Homalium albiflorum (Boivin ex Tul.) O. Hoffm., Sert. Pl. Madagasc.

Applequist, Wendy L., 2020, A revision of Homalium sect. Rhodonisa (Salicaceae) endemic to Madagascar, Candollea 75 (2), pp. 245-268: 249-251

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http://doi.org/ 10.15553/c2020v752a8

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scientific name

Homalium albiflorum (Boivin ex Tul.) O. Hoffm., Sert. Pl. Madagasc.


1. Homalium albiflorum (Boivin ex Tul.) O. Hoffm., Sert. Pl. Madagasc.   : 18. 1881.

Nisa albiflora Boivin ex Tul.   in Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. sér. 4, 8: 71–72. 1857.

Holotypus: MADAGASCAR. Reg. DIANA   [Prov. Antsir anana]: N o s s i - b é, s. d., f l., Pe r v i l l é 4 8 0 ( P [ P04679107]!; iso-: L [ L0010874 fragment] image seen)   .

= Homalium hoffmannianum Baill.   in Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris 1: 575. 1886. Holotypus: MADAGASCAR. Reg. DIANA [Prov. Antsiranana]: “ins. Sakatía prope Nosi-bé”, II.1880, fl., Hildebrandt 3357 (P [ P04679110]!; iso-: B [ B10 0153999 fragment] image seen, BM, G [ G00018422, G00018423] images seen, GOET, K [ K000231487] image seen, L [ L0010873] image seen, M [ M0109536, M0109537] images seen, WU).

Tree to 15(–20?) m tall, 15 cm dbh, or spreading shrub; bark gray or mottled green, gray and white, caducous in plaques or smooth; twigs pale to grayish (dark) brown, glabrous (sparsely to moderately short-pubescent). Leaves elliptical to broadly elliptical (ovate, very rarely narrowly elliptical to lanceolate), (4.5–)5–16.5 × (1.9–) 2.8–8 cm, relatively thin-textured and often appearing slightly wrinkled; margin crenate to crenulate (subentire, crenate-serrulate); base convex to rounded (rarely rounded-truncate, shallowly cordate); apex acuminate to cuspidate, seldom acute (partly obtuse, rounded, or emarginate); both surfaces glabrous (rarely sparsely short-pubescent especially on midrib abaxially, then sometimes also along veins adaxially), drying brown or less often green, the adaxial surface darker to blackened; secondary veins moderately prominent, tiny domatia rarely present; petiole sometimes red, (1 –)5–18(– 25) mm, glabrous (rarely sparsely to moderately short-pubescent). Inflorescences racemose (partly short-branched paniculate), (3.5–)6–10(–15) cm; peduncle (0.6–)2–5(–6) cm; rachis above peduncle moderately to densely pubescent at least in patches; flowers usually (2)3(4) per node; pedicels (0.5 –)1 – 2(– 3) mm, densely pubescent (pilose). Flowers 5(6)-merous, white to cream; sepals narrowly oblong (ovate), (0.6–)1 – 1.8(– 2.5) mm, sparsely pubescent (sparsely pilose) outside, margins minutely ciliate; sepal glands orbicular to irregularly trapezoid (broadly elliptical), (0.3–)0.5–0.6(–0.8) × (0.3–) 0.5–0.6 mm; calyx cup densely to moderately pubescent (sparsely pubescent, sparsely pilose); petals obovate, 2.6–8 mm, accrescent, sparsely to moderately short-pubescent on both surfaces (to moderately at base, rarely glabrescent), margins minutely ciliate; filaments 0.8–2.5 mm; anthers transversely elliptical, 0.2 mm high (seldom broadly elliptical, to 0.3 mm, especially in northern populations).

Vernacular names. – “Gaviala” (Randrianarivelo et al. 188); “Hazoadala” (Service Forestier 8330); “Hazoambo” (Randrianaivo et al. 1159, Service Forestier 7019).

Distribution, ecology and conservation status. – As herein circumscribed, H. albiflorum   is restricted to populations from northern and western Madagascar ( Fig. 2 View Fig ). It is still a fairly widespread species, occurring in dry forests, or occasionally in low-altitude humid or transitional forests in the north, on sand and limestone. It has been reported to occur along stream leaves. Below, northern collections with pilose indument that appear morphologically consistent with H. phillipsonii   or intermediates between that species and H. albiflorum   are noted under that species.

