Eriauchenius, O. P. CAMBRIDGE, 1881, O. P. CAMBRIDGE, 1881

Wood, Hannah, 2008, A revision of the assassin spiders of the Eriauchenius gracilicollis group, a clade of spiders endemic to Madagascar (Araneae: Archaeidae), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 152 (2), pp. 255-296: 261-280

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2007.00359.x

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/717387A3-FFFA-1074-FF3B-FAB3FDB38114

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Eriauchenius
status

 

GENUS ERIAUCHENIUS O. P. CAMBRIDGE, 1881  

Eriauchenius O. P. Cambridge, 1881   : pp. 767, based on Eriauchenis workmani O. P. Cambridge. Simon, 1895   : pp. 935. Wunderlich, 2004: 778, 791. Platnick, 2006.

Type species: E. workmani O. P. Cambridge, 1881   .

Diagnosis: Distinguished from Afrarchaea ( Forster & Platnick, 1984)   by the presence of a longer, more slender ‘neck’ and from Austrarchaea ( Forster & Platnick, 1984)   by the bursa lacking receptacula, and by the embolus being short and blunt rather than long and wiry. Distinguished from fossil genera by having stridulatory ridges on the distal half of the chelicerae, by lacking proventral stridulating picks on the palp femur, by having a short petiole, by lacking furrows in the abdomen, and by having a long ‘neck’ ( Wunderlich, 2004).

Distribution: South Africa and Madagascar.

GRACILICOLLIS GROUP

Diagnosis: Distinguished from other Eriauchenius O. P. Cambridge, 1881   by the presence of six protuberances on the cephalic area and the presence of an apophysis on the male palp patella.

