Glyptapanteles markshawi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.

Arias-Penna, Diana Carolina, Whitfield, James B., Janzen, Daniel H., Winifred Hallwachs,, Dyer, Lee A., Smith, M. Alex, Hebert, Paul D. N. & Fernandez-Triana, Jose L., 2019, A species-level taxonomic review and host associations of Glyptapanteles (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) with an emphasis on 136 new reared species from Costa Rica and Ecuador, ZooKeys 890, pp. 1-685: 1

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Glyptapanteles markshawi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.


Glyptapanteles markshawi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.   Figs 154 View Figure 154 , 155 View Figure 155


Body length 2.22 mm, antenna length 2.53 mm, fore wing length 2.47 mm.

Type material.

Holotype: COSTA RICA • 1♀; 07-SRNP-24093, DHJPAR0020471; Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Del Oro, Uncaria ; dry-rain intergrade forest; 370 m; 11.01752, -85.47411; 14.x. 200; Roster Moraga leg.; caterpillar collected in fifth instar; two parallel rows of cordwood cocoons on each side of the cadaver adhered to the leaf substrate and formed on 16.x.2007; adult parasitoids emerged on 23.x.2007; ( CNC) GoogleMaps   . Paratypes. • 7 (1♀, 1♂) (2♀, 3♂); 07-SRNP-24093, DHJPAR0020471; same data as for holotype; ( CNC) GoogleMaps   .

Other material.

Reared material. COSTA RICA: Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Mundo Nuevo, Sendero Puertas : • 7 (2♀, 1♂) (3♀, 1♂); 05-SRNP-22188, DHJPAR0002897; dry-rain intergrade forest; 400 m; 11.01087, -85.48817;; Roster Moraga leg. GoogleMaps   ; caterpillar collected in fifth instar; light gray cocoons formed on; adult parasitoids emerged on

Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Del Oro, Quebrada Romero : • 6 (2♀, 1♂) (3♀, 0 ♂); 06-SRNP-20030, DHJPAR0012022; dry-rain intergrade forest; 490 m; 11.00519, -85.47398; 03.i.2006; Roster Moraga leg. GoogleMaps   ; caterpillar collected in fourth instar; scattered white cocoons formed on 11.i.2006; adult parasitoids emerged on 20.i.2006.


Medioposterior band of scutellum mostly overlapping the medioanterior pit of metanotum ( Figs 154B, C View Figure 154 , 155B, C View Figure 155 ), fore wing with vein 2-1A present only proximally as tubular vein, 2RS vein straight, outer side of junction of r and 2RS veins not forming a stub ( Figs 154I View Figure 154 , 155I View Figure 155 ), medioanterior pit of metanotum semicircular without median longitudinal carina ( Figs 154B, C View Figure 154 , 155B, C View Figure 155 ), anteroventral contour of mesopleuron convex ( Figs 154A, E View Figure 154 , 155A, E View Figure 155 ), petiole on T1 distally with lateral margins relatively straight ( Figs 154D, G View Figure 154 , 155D, G View Figure 155 ), propodeum without median longitudinal carina, propodeal spiracle without distal carina ( Figs 154B, C View Figure 154 , 155B, C View Figure 155 ), nucha surrounded by very short radiating carinae ( Figs 154B, C View Figure 154 , 155B, C View Figure 155 ), antenna longer than body, and lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 distally losing definition ( Figs 154D, G View Figure 154 , 155D, G View Figure 155 ).


( Fig. 154A View Figure 154 ). General body coloration black except scape, pedicel, labrum, and mandibles dark yellow; first four-five proximal antennal flagellomeres dorsally lighter (light brown) than ventrally (dark brown), remaining flagellomeres dark brown on both sides; glossa, maxillary and labial palps light yellow. Eyes gray and ocelli yellowish. Fore and middle legs yellow except light brown coxae and brown claws; hind legs yellow except coxae completely brown-black, distal half of femora and tibiae brown, and tarsomeres completely brown except basitarsus with proximal half yellow. Petiole on T1 with coloration that intensifies from proximal to distal, proximally yellow-brown, medially light brown and distally dark brown, contours darkened and sublateral areas yellow-brown; T2 with median and adjacent areas brown, adjacent area wide and together with median area forming a rectangle-shaped area, and narrow lateral ends yellow; T3 light brown/brown proximally with a small yellow/yellow-brown area on corners; T4 and beyond completely dark brown; distally each tergum with a narrow whitish transparent band. In lateral view, T1-3 yellow; T4 and beyond brown. S1-2 completely yellow; S3 yellow, but distally with a longitudinal narrow brown band; S4 and beyond brown.