The publication of Nisa albiflora (TULASNE, 1857: 72)   cited the collection numbers Pervillé 480 and Boivin 2124 (said to come from “ in Macroneso adjacenti ”). The only known complete specimen has a handwritten label stating that it was collected by Pervillé under the number 480; below that on the same label is the notation “2124. Nossi-bé. Bernier comm. 1846”. A preprinted label referring to Boivin’s 1847–1852 voyage was applied in Paris with the handwritten annotation “2124”. This appears to be the origin of an incorrect citation by Tulasne of Boivin. Thus, the name was based only on the single sheet of Pervillé 480 at P (the fragmentary material obtained by L clearly not having the status of a second duplicate). The P specimen was designated as lectotype by PERRIER DE LA BÂTHIE (1940: 925) but the designation was unnecessary as it is properly regarded as a holotype.

Afzelius s.n. and Noyes et al. 1061 have abnormally narrow leaves and are from the western portion of the range, sympatric with the probably closely related H. pseudoracemosum   . They are suspected of having hybrid ancestry.

in the Homalium albiflorum   complex, approximated as necessary.

margins and to be locally frequent. It occurs in protected areas including Analamerana, Oronjia, Montagne des Français, Bemaraha, and possibly Ankarafantsika. Its conservation status is estimated as “Least Concern” [LC].

Notes. – As previously circumscribed ( SLEUMER, 1973), H. albiflorum   encompassed a great range of morphological character states and was distributed almost throughout the entire country of Madagascar ( Fig. 2 View Fig ). It is herein restricted to populations with usually elliptical to broadly elliptical leaves, well-developed peduncles, partly pubescent rachises, at least sparsely pubescent perianths, and 5(6)-merous flowers ( Fig. 1 View Fig ).

Homalium albiflorum   continues to encompass a broad range of morphological variation, possibly due in part to hybridization with or introgression from related species. In northern populations it sometimes has narrow leaves, broadly elliptical anthers, sparse pubescence on the abaxial leaf surface, and/ or occasional domatia. The specimens Afzelius s.n. and Noyes et al. 1061 are identified below as suspected hybrids involving H. pseudoracemosum   , but it is possible that they represent aberrant individuals of H. albiflorum   . A few other northern collections identified as H. albiflorum   have unusually narrow