Description: Total length 1.50–2.87. Carapace reddish brown with many white setae on small protrusions, organized in branching rows ( Fig. 5D View Figure 5 ); tubercle seta bases on posterior of carapace modified into large points, possibly for stridulation ( Figs 5A View Figure 5 , 6D View Figure 6 , 7C View Figure 7 ); with pars cephalica extremely elongated forming ‘head’ (distal portion of elongation) and ‘neck’ (constricted portion of elongation), with CH /CL ratio of 1.38–3.13; with a pair of anterior, posterior and lateral pronounced-to-rudimentary protrusions on apex of ‘head’ (total of six), each with a small, thickened seta ( Fig. 6C View Figure 6 ); neck with fissure on anterior side running from chelicerae bases to labrum ( Fig. 6B View Figure 6 ). AME on a bulge with a point or rounded at apex ( Fig. 8A, C View Figure 8 ). AME diameter 0.078–0.11; ratio of AME to all other subequal eyes 1.4–3.3; AME separation 4.7–8.0 ¥ AME diameter; PME separation 3.0–5.9 ¥ AME diameter; AME– PME separation 0.63–1.2 ¥ AME diameter; AME– LE separation 0.79–1.4 ¥ AME diameter; MOQ wider in front than behind or than long; lateral eyes contiguous. Short spine close to PME and LE ( Fig. 8C View Figure 8 ). Sternum reddish brown and longer than wide, hollowed out around coxae ( Fig. 8D View Figure 8 ); white setae with tuberculate bases; with expanded tubercle on posterior part of sternum, close to 4th coxae ( Fig. 9F View Figure 9 ). Sclerite in between coxa and carapace ( Fig. 7C View Figure 7 ). Endites converging ( Figs 6A View Figure 6 , 8B View Figure 8 ); serrula strongly pointed ( Fig. 9C View Figure 9 ); labrum with two lateral projections on dorsal surface ( Fig. 6A View Figure 6 ). Small round chilum sclerite next to each cheliceral base; one triangular sclerite in between and posteriad ( Fig. 7A View Figure 7 ). ChL/ CH ratio 0.96– 1.18; chelicerae with small anterior protrusion and downward-pointing thickened seta, ChS/ChL ratio 0.13–0.38; with stridulatory ridge on lateral side ( Figs 6E View Figure 6 , 9E View Figure 9 ). The structure used in conjuction with the cheliceral stridulatory file appears to be a group of modified hairs on the prolateral side of the palp ( Forster & Platnick, 1984; Lotz, 2003; pers. observ.) as well as sclerotized structures on the male palpal bulb. Peg teeth in three rows; anterior row with two peg teeth and posterior row of one, both sitting opposite fang tip, median row of approximately 20–42, strongest distally and gradually grading to normal setae ( Figs 8A View Figure 8 , 9A, B View Figure 9 ). Teeth on retromargin 1–6, may have different numbers of teeth per chelicera on same individual. Abdomen rounded ( Figs 1B, D–F View Figure 1 , 2A, B, D–F View Figure 2 , 3A–D View Figure 3 ) or concave to flat ( Figs 1C View Figure 1 , 2C View Figure 2 ) in the posterior; containing numerous small, round, pale indentations throughout; covered in white, thick setae, occasionally interspersed with black, thin setae; epigynum and booklung covers flat, sclerotized plates ( Fig. 7B View Figure 7 ); abdominal petiole with ridges ( Fig. 5B View Figure 5 ). Spinnerets surrounded by ring; colulus present ( Figs 10A–D View Figure 10 , 11A–D View Figure 11 ). Anterior lateral spinneret ( ALS) spinning field divided, with the median side with one large major ampullate gland ( MAP) spigot and posterior nubbin (N) and the lateral side with approximately 15 smaller piriform gland ( PI) (fewer in male) spigots ( Figs 10B View Figure 10 , 11B View Figure 11 ). Posterior median spinneret ( PMS) of female with one large median minor ampullate gland spigot (mAP), three lateral medium-sized aciniform gland ( AC) spigots, and a posterior cylindrical gland ( CY) spigot. The PMS also has a peculiar branched structure on the anterior margin, probably a seta, and a large nubbin (N) between the CY and mAP spigots. The male PMS is the same except in lacking the CY and having only two AC ( Figs 10C View Figure 10 , 11C View Figure 11 ). Posterior lateral spinnerets ( PLS) with a middle row of four AC spigots; in females only, this row is flanked on each side by two larger CY spigots ( Figs 10D View Figure 10 , 11D View Figure 11 ). Posterior respiratory system with two spiracular openings ( Fig. 5C View Figure 5 ). Legs reddish to light brown, covered sparsely with setae; ratio 1-2-4-3; metatarsus III and IV with ventral cluster of modified hairs; femur IV distinctly curved ( Fig. 7D View Figure 7 ); femur I length 1.05–2.03 ¥ CH. Female palp with single claw ( Fig. 12D View Figure 12 ). Male palp with apophysis on patella (PA) either on retrolateral distal end ( Fig. 12B View Figure 12 ) or on retrolateral basal end ( Fig. 12A View Figure 12 ); palpal bulb with dorsal sclerotized piece ( BDS), with lateral sclerite ( BLS), and with a proapical process ( BPAP) that arises from the bulb, all pieces are modified in various shapes; embolus with or without bifurcation, from dark to light, thin to thick. BLS attached internally to the embolus and can be seen when the bulb is expanded ( Fig. 13A View Figure 13 ); attachment also visible through the translucent, retrolateral side of bulb in some species ( Fig. 13B–D View Figure 13 ). Female genitalic bursa with lateral poreplates with pores distributed in continuous or discontinuous groups on each side, with or without a sclerotized structure dividing bursa ( Figs 14–17 View Figure 14 View Figure 15 View Figure 16 View Figure 17 ); with a dorsal sclerotized plate ( FSGP) that is either a small piece ( Figs 15D View Figure 15 , 17E View Figure 17 ) or a more elaborate piece with wide, flat wing-like projection (‘wings’) extending to each lateral side that is modified into various shapes ( Figs 14A–F View Figure 14 , 15A–C, E View Figure 15 , 16A–E View Figure 16 , 17A–D, F View Figure 17 ). Legendre (1967) suggested that the male palp might come into contact with the FSGP during copulation and that the FSGP may offer tactile information to the male or female. Alternatively, the FSGP may serve as an anchor for muscle attachment ( Griswold et al., 2005).

Composition: Fourteen species.

Distribution: Madagascar.

ERIAUCHENIUS AMBRE   SP. NOV.

( FIGS 1C View Figure 1 , 21 View Figure 21 , 31 View Figure 31 )

Types: Male holotype and female paratype taken in forest at approximately 1000 m elevation, Parc National Montagne d’Ambre , 2.79 km NE of park entrance, Antsiranana Province, Madagascar, 21– 30.xi.1993, collected by J. Coddington, C. Griswold, N. Scharff, S. Larcher, and R   . Andriamasimanana, deposited in CAS. CASENT 9012012  

Etymology: The name is a noun in apposition from the type locality, Montagne d’Ambre in Madagascar.

