Paramollugo simulans Sukhor

Sukhorukov, Alexander P. & Kushunina, Maria, 2016, Taxonomic revision and distribution of herbaceous Paramollugo (Molluginaceae) in the Eastern Hemisphere, PhytoKeys 73, pp. 93-116: 97-101

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Paramollugo simulans Sukhor

sp. nov.

Paramollugo simulans Sukhor   sp. nov.


MADAGASCAR, [Atsimo-Andrefana region], Toliara [district], Belalanda, Ranobe, 4 km a l’Est du village Andrevo, 22°58'20"S, 43°36'56"E, 135 m, 17 March 2006, R. Ranaivojaoana et al. 1442 (holotype K000607662; isotype BR0000000514054, P05196698). (Fig. 4 View Figure 4 ).


Paramollugo simulans   is morphologically similar to Paramollugo nudicaulis   but differs by having colliculate seed surface (testa cells slightly convex, not papillae-like) with no striate secondary cell ornamentation. Some forms of Paramollugo simulans   with linear leaves look like Paramollugo angustifolia   , but they reliably differ by the seed size (0.55-0.7 mm and 0.35-0.45 mm, respectively).


Annual to 25(30) cm; leaves (5-9)10-25, rosulate, rather thin, obovate, narrowly oblong, sometimes lanceolate, 20-50 × 2-12 mm, continuously tapered in petiole (up to 20 mm) or rarely not clearly divided into petiole and blade if lanceolate or linear, glabrous or shortly papillate; stems many (rarely 1 in underdeveloped exemplars), branched in the middle part with many lateral branches forming loose inflorescence with semi-spherical habit, always with short (up to 20 mm) sterile branches (not carrying flowers); peduncles to 15 mm, basally with white or brownish bract to 1.5 mm; flowers 3-4 mm in diameter when open; perianth segments 1.3-1.7 mm long in flowering, 2-2.4 mm long in fruiting, ovoid, green from abaxial side, white or pinkish inside; stamens 5 to 10, anthers elliptic, 0.30-0.35 mm; capsule 3-valved, ovoid, 1.5-2.3 mm, contains (8)10-18 seeds; seeds are reniform, dark red or almost black, 0.55-0.7 × 0.6 × 0.3 mm, with colliculate ultrasculpture.


Sandy, rocky, ruderal sites or dry forests at elevations 0-1700 m.

Flowering and fruiting.


Additional specimens examined.

MADAGASCAR: Alaotra-Mangoro region: Moramanga, Andasibe, Berano , Ambatovy forest , Analamay , 18°49'05"S, 48°19'25"E, 1145 m, 24 February 2005, P. Antilahimena et al. 3464 (P05196697) GoogleMaps   ; Androy region: Beloha , 25°05'S, 45°10'E, alt. 125 m, deciduous thicket with Indigofera & Crotalaria, locally common, 1 December 1989, Dupuy 2448 (K) GoogleMaps   ; Anosy region: Fort Dauphin [Tolanaro], St. Luce , 1 May 1989, N. Dumetz 720 (P04582891)   ; Atsinanana region: Vaingaindrano, [without date] Scott Elliot 2257 ( BM, K, E); Vatomandry distr. , foret de copaliers, February 1904, J. Guillot 69 (P04582879); bei Andranokoditra , entlang der Lagune wachsend, 7 February 1990, Bogner 2084 (M); Toamasina, Fokontany Ampitambe , Ambatovy , 18°50'04"S, 48°17'46"E, 1107 m, 15 February 2005, H. Razanatsoa et al. 121 (P05196696) GoogleMaps   ; Boeny region: Environs de Majunga, 1908, H. Perrier de la Bathie 5233 (P04582816); Majunga [Mahajanga], 27 April 1912, K. Afzelius s.n. (K); Environs de Majunga , October 1924, H. Humbert 4079 (P04582884); Majunga province , poste forestier d’Ampijoroa ( Jardin Botanique ), foret seche sur sable, 16°14'S, 46°28'E, 25 February 1985, L.J. Dorr, L.C. Bernett & M.R. Cheek 3810 (BR0000017461078, K); Mahajanga, Analalava , appr. 25 km E of Analalava towards Antsohihy , 14°46'03"S, 47°47'53"E, 178 m, low dry forest, 21 June 2008, M. Andriamahay & S. Rakotoarisoa 0466479 (K) GoogleMaps   ; Haute Matsiatra region: Fenerive [Fenoarivo], 7 September 1959, Rauh 169 (M); Fianarantsoa, Fivondroana, Nosy Varika , Firaisana , Ambahy , 20°47'49"S, 48°28'58"E, 10 m, 23 April 2004, R. Razakamalala, R. Ranaivojaona & Z. Rogers 1208 (P05196706) GoogleMaps   ; Ihorombe region: Menarahaka, Ihosy, 700-800 m, vestiges de foret tropophile sur terrains siliceux, 1955, H. Humbert 28574 (P04582868); plateau et vallees de l’Isalo a l'Ouest de Ranohira , gres et sables siliceux, 1955, H. Humbert 28729 (P04582852; P04582855)   ; Melaky region: Beanka, East Ambinda , 18°02'24"S, 44°28'31"E, 222 m, 2 April 2013, L. Ranaivoarisoa 054 (BR0000015215840) GoogleMaps   ; Sofia region: Marokitraro , 27 December 1922, Decary 1392 (P04582900)   ; Vakinankaratra region: Antananarivo, Antsirabe , 1669 m, exposed rock, 26 February 2008, M. Andriamahay & S. Rakotoarisoa 0452506 (K)   ; Vatovavy-Fitovinany region: Mananjary prov., 1909, F. Geay 7636 & 7790 (P04582870; P04582871; P04582872); Ambila , 7 May 1928, M. Decary 6422 (K)   .

General distribution.

Endemic to Madagascar (Fig. 5 View Figure 5 ).

Conservation status.

Although a rather limited number of specimens is available, it is clear that Paramollugo simulans   can occupy disturbed habitats and is therefore unlikely to be at risk of extinction. Following the IUCN (2016) guidelines, this species should be categorized as not threatened.


The specific epithet " simulans   " means “imitating” and refers to the morphological similarities of the new species and Mollugo nudicaulis   .