Paragorgia johnsoni Gray, 1862, Gray, 1862

JUAN ARMANDO SÁNCHEZ, 2005, Systematics of the bubblegum corals (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Paragorgiidae) with description of new species from New Zealand and the Eastern Pacific, Zootaxa 1014, pp. 1-72: 21-25

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.169657

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:AC779A99-6987-4CF9-A8A6-4EB0FC89779C

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5668472

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/755D87A2-A136-FFFA-FEB9-9A5D903AFEBF

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Plazi

scientific name

Paragorgia johnsoni Gray, 1862
status

 

Paragorgia johnsoni Gray, 1862  

( Fig. 10 View FIGURE 10 )

Paragorgia johnsoni Gray, 1862: 125   ; Grasshoff, 1979: 430 (and references therein). Paragorgia boschmai Bayer, 1964: 527   .

Material examined: USNM 73767, 27° 05’ N – 79 ° 40 ’ W, 608 m, 21 Feb 1984 (Alvin DSR/ V 1335), Bahamas; USNM 100898, 39° 52.32 ’ N – 067° 25.19 ’ W, (col. M. Turnipseed, Delaware II R/V), USA.

Diagnostic characters. Polyps (autozooids) with blunt spindles with irregular ornamentation. Surface cortex sclerites, including the autozooid aperture, are 7 ­ and 8 ­radiate sclerites up to 0.06 mm averaging 0.05 mm in length.

Description. Profusely branched colonies up to 900 mm in length (Grasshoff 1979: Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ) with terminal branches down to 2–4 mm in diameter (Grasshoff 1979: Figs. 2–3 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 ). Numerous short, lateral branches arise from the main branches with an irregular but clavate appearance (Grasshoff 1979: Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ). Autozooid and siphonozooid polyps located towards one side of the colony (Grasshoff 1979: Figs. 2–3 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 ). Autozooids clustered in distinct nodules ( Bayer 1964: 527). Autozooid polyp tentacles with blunt spindles, slightly thicker than in most Paragorgia   spp., up to 0.08 mm in length, irregularly ornate with conical rays ( Fig. 10 View FIGURE 10 A–B). Surface cortex, including autozooid aperture, with 6 ­, 7 ­ and 8 ­ radiate (predominant 8 ­radiates) sclerites up to 0.06 mm averaging 0.05 mm in length (0.003 SD, n= 10) ( Fig. 10 View FIGURE 10 C–F). Rays nearly symmetrical with smooth surfaces. Surface radiates about 1.57 times longer than wider, averaging 0.03 mm in width (0.002 SD, n= 10). Medulla with ornate (oftentimes ramified or forked) spindles up to 0.38 mm in length ( Fig. 10 View FIGURE 10 G; see also Bayer 1964: 531) with smaller forms in the subsurface/outer medulla ( Fig. 10 View FIGURE 10 H).

Morphological variation. P. johnsoni   exhibits a great deal of variation mostly in the radiate sclerites from the surface cortex. The presence of 6 ­, 7 ­, and 8 ­radiates in this species is also equaled by P. a r b o re a, though including quite different forms and size ranges in each species. In addition, P. johnsoni   and P. a r b o re a are the species with the largest geographical and bathymetrical distributions within the group.

Distribution. Atlantic Ocean, Azores I. (Madeira), Brazil (off Rio de Janeiro), Florida and Bahamas. 800–4152 m ( Bayer 1964; Grasshoff, 1979).

Species comparisons. Grasshoff (1979) revised the type specimens of P. johnsoni   and P. boschmai Bayer   , including SEM analyses, and concluded that they belong to the same species, therefore P. boschmai   is considered a junior synonymy of P. johnsoni   . Since Grasshoff’s (1979) work presented clear and straightforward information on species comparisons no further attempts to describe the P. boschmai   type specimen were undertaken. See also P. re g a l i s Nutting and P. aotearoa   sp. nov.

Paragorgia splendens Thomson & Henderson, 1906   ( Figs. 11–12 View FIGURE 11 View FIGURE 12 )

Paragorgia splendens Thomson & Henderson 1906: 20   ; Bayer 1993: 4. Not Paragorgia sibogae Bayer 1993: 6   .

Material examined. Holotype, BM(NH) 1933.3. 13.38, British Museum Natural History, Indian Ocean off Sri Lanka (Investigator expedition st. 284, 7° 55 ’N – 81 ° 47 ’E, 900 m).

Diagnostic characters. Curved, slim terminal branches (up to 2 mm width). Surface cortex (including calyx surface) containing mostly 8 ­rayed sclerites (radiate derived, like capstans) up to 0.07 mm in length with rays formed by 4–6 blunt to pointed conical projections ( Fig. 12 View FIGURE 12 B–C).

Description. Fragile, gently bent, slim colonies with branches 1–2 mm in diameter at the portions without autozooids ( Fig. 11 View FIGURE 11 ). Autozooids mostly isolated, occasional clusters of 3–4, along the branches within noticeable spherical calyces ( Fig. 11 View FIGURE 11 ). Autozooid polyp apertures conical, semi­closed, projecting up to 2 mm. Colony easily breakable, most features closely resembling the original description drawing ( Thomson & Henderson 1906). Color pale pink, medulla white. Medulla in the terminal branches visibly perforated by 2– 5 large circular internal canals (see also Bayer 1993). Polyps with blunt spindle­like sclerites in the tentacles, up to 0.1 mm in length, with radially ornate belts of multiple low cones mostly disorganized ( Fig. 12 View FIGURE 12 A). Surface contains highly ornate, 8 ­radiate­derived, capstan­like sclerites ( Fig. 12 View FIGURE 12 B–C), averaging 0.068 mm (0.006 SD, n= 10). Surface sclerites 1.8 times longer than wider, averaging 0.038 mm in width (0.003 SD, n= 10). Medulla with long, slim, mostly straight, moderately ornate, spindles up to 0.7 mm in length ( Fig. 12 View FIGURE 12 D).

Morphological variation. The range of sizes is unknown for P. splendens   because the original material is very fragmented. The previous study of P. splendens   did not include SEM images of sclerites, but variation in both form and size among and within localities is overall low (e.g., Bayer 1993: Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 vs. Fig. 12 View FIGURE 12 this paper).

Distribution. Only known from the Indian Ocean off Sri Lanka (Investigator expedition st. 284,7° 55 ’N– 81 ° 47 ’E, 900 m, also station 333, see Bayer 1993).

Species comparisons. A record mentioned by Grasshoff (1979) from the Siboga station 95 (Sulu islands) was further described by Bayer (1993) as P. sibogae   . However, it is important to note that P. sibogae Bayer   was not included in this study because its description was entirely based on a prepared sclerite slide (after Nutting 1911), without the assignation of a cataloged specimen. See also Paragorgia whero   sp. nov.

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Cnidaria

Class

Anthozoa

Order

Alcyonacea

Family

Paragorgiidae

Genus

Paragorgia

Loc

Paragorgia johnsoni Gray, 1862

JUAN ARMANDO SÁNCHEZ 2005
2005
Loc

Paragorgia splendens

Bayer 1993: 4
Bayer 1993: 6
Thomson 1906: 20
1906
Loc

Paragorgia johnsoni

Bayer 1964: 527
Gray 1862: 125
1862