Diagnosis: Distinguished from all Eriauchenius   except E. jeanneli   by having an abdomen that is flat across the back or invaginated ( Fig. 1C View Figure 1 ), by having BPAP of the male palp a concave triangular shape ( Fig. 21A–C View Figure 21 ), and by the FSGP having no posterior elongations, with two lateral anterior points (as in Fig. 14E View Figure 14 ). Distinguished from E. jeanneli   by having the anterior piece of E bifurcation being straight and narrow and jutting out past BPAP in the retrolateral direction ( Fig. 21A, B, D View Figure 21 ).

Male (holotype): Total length 1.77. Carapace 0.83 long, 0.57 wide, 1.2 high. Abdomen flat across the back, 0.9 long, 0.83 wide, 1.17 high. Forehead 0.73 long. Bumps on ‘head’ rudimentary. ‘Head’ elongated to the posterior. AME on a bulge with a point at apex. AME diameter 0.099; ratio of AME to all other subequal eyes 2.8; AME separation 5.0 ¥ AME diameter; PME separation 3.1 ¥ AME diameter; AME– PME separation 0.86 ¥ AME diameter; AME– LE separation 0.86 ¥ AME diameter. Brown spine in between and slightly posterior to PME and LE. Chelicerae 1.37 long, with ChS 0.3; median row of 24 peg teeth; two teeth on each chelicera. Femur I 1.97 long. Legs light brown; femora 1–4 darkened proximally and distally; tibiae and tarsi speckled with dark bands and spots. PA retrobasal. Palp bulb with BDS a thick dark piece that curves anteriorad; BLS a thin ridge; BPAP a concave triangular shape with three strong processes, one at each corner; E dark, with bifurcation, the anterior piece of bifurcation straight and narrow and the posterior piece flat and curled ( Fig. 21A–D View Figure 21 ).

Variation (n = 6): Total length 1.67–1.8; CH /CL ratio 1.44–1.76; FL/ CH ratio 1.55–1.64. Number of teeth 1–2; median row with 22–29 peg teeth.

Female (paratype): As male, except the following. Total length 1.97. Carapace 0.63 wide, 1.37 high. Abdomen 1.07 long, 0.93 wide, 1.47 high. F 0.83. AME separation 5.4 ¥ AME diameter; PME separation 3.4 ¥ AME diameter; AME– LE separation 1.1 ¥ AME diameter. Chelicerae 1.53 long, with ChS 0.33; median row of 25 peg teeth; having one tooth on each chelicera. Femur I 2.13 long. Genitalic bursa divided with two main groups of pores on each side; FSGP with two strong points arising from either side at the anterior tip, having ‘wings’, and lacking any posterior elongation (as in Fig. 14E View Figure 14 ).

Variation (n = 6): Total length 1.93–2.1; CH /CL ratio 1.59–1.86; FL/ CH ratio 1.42–1.58. Number of teeth 1–2, may have different numbers of teeth per chelicera on same individual; median row has 25–30 peg teeth.

Natural history: Specimens were collected in montane rainforest.

Distribution: Known only from Montagne d’Ambre, Madagascar ( Fig. 31 View Figure 31 ).

Material examined: MADAGASCAR: Antsiranana: All Parc National Montagne d’Ambre: (J. Coddington, C. Griswold, N.Scharff, S. Larcher, and R. Andriamasimanana, CAS, ZMUC and USNM) 2.79 km NE of park entrance, 12°32′S, 49°10′E, elev. 1000 m, 21–30.xi.1993, 10♂ 7♀ CASENT 9012010, 9012012 (holotype), 9012011; (L. J. Boutin, CAS) 3.6 km 235° SW Joffreville , 12°32′4″S, 49°10′46″E, elev. 925 m, 20–26.i.2001, 1♂ 1♀ CASENT 9003367 GoogleMaps   .

ERIAUCHENIUS ANABOHAZO   SP. NOV.

( FIGS 1D View Figure 1 , 13B View Figure 13 , 14A View Figure 14 , 16A, B View Figure 16 , 28 View Figure 28 , 31 View Figure 31 )

Types: Male holotype and female paratype taken by beating low vegetation in tropical dry forest at 120 m elevation, Forêt d’Anabohazo , 21.6 km WSW of Maromandia, Antsiranana Province, Madagascar, 11–16.iii.2001, collected by the Fisher / Griswold Arthropod Survey team, deposited in CAS. CASENT 9018930  

Etymology: Named from the Anabohazo forest in Madagascar; a noun in apposition.

