Prunus hypoleuca (Koehne) J.Wen (Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 164: 243. 2010)., (Koehne) J. Wen (Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 164: 243. 2010).

Wen, Jun & Shi, Wenting, 2012, Revision of the Maddenia clade of Prunus (Rosaceae), PhytoKeys 11, pp. 39-59: 46-50

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Prunus hypoleuca (Koehne) J.Wen (Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 164: 243. 2010).


3. Prunus hypoleuca (Koehne) J.Wen (Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 164: 243. 2010).   Fig. 3 View Figure 3


Maddenia hypoleuca   Koehne (in C. S. Sargent, Pl. Wilson. 56: 59. 1911).


China. Hubei: western Hubei, Hsing-Shan Hsien, bush 6-20 ft, woods, 4-6000 ft, flower greenish, May 1907, fl, E.H.Wilson 2850 (lectotype: A!, here designated, specimen barcode 00026557; isolectotypes: E!, K!, US!).

Maddenia fujianensis   Y.T.Chang (Guihaia 5: 25. 1985). Prunus fujianensis   (Y.T.Chang) J.Wen (Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 164: 243. 2010). Type:China. Fujian: Chong An Xian, Xing Chun, Shan Gang, Huang-Gang-Shan, in sparse forest, 1700 m, shrub 4 m, flowers yellowish green, 30 Apr 1981, fl, Wuyishan Expedition s.n.(holotype: FJSI, herbarium accession # 016600, 2 photos at PE!); synonym nov.

Maddenia incisoserrata   T.T. Yü & T.C.Ku (Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23: 214. 1985). Prunus incisoserrata   (T.T. Yü & T.C.Ku) J.Wen (Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 164: 244. 2010). Type: China. Sichuan: Heishui, Ma-He-Ba, 2880 m, tree 4 m tall, 16 Jul 1957, fr, X.Li 73195 (holotype: PE!); synonym nov.


Shrubs to trees 1.5-6 m tall. Branches dark purple, glabrous; branchlets of first year’s growth sparsely pubescent at the very young part, then glabrescent. Winter buds ovoid to narrowly or broadly so, scales 3-15 × 3-8 mm, several, imbricate, pubescent on the outer scales, but glabrous or nearly so on the inner scales, margin more or less ciliate. Stipules linear to lanceolate, 7-17 x 1-4.5 mm, membranaceous, slightly pubescent to glabrous, margin glandularly ciliate at least on the lower part. Petiole to 2-6 mm, slightly pubescent, glabrescent. Leaves ovate, elliptic to broadly so, 3.5-16 × 1.3-7.5 cm, abaxially pale green, glabrous or often pubescent in lateral vein axils, adaxially glabrous; margin doubly irregularly serrate, with 1-5 glandularly serrulate teeth at the base; apex acute, attenuate or acuminate, base acute to rounded; lateral veins 14-16 on each side of midvein. Racemes 1.5-5.5 cm, with 8-15 flowers; bracts lanceolate to narrowly triangular, 4-5 × 1-2 mm, nearly glabrous, with glandular teeth at margin. Pedicel 1.5-4 (-6) mm long, pubescent. Hypanthium campanulate, 2.5-6 × 4-7 (-9) mm, slightly pubescent to glabrescent on the outer surface, glabrous on the inner surface. Perianth segments 10, slightly unequal, narrowly triangular to lanceolate, 1.5-3 × 0.9-1.2 mm, slightly pubescent to glabrescent. Stamens 20-30, 4-7 mm long; filaments 3.5-6.5 mm; anthers oblong, 0.25-0.35 × 0.2-0.25 mm. Ovary glabrous, 1- or rarely 2-locular (see E.J.Palmer 130, CAS). Style slender, 4-8 mm long. Drupe 6-8 × 5-6 mm, glabrous, dark purple to black.


Eastern, central to western China.


Forests. Fl Apr - Jun; fr late May-Jul; 1300-3700 m.

Specimens examined.