Head ( Fig. 154A, B, E View Figure 154 ). Head rhomboid with pubescence long and dense. Proximal three antennal flagellomeres longer than wide (0.17:0.08, 0.17:0.08, 0.17:0.08), distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate (0.11:0.07, 0.08:0.07), antenna longer than body (2.53, 2.22); antennal scrobes-frons shallow. Face with depression only laterally, dense fine punctations, interspaces with microsculpture and longitudinal median carina present. Frons smooth. Temple wide, punctate and interspaces wavy. Inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets; in lateral view, eye anteriorly convex and posteriorly straight. POL shorter than OOL (0.08, 0.12). Malar suture present. Median area between lateral ocelli slightly depressed. Vertex laterally rounded and dorsally wide.

Mesosoma ( Fig. 154 A–C, E View Figure 154 ). Mesosoma dorsoventrally convex. Mesoscutum proximally convex and distally flat, punctation distinct proximally with polished area distally, interspaces with microsculpture. Scutellum triangular, apex sloped and fused with BS, scutellar punctation distinct peripherally and absent centrally, in profile scutellum flat and on same plane as mesoscutum, phragma of the scutellum partially exposed; BS mostly overlapping the MPM; ATS demilune with quite a little complete parallel carinae; dorsal ATS groove with carinae only proximally. Transscutal articulation with small and homogeneous foveae, area just behind transscutal articulation smooth, shiny and depressed centrally. Metanotum with BM wider than PFM (clearly differentiated); MPM circular/semicircular without median longitudinal carina; AFM without setiferous lobes and not as well delineated as PFM; PFM thick, smooth and with a distal flat flange; ATM proximally with sculpture distally without a well delimited smooth area. Propodeum relatively polished without median longitudinal carina, proximal half curved; distal edge of propodeum with a flange at each side and without stubs; propodeal spiracle without distal carina; nucha surrounded by very short radiating carinae. Pronotum with a distinct dorsal furrow, dorsally with a well-defined smooth band; central area of pronotum smooth, but both dorsal and ventral furrows with short parallel carinae. Propleuron with fine punctations throughout and dorsally with a carina. Metasternum flat or nearly so. Contour of mesopleuron convex; precoxal groove deep with transverse lineate sculpture; epicnemial ridge elongated more fusiform (tapering at both ends).

Legs. Ventral margin of fore telotarsus slightly excavated and with a tiny curved seta, fore telotarsus almost same width throughout and longer than fourth tarsomere (0.10, 0.05). Hind coxa with punctation only on ventral surface and dorsal outer depression present. Inner spur of hind tibia longer than outer spur (0.21, 0.15), entire surface of hind tibia with dense strong spines clearly differentiated by color and length. Hind telotarsus as equal in length as fourth tarsomere (0.11, 0.10).

Wings ( Fig. 154I, J View Figure 154 ). Fore wing with r vein slightly curved; 2RS vein straight; r and 2RS veins forming a weak, even curve at their junction and outer side of junction not forming a stub; 2M vein slightly curved/swollen; distally fore wing [where spectral veins are] with microtrichiae more densely concentrated than the rest of the wing; anal cell 1/3 proximally lacking microtrichiae; subbasal cell with a small smooth area; vein 2CUa absent and vein 2CUb spectral; vein 2 cu-a absent; vein 2-1A present only proximally as tubular vein; tubular vein 1 cu-a curved, incomplete/broken and not reaching the edge of 1-1A vein. Hind wing with vannal lobe narrow, subdistally and subproximally straightened, and setae present proximally, but absent distally.

Metasoma ( Fig. 154A, D, F–H View Figure 154 ). Metasoma laterally compressed. Petiole on T1 finely sculptured only laterally, parallel-sided in proximal half and then narrowing (length 0.32, maximum width 0.18, minimum width 0.10), and with scattered pubescence concentrated in the first distal third. Lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 distally losing definition (length median area 0.10, length T2 0.13), edges of median area polished and lateral grooves deep, median area broader than long (length 0.10, maximum width 0.23, minimum width 0.10); T2 with scattered pubescence only distally. T3 longer than T2 (0.17, 0.13) and with scattered pubescence throughout. Pubescence on hypopygium dense.

Cocoons. Light gray or white oval cocoons with ordered silk fibers, but covered by a net. Cocoons forming two rows of cordwood on each side of the caterpillar adhered to the leaf substrate.


( Fig. 155 A–J View Figure 155 ). Body shape similar to female; however, male without tricolored petiole, instead it is completely light brown although the contours are darkened.


Mark R. Shaw works on the natural history and systematics of Lepidoptera  and parasitioid wasps at the National Museums of Scotland, U.K.


The parasitized caterpillars were collected in Costa Rica, ACG, Sector Del Oro (Quebrada Romero and Uncaria) and Sector Mundo Nuevo (Sendero Puertas), during June 2005, January 2006, and October 2007 at 370 m, 400 m, and 490 m in dry-rain intergrade forest.


The lifestyle of this parasitoid species is gregarious.


Ethmia scythropa   Walsingham ( Depressariidae   : Ethmiinae  ) feeding on Bourreria costaricensis   and B. oxyphylla   ( Boraginaceae  ). Caterpillars were collected in fourth and fifth instar.


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes


Milwaukee Public Museum


Bristol Museum