Diagnosis: Distinguished from all Eriauchenius   by having embolus very thick and dark, with only a wide, shallow bifurcation at the tip, with the opening in between the bifurcation ( Figs 13B View Figure 13 , 28A– D View Figure 28 ); by having a large distinct, prominent process arising from the base of the prolateral side and two smaller processes on the retrolateral side of BPAP, and by having BDS of the palp very elongated, but not splayed outward as in E. griswoldi   sp. nov. ( Fig. 28A–C View Figure 28 ). The FSGP has a posterior elongation that is narrow and not bifurcated ( Figs 14A View Figure 14 , 16A, B View Figure 16 ).

Male (holotype): Total length 1.7. Carapace 0.77 long, 0.67 wide, 1.4 high. Abdomen 0.93 long, 0.77 wide, 1.03 high. F 0.77 long. AME on a bulge with a small point at apex. AME diameter 0.11; ratio of AME to all other subequal eyes 2.0; AME separation 5.1 ¥ AME diameter; PME separation 3.4 ¥ AME diameter; AME– PME separation 0.77 ¥ AME diameter; AME– LE separation 1.0 ¥ AME diameter. Short brown spine in between and posterior PME and LE. Chelicerae 1.63 long, with ChS 0.43; median row of peg teeth 28; three teeth on each chelicera. Femur I 2.03 long. Legs off-white; femora 1–4 darkened proximally and distally; tibiae and tarsi speckled with dark bands and spots. PA retrobasal. Palpal bulb with BDS modified into an elongate, wide dark piece that lays across the ventral face of the palp, with a small bifurcation at the end with both pieces curling back ( Fig. 28B, C View Figure 28 ); BLS very small and hardly visible on ventral face of bulb, extending deep into the retrolateral, translucent side of the bulb ( Fig. 13B View Figure 13 ); BPAP three-pronged, one process larger and pointing retrolaterally and two pointing prolaterally ( Fig. 28A–C View Figure 28 ); embolus dark and thick and widely bifurcating at tip, with the opening in between the bifurcations ( Fig. 28D View Figure 28 ).

Variation (n = 3): Total length 1.63–1.77; ratio of carapace height/length 1.75–1.91; ratio of femur I length/ carapace height 1.29–1.45. The median row with 26–28 peg teeth.

Female (paratype): As male, except the following. Total length 2.03. Carapace 0.93 long, 0.73 wide, 1.7 high. Abdomen 1.1 long, 1.0 wide, 1.33 high. F 0.93 long. AME separation 5.5 ¥ AME diameter; PME separation 3.9 ¥ AME diameter; AME– PME separation 0.91 ¥ AME diameter; AME– LE separation 1.2 ¥ AME diameter. Chelicerae 1.83 long, with ChS 0.45; median row of 26 peg teeth. Femur I 2.1 long. Genitalic bursa divided with two groups of pores on each side ( Figs 14A View Figure 14 , 16A View Figure 16 ). FSGP with one point arising from each side of the anterior, and a long, blunt, narrow piece extending posteriad; with ‘wings’ ( Figs 14A View Figure 14 , 16A, B View Figure 16 ).

Variation (n = 6): Total length 2.03–2.23; CH /CL ratio 1.71–1.85; FL/ CH ratio 1.2–1.31. Number of teeth, 3–4, may have different numbers of teeth per chelicera on same individual; median row has 25–27 peg teeth. Posterior elongation on FSGP can vary in width.

Natural history: Specimens were collected in tropical dry forest by beating low vegetation.

Distribution: North-western Madagascar ( Fig. 31 View Figure 31 ).

Material examined: MADAGASCAR: Antsiranana: (Fisher / Griswold Arthropod survey team and J. J. Rafanomezantsoa, CAS) Forêt d’Anabohazo : 21.6 km 247° WSW Maromandia, elev. 120 m, 14°18′32″S, 47°54′52″E, 11–16.iii.2001, 3♂ 6♀ CASENT 9007493, 9018930 (holotype) and 9002611. Ankaranana: ( V and B. Roth) English Camp: 12°54′34″S, 49°6′36″E, 20–26.viii.1992, 2♀ CASENT 9012016 GoogleMaps   .