China. W. China, Vallee de Ou-ma-hai, 2400 m, shrub, fl yellow, E.E.Maire 189/1914 (E). W. China, Avril, graud arbuste-feuil, exduques, blauehes, brousse de Ou-ma-hai, 2000 m, E.E.Maire 916/1914 (E). Jon-sian-fu, N central China, 1897, Rev. Fr. Hugh (A, BM). Huan-tou-san, N Centrial China, Jul 1899, Rev. Fr. Hugh s.n. (A, BM). Anhui: 29 Apr 1925, R.C.Ching 2727 (IBSC). Ping-Tien-Kan, Huangshan, Anhui, in thickets, 1700 m, shrub, 2 m, high, base of the petals purplish-red, fr green, 12 May 1979, fl & young fr, Deng & Yao 79170 (NY). Bai Ma Zhai, Tian Tang Zhai, Jinzhai, at the mountain top in the bushy woods, 1650 m, tree, fr green, 21 May 1984, K. Yao 9047 (A, CAS, K, MO, NY). S Anhui, summer 1925, fl, R.C.Ching 2727 (A, K, PE). Chongching: Nanchuan, Jinfoshan, in forest 1860 m, tree 3-5 m, flower light red, S.Y.Yi 972823 (MO). Gansu: Min Xian, shaddy slope, 2700 m, tree 1-1.5 m, flower light yellow, 23 May 1957, Tao He Team 3106 (MO). Pinchow District,near Kansu, W.Purdom s.n. (A). SE Kansu, 6 Apr 1919, E.Licent 4980 (BM). Tiecheliang Pass (= Lazikou Pass), hillside, east-facing, scattered scrub, 2940 m, 34°14'59"N, 103°54'59"E, deciduous shrub to 2 m, leaf mid-green and matt above, paler below, veins below noticeably raised and indented above, fruit in shor t racemes, green, broadly ovoid, 6-7 cm, turning red, 18 Jun 2000, Sino-British Qinghai Alpine Garden Society Expedition (SAQE) 242 (CAS; other associated material noted on the CAS specimen including DNA sample at E), herbarium specimen in fruit at HNWP, GB, and WSY). SE Kansu, Koan Kia ho et Lao Ling, 17 Apr 1919, A.E.Licent 5047 (BM, K). Qingshuishan, Menxiangdaji, 1750 m, slope, 24 Jun 1986, J.X.Yang 6838 (MO). T’ao River basin, mountains of Choni, W of Taoho, outskirts of Picea   forest, 10000 ft, shrub 8-10 ft, May 1925, fl, J.F.Rock 12148 (A, E, K). SW Gansu, Upper Tebbu country, spruce forest among boulders, southern slopes of Minshan, 9600 ft, small tree or shrub 8-10 ft, Jun 1925, fl, J.F.Rock 12531 (A, US). Hsia Mo K’ou, near Lichen, 2000-2300 m, shrub up to 13 ft, woods, 8 Jul 1923, R.C.Ching 391 (A 2 sheets, E, NY, US). SW Kansu, T’ao River basin, in forest among spruces, Choni, 9000-10000 ft, small tree, 15 ft, Jul 1925, J.F.Rock 12577 (A, E, K). Baiyanglin, Huanghe Expedition 395 (PE). Baiyanglin, Huanghe Expedition 408 (PE). Min Xian, Wutaishan, on the top of mountain, moist area, slope, shrubby area, 2400 m, shrub 2 m tall, 26 May 1957, fl, Huanghe Expedition 3241 (PE). Yuzhong, 2450 m, in sparst forest, tree, 30 May 1983, Z.Y.Zhang 19178 (MO); Yuzhong Xian, Xinglongshan, 2600 m, 9 Jun 1990, X.Pu 558 (MO). Tulugou, Yongdeng Xian, in shrub forest, 2500 m, 10 Jul 1990, G.H.Wang 886016 (MO); Gansu,Lianhuashan, Kangle Xian, in shrub forest, 2700 m, 21 Jun 1991, G.H.Wang 91056 (MO). Guizhou: Zhengyi Shi, Shanpeng Dist., Xianrenshan, roadside, in sparse forest, 1950 m, tree 3-4 m tall, sepals green with reddish tint, 9 Apr 1959, fl, North Guizhou Team 0086 (PE, 3 sheets). Henan: Lushi Xian, Dayandi, on the way to Yuhuangfu, in dense forest, valley, 1760 m, 10 Jul 1959, fruits black, L.-Z. Chen & S-H.Dong 34526 (PE). Hubei: Changyang, 4 Apr 1900, E.H.Wilson 429 (A, E). Patung, W. China, 26 Apr 1900, E.H.Wilson 429 (US). Western Hubei, Jul 1907, fr, E.H.Wilson 2848 (A, BM, E, K), May 1907, fl, E.H.Wilson 2849 (A, BM, E, K). Shennongjia, Laojunshan, 2150 m, in dense forest, fruits black, 9 Jul 1976, fr, Hubei Shennongjia Expedition 31020 (PE); Shennongjia, Yanziya, 2000 m, slope, tree 4 m, Jun 1986. S.