S, 37º23′45″W, 04 January 2007 (fl, fr) M. L. Silva & A. R. O. Ribeiro 195 (EAC, UB). Tocantins: Arraias, Fazenda Monte Alegre, beira de estrada Arraias– Paranã, 12º45′58″S, 47º16′23″W, 10 October 2013 (fl, fr), A. C. Soares et al. 65 (HEPH); Aurora do Tocantins, Balneário Douradas, 22 April 2007 (fl), A. L. F. Chaves sn (HTO 9537); Palmeirópolis, estrada Palmeirópolis–Fazenda do Sr. Anderson, cerca de 18 km, 12º57′17″S, 48º12′22″W, 430 m, 14 July 2007 (fl) G. Pereira-Silva et al. 12023 (CEN); Presidente Kennedy, Road from highway BR-153 to Itaporã, 12 km west of village of Presidente Kennedy, Fazenda Primavera along Ribeirão Feinho, 03º25′S, 48º37′W, 400-500 m, 01 February 1980 (fl) T. Plowman et al. 8260 (INPA).
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