ERIAUCHENIUS   BORIMONTSINA   SP. NOV.

( FIGS 1E View Figure 1 , 18D View Figure 18 , 31 View Figure 31 )

Types: Female holotype taken at 700 m elevation, Marojejy Reserve , 8.4 km NNW of Manantenina, Antsiranana province, Madagascar, 10–16.xi.1993, collected by C. Griswold, J. Coddington, N. Scharff, S. Larcher, and R   . Andriamasimanana, deposited in CAS. CASENT 9012343   .

Etymology: Named by Daniela Andriamalala, ‘shivering bird’ in Malagasy; a noun in apposition.

Diagnosis: Distinguished from all Eriauchenius   except E. legendrei   and E. vadoni   by the female genitalia having pores on each side of the bursa that are one continuous group, and having a small, reduced FSGP that lacks ‘wings’ (as in Fig. 15D View Figure 15 ). Distinguished from all Eriauchenius   by having six teeth. Distinguished from E. legendrei   and E. vadoni   by having the mound above the AME with a point, and having the six bumps on the ‘head’ very reduced; the ‘head’ is rounded as in E. legendrei   , and not posteriorly elongated like E. vadoni   ; also distinguished by the basal constriction in the chelicerae that is followed distally by a bulge ( Figs 1E View Figure 1 , 18D View Figure 18 ).

Female (holotype): Total length 2.27. Carapace 0.97 long, 0.87 wide, 2.03 high. Abdomen 1.17 long, 1.1 wide, 1.5 high. F 1.0 long. Protrusions on ‘head’ rudimentary ( Fig. 18D View Figure 18 ). AME on a bulge with a small point at apex ( Fig. 18D View Figure 18 ). AME diameter 0.099; ratio of AME to all other subequal eyes 1.8; AME separation 8.0 ¥ AME diameter; PME separation 5.9 ¥ AME diameter; AME– PME separation 1.1 ¥ AME diameter; AME– LE separation 1.7 ¥ AME diameter. Short brown spine between and slightly posterior to PME and LE ( Fig. 18D View Figure 18 ). Chelicerae 2.1 long, with ChS of 0.27 and resting at apex of large bulge at base of chelicerae ( Figs 1E View Figure 1 , 18D View Figure 18 ); median row of peg teeth 29; six true teeth per chelicera. Femur I 2.2 long. Femora I–IV darkened proximally and distally; tibiae with dark proximal and distal bands. Genitalic bursa with continuous large group of pores on either side; FSGP a very reduced, small plate, lacking ‘wings’ (as in Fig. 15D View Figure 15 ).

Variation (n = 2): Total length 2.27–2.4; CH /CL ratio 2.10–2.14; FL/ CH ratio 1.08–1.12. Median row with 29–34 peg teeth.

Male: Unknown.

Natural history: Specimens were collected in rainforest by general night collecting.

Distribution: North-eastern Madagascar ( Fig. 31 View Figure 31 ).

Material examined: MADAGASCAR: Toamasina: (D. Andriamalala and D. Silva, CAS) Parc National Masoala: Ambohitsitondroina Mt., Ambanizana , 15°34′9.9″S, 50°00′12.3″E, elev. 600–650 m, 28.ii.2003, 1♀ CASENT 9015520 GoogleMaps   . Antsiranana: (C. Griswold, J. Coddington, N. Scharff, S. Larcher, and R. Andriamasimanana, CAS) Marojejy Reserve : 8.4 km NNW Manantenina, 14°26′S, 49°45′E, elev. 700 m, 10–16.xi.1993, 1♀ CASENT 9012343 (holotype) GoogleMaps   .

ERIAUCHENIUS GRACILICOLLIS ( MILLOT, 1948)  

( FIGS 1F View Figure 1 , 14B View Figure 14 , 16E View Figure 16 , 25 View Figure 25 , 32 View Figure 32 , 35 View Figure 35 , 38 View Figure 38 )

Archaea gracilicollis Millot, 1948: 7–8   . Legendre, 1970: 13–17. Forster & Platnick, 1984: 21.

E. gracilicollis: Wunderlich, 2004: 794   . Platnick, 2006.

Types: Archaea gracilicollis Millot, 1948   (type female from Madagascar, Nossi-Bé, Lokoubé, Forêt de Lokobe , collected by J. Millot, deposited in MNHN, examined)   .