-H.Yang 18 (IBSC). Laojunshan, near Medicinal Herb Garden, in dense forest, tree 5-7 m tall, 31 May 1957, fr, Y.Liu 00626 (PE, 3 sheets). Xingshan Xian, Laojunshan, in dense forest, tree 6-8 m, fruits purple, 27 May 1957, fr, Y.Liu 496 (PE, 3 sheets); Xingshan, in dense forest, 1400-1450 m, tree 5-7 m, 31 May 1957, fr, H.J.Li 2298 (PE); Xingshan Xian, 1600 m, in dense forest, tree 6-8 m, fruit reddish purple, 27 May 1957, L.Ying 496 (IBSC, 2 sheets). Jiangsu: C.W.Yao 2748 (IBSC). Jiangxi: Qianshan Xian, Huanggangshan, in dwarf montane forest, 27°51.605'N, 117°47.003'E, 2070 m, 15 Jul 2011, juvenile plant about 1 m tall, J. Wen 12069 (US); Qianshan Xian, Huanggangshan, in dwarf montane forest, 27°51.605'N, 117°47.003'E, 2070 m, 15 Jul 2011, tree ca. 3.5 m tall, growing in rock crevice, fruit blackish purple, J. Wen 12071 (US); Qianshan Xian, Wuyishan, Huang-gang-shan, 2070 m, shrubs 1.5 m tall, old branches purple, new branches green, 7 May 1984, fl, Z.X.Yu 840010 (PE). Shaanxi: Huayin Xian, Huayang Commute, 1300 m, tree 3-4 m, petal deciduous, 24 Apr 1978, Zh.-Y.Zhang & Ch.-Sh.Liu 17587 (IBSC). Ningxia Xian, Juyangbei, 1360 m, small tree 1360 m, flower yellowish green, 24 Apr 1993, G.H.Tian & L.Tian T934014 (MO). Baoji, Weibin District, 1700 m, in slope forest, tree 4 m, leaves adaxially green abaxially light green, young fruit purplish green, 26 May 1977, Z.X.Hu & Y.H.Guo 210 (IBSC). Taibaishan, slope, 2850 m, 1 Jun 1965, C.L.Tang 1447 (IBSC). Feng Xian, Zhoujiazhuang, slope forest, 1530 m, fruit black, 2 Aug 1996, Y.S.Lian et al. 96181 (MO). Yang Xian, Huayang, Daping, forests, 2400-2700 m, 4 Jun 1999, G.H.Zhu et al. 1748 (MO). Ningxia Xian, Caiziping, 1850 m, tree 3 m, 20 Jul 1990, P.H.Yang 90336 (MO); Ningxia Xian, Caiziping, 1600 m, tree 2.5 m, 21 Jul 1990, P.H.Yang 90390 (MO). Western Shen-si, Lungchow, Kuan Shan, 2000 m, 3 Jul 1922, Native collectors 2352 (A). Tai-pei Shan, fruit black, 8000 ft, 8 Jul 1910, W.Purdom 436 (CAS, E, K, US). Taipaishan, near Haopingszu, 1500 m, in valley, tree with unpleasant odor, to 5 m, bark chestnut brown, 18 Apr 1937, fl, T.P.Wang 6526 (PE). Taipaishan, near Haopingszu, 1500 m, in valley, tree with unpleasant odor, to 5 m, bark chestnut brown, 18 Apr 1937, fl, T.P.Wang 6551 (PE). Sichuan: W. China, 2400 m, Su-tchuen oriental, Tchen-Kéou-Tin, R.P.Farges s.n. (K, H2010101913). Lian Ying Zhai, Baiguo forest Farm, Wuxi Co., damp valley, 1480-1630 m, shrub 3-5 m, gruit green, 30 May 1996, C.Z.Gu 960732 (MO). Tchen-Kéou-Tin, R.P.Farges s.n. (E, E00419987). Maowenfengyi Keyaozhai, Zhongshan, SW shaddy slope, 2200-2500 m, tree 2-3 m, stem black brown, branchlet light brown, abaxially light green, vein conspicuous, pubescent at vein axis, adaxial leaf dark green, fr purplish black, 21 Jun 1959, Mao Wen Team 2832 (CDB 2 sheets). Wanyuan Xian, Hua’E’Shan, top of the mountain, 2200 m, small tree 2-2.5 m, stem green, branchlet yellow and pubescent, leaf adaxially dark green and abaxially whitish green, fruit green, B.L.Li 2035 (CDB). Sichuan, Nanjiang Xian, Zhongshanqu, shaddy slope, 1600 m, tree 2 m, stem purplish red, leaves simple and alternate, pubescent, abaxially whitish, adaxially green, fruit small, reddish green, 9 Jun 1959, B.W.Zuo 2850 (CDB). Sichuan, Heishui, Ma-He-Ba, 2880 m, 16 Jul 1957, fr, tree 4 m tall, X.Li 73195 (CDB); Heishui, Shidiaolu Xiang, Kuguazhai, mountain slope, 2900 m, uncommon, shrub 2-4 m tall, 28 May 1959, fl, Sichuan Economic Plant Expedition 1251 (CDB, 3 sheets, PE, 2 sheets). Sichuan, Donqrergo, in silva mixta primcera, ca. 3700 m, 8 Aug 1922, H.Smith 3499 (A, MO). Pingwu Xian, H. L. Tsiang 10054 (PE). Wushan Xian, Chaoyang Ping, Wenjia Chao, 2000 m, in forest at riverside, tree 2 m, 4 May 1958, fl, G.H.Yang 57953 (PE); Chaoyang Ping, mountain slope, 2100 m, shrub 2 m tall, 6 May 1958, fl, G.H.Yang 57979 (PE, 2 sheets). Nizhi Ping, 1800 m, streamside, tree 3 m tall, young leaves purple, sepals 5, green, with reddish tint, triangular, petals 5, lanceolate, smaller than sepals, 13 Apr 1958, fl, G.H.Yang 57684 (PE, 2 sheets). Sichuan, Pingwu, Xutang Commune, tree 1.5 m, mountain top, shady slope, Dec 1961, X.N.Tang 42 (CDB 2 sheets). Wushan Xian, Liziping, 1800 m, tree 3 m, young leaves purplish red, 13 Apr 1858, G.-H.Yang 57684 (IBSC). Zhejiang: Anji Xian, Baofu Township, Tianmushan area, 30°23.976'N, 119°26.441'E, 1336 m, tree 4-6 m tall, in wet area, 28 Apr 2010, fl, J.Wen 11291 (US, 2 sheets); Anji Xian, Longwangshan, 950 m, small tree 4.5 m, perianth segment green, anther yellow, petal absent, 30 Mar 1997, L.P.Yu & M.B.Deng 97099 B (MO).