Additional material examined. – MADAGASCAR. Reg. Boeny [Prov. Mahajanga]: env. de Majunga, 2–15 m, 28–30.XII.1924, fl., Humbert   4054 ( G, P)   ; Majunga, I.1919, fl., Perrier de la Bâthie 12350 ( P)   ; RN 7 [Ankarafantsika], canton Tsaramandroso, distr. Ambato-Boeni, 20.II.1953, fr., Réserves Naturelles 5137 ( P)   ; “Ankarafantsika?”, s.d., fl. & fr., Service Forestier 88 ( P)   ; Analabe, Soalala, 26. I.1956, fl., Service Forestier 15912 ( P)   . Reg. DIANA [Prov. Antsiranana]: Réserve Spéciale d’Analamerana, near Antafiamantsina at the mouth of the Irodo River , valley of the Ampondrakely river , 12°41'46"S 49°34'30"E, 100 m, 20.III.1994, fl., Du Puy et al. M743 ( MO, P) GoogleMaps   ; env. de Diego-Suarez, forêt d’Orangea, 1–100 m, 22. I.1960, fl., Humbert   & Cours 32287 ( P)   ; ibid. loco, s.d., fl., Humbert   & Cours 32288 ( P)   ; Orangea, 12°15'01"S 49°21'39"E, 50 m, 20. I.2003, fr., Miller et al. 10725 ( MO, G) GoogleMaps   ; 2 km W d’Ambolobozobe , forêt d’Ankonahona, 12°31'26"S 49°31'29"E, 20 m, 25. I.2007, fl. & fr., Rakotonandrasana et al. 1084 ( G, MO) GoogleMaps   ; 1 km NW d’Ambolobozobe , 12°31'S 49°31'E, 26.XII.2007, fl., Rakotonandrasana 1231 ( MO) GoogleMaps   ; Montagne des Français , forêt d’Ampitiliantsambo, 12°23'13"S 49°23'04"E, 205 m, 14. I.2005, fl., Randrianaivo et al. 1159 ( MO, P) GoogleMaps   ; Fkt. Andranomanitra, campement Antafiankovoka, Montagne des Français , 12°21'15"S 49°21'40"E, 166 m, 3.II.2005, fl., Randrianarivelo et al.188 ( G, MO) GoogleMaps   ; Mont Andrahona, 3 km NE d’Andrafiabe , 12°28'49"S 49°26'56"E, 400 m, 31. I.2005, fl., Ratovoson et al. 826 ( G, MO, P) GoogleMaps   ; 1 km NE d’Ambolobozobe , forêt d’Ampanasagna, 12°31'01"S 49°32'14"E, 50 m, 1.II.2005, fl., Ratovoson et al.834 ( MO, P) GoogleMaps   ; Sadjoavato, forêt de Sahafary, 12°36'26"S 49°26'43"E, 280 m, 8. I.2007, fl., Ratovoson et al. 1214 ( MO, P) GoogleMaps   ; Orangea, fkt. Ramena, 12°14'39"S 49°22'47"E, 12.II.2005, fr., Schatz et al. 4235 ( MO) GoogleMaps   ; forêt de Sahafary, 27.II.1953, fl., Service Forestier 7019 ( MO, P)   ; Massif d’Ampitiliantsambo, 19.II.1954, fl., Service Forestier 8330 ( P)   . Reg. Melaky [Prov. Mahajanga]: Beanka, partie S, Sarodrano , 18°03'29"S 44°30'53"E, 337 m, 4.III.2012, fr., Hanitrarivo et al. 246 ( MO) GoogleMaps   ; Tsingy du Bemaraha, 1932–1933, fl., Leandri 357 ( P)   ; calcaires de l’Antsingy, vers Ambodiriana ( E d’Antsalova ), 100–150 m, 21–27. I.1960, fl., Leandri & Saboureau 2693 ( MO, P)   ; Distr. Antsalova, 22. I.1959, fl., Réserves Naturelles 10234 ( P)   ; Bemaraha, aux env. de Tsiandro, 26.XI–3.XII.1952, fl., Service Forestier 6776 ( P [2 sheets])   ; forêt Ambereny, distr. Antsalova, 11.VIII.1954, fl., Service Forestier 10555 ( P)   . Reg. Menabe [Prov. Toliara]: Kirindy, 22°10'S 44°05'E, 17–18.IX.1994, fl., Randriamarosoa et al. 194 ( P) GoogleMaps   . Reg. SAVA [Prov. Antsiranana]: Daraina , forêt de Solaniampilana-Maroadabo, 13°05'19"S 49°35'05"E, 140 m, 11.III.2004, fl., Gautier et al. 4565 ( P) GoogleMaps   ; Vohémar, Amboay 6 km SW de Fanambana , forêt de Analalava, 13°35'35"S 49°58'38"E, 260 m, 24.XI.2000, fl., Randrianaivo et al. 607 ( G, P) GoogleMaps   ; Analafiana, Vohémar, 14.XII.1955, fl., Service Forestier 15670 ( P)   . Reg. unknown: sine loco, s.d., fl., Petit-Thouars s.n. ( P [3 sheets])   .

Possible hybrid specimens. – MADAGASCAR. Reg. Boeny [Prov. Mahajanga]: Majunga , 16. VI   .1912, fl., Afzelius s.n. ( MO [2 sheets], P). Reg. Menabe [Prov. Toliara]: 55 km NE Morondava , CFPF   forestry concession, Kirindy Forest , 20°04'S 44°40'E, 35 m, 23–24.III.1992, fl., Noyes et al. 1061 ( MO, P) GoogleMaps   .


Nanjing University


Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants


Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Leiden University branch


Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève


"Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University


Missouri Botanical Garden


Naturhistorisches Museum Wien


University of New England


Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History


Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh


Mykotektet, National Veterinary Institute














Homalium albiflorum (Boivin ex Tul.) O. Hoffm., Sert. Pl. Madagasc.

Applequist, Wendy L. 2020

Nisa albiflora Boivin ex

Tul. 1857: 71