Diagnosis: Distinguished from all other Eriauchenius   , except E. lavatenda   sp. nov., by having the longest, most slender neck, with a CH /CL ratio of greater than 2.6 ( Fig. 1F View Figure 1 ); from all Eriauchenius   by having BDS of the male palp two-pronged, with a wide and shallow divergence between the two processes, which point ventrad ( Fig. 25B–D View Figure 25 ); by lacking the spine in between the LE and the PME; by the female genitalic bursa having one continuous group of pores on each side and the FSGP lacking a circular-shaped mound ( Figs 14B View Figure 14 , 16E View Figure 16 ), unlike E. lavatenda   sp. nov.

Male: (Reserve Speciale de Bemarivo, CASENT 9017959) Total length 2.2. Carapace 1.0 long, 0.6 wide, 2.97 high. Abdomen 1.23 long, 0.8 wide, 1.0 high. F 1.0. Most anterior pair of protrusions on ‘head’ forming a ridge ( Fig. 1F View Figure 1 ). AME on a bulge with a point at apex. AME diameter 0.092; ratio of AME to all other subequal eyes 3.3; AME separation 6.5 ¥ AME diameter; PME separation 4.6 ¥ AME diameter; AME–PME separation 1.1 ¥ AME diameter; AME–LE separation 1.2 ¥ AME diameter. Lacking brown spine that occurs between PME and LE. Chelicerae 2.9 long, with ChS 1.1; median row of peg teeth 39; three teeth on each chelicera. Femur I 3.7 long. Legs uniform light brown except femur I–IV darkened distally, patella I–IV darkened and tibia I–IV darkened proximally. PA retrobasal. BDS of palp two-pronged, with a wide and shallow divergence between the two processes, which point ventrad ( Fig. 25B–D View Figure 25 ); BLS modified into flat, sclerotized plate ( Fig. 25B, D View Figure 25 ); BPAP wide and elongated, pointing distally, blunt at end ( Fig. 25B View Figure 25 ); embolus dark and thin, with a bifurcation deep within palp ( Fig. 25B, D View Figure 25 ); palpal bulb with a wide groove on prolateral side of base of BPAP ( Fig. 25B View Figure 25 ).

Variation (n = 6): Total length 2.1–2.4; CH /CL ratio 2.79–3.07; FL/ CH ratio 1.19–1.30. Median row with 35–40 peg teeth.

Female: (Reserve Speciale de Bemarivo, CASENT 9017959): As male, except the following. Total length 2.5. Carapace 0.67 wide, 3.0 high. Abdomen 1.46 long, 0.93 wide, 1.2 high. AME diameter 0.092; ratio of AME to all other subequal eyes 2.6; AME separation 6.9 ¥ AME diameter; PME separation 5.2 ¥ AME diameter; AME–PME separation 1.2 ¥ AME diameter; AME–LE separation 1.4 ¥ AME diameter. Chelicerae 2.88 long, with ChS 0.93; median row of 38 peg teeth. Femur I 3.67 long. Genitalic bursa divided in half by a depression, with continuous large group of pores ( Figs 14B View Figure 14 , 16E View Figure 16 ). FSGP having ‘wings’; FSGP with no posterior elongations, with several folds and ridges in the centre, with two points going laterad ( Figs 14B View Figure 14 , 16E View Figure 16 ).

Variation (n = 6): Total length 2.43–2.5; CH /CL ratio 2.67–3.13; FL/ CH ratio 1.17–1.31. Number of teeth 3–4, may have different numbers of teeth per chelicera on same individual; median row with 32–42 peg teeth.

Natural history: Specimens were collected in tropical dry forest and rainforest by beating low vegetation and general night and day collecting.

Distribution: Northern to central Western Madagascar ( Fig. 32 View Figure 32 ).