Cultivated plants.

U.K. England: Cultivated at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Arboretum South, 19 March 1969, Kew Accession Number 47-61 (K); cultivated at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England, Arboretum South, 22 Apr 1969, Kew Accession Number 47-61 (K). U.S.A. Seed from E. H. Wilson material, originally from Suungpan, W Sichuan, 1910, cultivated in the Arnold Arboretum, #6120, 21 Apr 1938, E.J.Palmer 130 (CAS); cultivated in Arnold Arboretum, #6120, Bussey Hill, originally from W. China, E.H.Wilson 4008, 21 Apr 1931, Kobuski & Roush s.n. (K). Seed from Wilson 4008, Sungpan, W. Sichuan, China, 1910, cultivated in the Arnold Arboretum #6120, 25 Apr 1941, R.B.Clark 126 (MO).


Yü et al. (1985) stated that Prunus incisoserrata   was similar to Prunus hypoxantha   and Maddenia wilsonii   except that the leaves of Prunus incisoserrata   are abaxially glabrous; the margin is deeply serrated; and inflorescence is shorter and denser. The character of glabrous abaxial leaf blade is similar to that of Prunus hypoleuca   . We also observed variations in the depth of the leaf teeth and inflorescence length of specimens of Maddenia incisoserrata   and Prunus hypoleuca   . In fact the type specimen of Prunus hypoleuca   bears leaves with deeply serrated teeth at the margin. Chang (1985) compared Maddenia fujianensis   with Prunus hypoleuca   . Prunus hypoleuca   was said to have a pubescent and dense inflorescence. Nonetheless, the inflorescence of Maddenia fujianensis   is also pubescent and dense. The differentiating characters among Prunus hypoleuca   , Maddenia incisoserrata   and Maddenia fujianensis   seem continuous. We thus treated Maddenia incisoserrata   and Maddenia fujianensis   as synonyms of Prunus hypoleuca   , which has the nomenclatural priority.