Material examined: MADAGASCAR: Mahajanga: (all Fisher / Griswold Arthropod survey team, CAS) Parc National Tsingy de Bemaraha: 10.6 km ESE 123° Antsalova, elev. 150 m, 19°42′34″S, 44°43′5″E, 16–20.xi.2001, 4♂ 17♀ CASENT 9009300, 9009386, and 9009758; Réserve Spéciale de Bemarivo : 23.8 km 223° SW Besalampy, elev. 30 m, 16°55′30″S, 44°22′06″E, 19–23.xi.2002, 5♂ 15♀ CASENT 9017959 and 9017990; Parc National de Namoroka : 16.9 km 317° NW Vilanandro, elev. 100 m, 16°24′24″S, 45°18′36″E, 12–16.xi.2002, 5♂ 9♀ CASENT 9017427 and 9017949 GoogleMaps   . Antsiranana: (J. Millot, MNHN) Nossi-Bé, Lokoubé, Forêt de Lokobe, 1♀ (holotype). All Nosy Be, Réserve Naturelle Intégrale de Lokobe : ( V and B. Roth, CAS) 13°24′58.8″S, 48°18′26.5″E, 11–14.viii.1992, 1♂ 1♀ CASENT 9010078; (D. Andriamalala, C. Griswold, H. Ratsirarson, D. Silva, CAS) 4.95 km 125° ESE Hellville, elev. 0–200 m, 13°24′56″S, 48°18′27″E, 15.ii.2003, 4♀ CASENT 9018900 and 9005364; (J. J. Rafanomezantsoa, CAS) 6.3 km 112° ESE Hellville, elev. 30 m, 13°25′10″S, 48°19′52″E, 19–24.iii.2001, 2♂ 3♀ CASENT 9003300 GoogleMaps   .

ERIAUCHENIUS GRISWOLDI   SP. NOV.

( FIGS 2A View Figure 2 , 13C View Figure 13 , 14C View Figure 14 , 16C, D View Figure 16 , 29 View Figure 29 , 32 View Figure 32 )

Types: Male holotype and female paratype taken by beating vegetation and puffing in tropical dry forest at 100 m elevation, Forêt de Kirindy , 15.5 km 64° ENE of Marofandilia, Toliara province, Madagascar, 28.xi.-3.xii.2001, collected by the Fisher/Griswold Arthropod Survey team, deposited in CAS. CASENT 9018929  

Etymology: Named in honour of Dr Charles Griswold, who provided insight into the study of Arachnology, in the morphology and natural history of this group, and in the natural history of Madagascar. Dr Griswold has spent many years collecting arachnids in Madagascar.

Diagnosis: Distinguished from all Eriauchenius   by having the BDS of the male palps greatly elongated and that splays outward in the prolateral direction; and by having BPAP of the male palp flat and twopronged at the base, with a constriction, with only one process on the prolateral side ( Fig. 29A–D View Figure 29 ). Distinguished from all Eriauchenius   except E. tsingyensis   by the FSGP having two long, narrow posterior elongations and having bursa with discontinuous group of pores ( Figs 14C View Figure 14 , 16C, D View Figure 16 ). Distinguished from E. tsingyensis   by having a point at the apex of the AME tubercle and by the FSGP generally being narrower with the ‘wings’ larger.

Male (holotype): Total length 1.77. Carapace 0.73 long, 0.57 wide, 1.33 high. Abdomen 1.03 long, 1.0 wide, 1.13 high. F 0.7. Protusions on ‘head’ rudimentary. AME on a bulge with a point at apex. AME diameter 0.085; ratio of AME to all other subequal eyes 1.5; AME separation 6.3 ¥ AME diameter; PME separation 4.8 ¥ AME diameter; AME–PME separation 0.83 ¥ AME diameter; AME–LE separation 1.0 ¥ AME diameter. Brown spine in between and slightly posterior to PME and LE. Chelicerae 1.43 long, with ChS 0.33; median row of 24 peg teeth; two teeth per chelicera. Femur I 1.67 long. Legs reddish brown; femora 1–4 darkened proximally and distally; tibiae with dark proximal, distal and median bands. PA retrobasal. Palp bulb with BDS thick, dark, and greatly elongated with a bifurcation at the end with the two pieces curling back and the prolateral side elongated and splaying outward ( Fig. 29B View Figure 29 ); BLS small and hardly visible on face of bulb, hidden by BDS, but visible through and extending deep into the retrolateral, translucent side of the bulb ( Fig. 13C View Figure 13 ); BPAP flat and two-pronged at base, with constriction, with only one process on the prolateral side ( Fig. 29A, B View Figure 29 ); embolus dark, and thick with bifurcation ( Fig. 29B, D View Figure 29 ).

Variation (n = 6): Total length 1.73–1.9; CH /CL ratio 1.82–2.0; FL/ CH ratio 1.16–1.28. Number of teeth 2–3, may have different numbers of teeth per chelicera on same individual; median row with 24–27 peg teeth.

Female (paratype): As male, except the following. Total length 2.13. Carapace 0.77 long 0.67 wide, 1.4 high. Abdomen 1.3 long, 1.17 wide, 1.0 high. F 0.73. AME diameter 0.099; ratio of AME to all other subequal eyes 1.75; AME separation 6.1 ¥ AME diameter; PME separation 4.9 ¥ AME diameter; AME–PME separation 0.63 ¥ AME diameter; AME–LE separation 1.1 ¥ AME diameter. Chelicerae 1.6 long, with ChS 0.4; median row of 22 peg teeth; having three teeth on each chelicera. Femur I 1.8 long. Genitalic bursa with two main groups of pores of equal size, that are hardly separated, on each lateral side; FSGP having ‘wings’, with anterior having a rounded bulb with dull points on each lateral side, followed by a constriction; FSGP with two narrow posterior elongations that curve dorsally at the tip, with a thinner lighter concavity binding the elongations together ( Figs 14C View Figure 14 , 16C, D View Figure 16 ).

Variation (n = 6): Total length 2.0–2.23; CH /CL ratio 1.83–2.23; FL/ CH ratio 1.15–1.29. Number of teeth 2–3, may have different numbers of teeth per chelicera on same individual; median row of 22–28 peg teeth. Pores on each side of bursa often looking like one continuous group.

Natural history: Specimens were collected in tropical dry forest and gallery forest by beating low vegetation, sifting litter and by general day and night collecting.

Distribution: Central Western to central Southern Madagascar ( Fig. 32 View Figure 32 ).

Material examined: MADAGASCAR: Toliara: (Fisher/ Griswold Arthropod survey team, CAS) Forêt de Kirindy , 15.5 km 64° ENE Marofandilia, elev. 100 m, 20°2′42″S, 44°39′44″E, 28.xi.-3.xii.2001, 12♂ 18♀ CASENT 9013575, 9018929 (holotype), 9013609, 900552, 900560, and 9013496 GoogleMaps   . Mahajanga: (Fisher/ Griswold Arthropod survey team, CAS) Forêt de Tsimembo , 8.7 km 336° NNW Soatana, elev. 20 m, 19°1′17″, 44°26′26″E, 21–25.xi.2001, 1♂ 5♀ CASENT 9009799   . Fianarantsoa: All Parc National d’Isalo, Sahanafa River : (B and V. Roth, CAS) 23–25.v.1992, 1♂ CASENT 9012015; (Fisher/Griswold Arthropod survey team, CAS) 29.2 km 351°N Ranohira, elev. 500 m, 22°18′48″S, 45°17′30″E, 10–13.ii.2003, 4♂ 11♀ CASENT 9018899 and 9017210 GoogleMaps   .

ERIAUCHENIUS   HALAMBOHITRA   SP. NOV.

( FIGS 2B View Figure 2 , 14D View Figure 14 , 16F View Figure 16 , 31 View Figure 31 )

Types: Female holotype taken by general collecting, during the day, in tropical dry forest at 325 m elevation, Réserve Spéciale d’Ambre, 3.5 km SW of Sakaramy, Antsiranana Province, Madagascar, 26–31.ii.2001, collected by J. J. Rafanomezantsoa, deposited in CAS. CASENT 9004603  

Etymology: ‘Mountain spider’ in Malagasy; a noun in apposition.

Diagnosis: Distinguished from all Eriauchenius   by having the FSGP being broad and rounded dorsally, having no posterior elongations, and having ‘wings’ that are very reduced ( Figs 14D View Figure 14 , 16F View Figure 16 ).

LE

Servico de Microbiologia e Imunologia

PI

Paleontological Institute

PMS

Peabody Essex Museum

AC

Amherst College, Beneski Museum of Natural History

CY

Centre des Yersinia

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

ZMUC

Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Archaeidae

Loc

Eriauchenius

Wood, Hannah 2008
2008
Loc

Eriauchenius O. P. Cambridge, 1881

Wunderlich J 2004: 778
2004
Loc

E. gracilicollis:

Wunderlich J 2004: 794
2004
Loc

Archaea gracilicollis

Forster RR & Platnick NI 1984: 21
Legendre R 1970: 13
Millot J 1948: 8
1948