Nipponomyia yakushimensis Kolcsar & Kato, 2020
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|Nipponomyia yakushimensis Kolcsar & Kato|
Holotype ♂, pinned. Original label: " Japan , Kagoshima , Yakushima Island , Yakushima , near Shirataniunsui-kyo Valley, Yakushima-cho , alt. 600 m, 30°23.04'N, 130°34.37'E, 25 Apr. 2018, D. Kato leg." " Holotype Nipponomyia yakushimensis Kolcsár & Kato, sp. nov. [red label]" (pinned, BLKU). GoogleMaps
Paratype ♂, same data as holotype (pinned, BLKU). GoogleMaps
Dark yellow species with 11 large darker spots on thorax ( N. trispinosa light yellowish species with 11 smaller dark spots, N. gracilis brownish species without any dark spots on thorax). Wing without transverse dark line on costal cell. Brown band running from base of R2+3 to crossvein m-m, but not reaching wing margin (reaching the wing margin in N. trispinosa ). Brown band along crossveins r-m and m-cu conspicuous. Second sternite with black marking at corner of membranous area, but without other line. Gonostylus with 2 spines (3 spines in N. trispinosa ), aedeagus long, rod-shaped and acute at tip (aedeagus short, triangular in N. trispinosa ).
Body length: male 8-8.5 mm.
Wing length: male 8-8.5 mm.
Head: Light brown to brown with grayish pruinosity (Fig. 18B, C View Figure 18 ). Palpi dark brown, 5-segmented, segments 2-4 subequal in length, last segment twice as long as palpomere 4. Antenna short, just a little longer than head. Antenna brown, flagellomeres darker than scape and pedicel. Flagellum 13-segmented, flagellomeres gradually narrowing to apical end.
Thorax: General coloration dark yellow, dorsal parts somewhat darker (Fig. 18A View Figure 18 ). Presutural area of scutum with 4 large spots, very conspicuous (Fig. 18B, C View Figure 18 ) and 7 spots on postsutural area of scutum also distinct (Fig. 18C View Figure 18 ). Setae on thorax relatively long and dark.
Legs: General coloration yellow, covered with yellowish setae. Femora without clear apical dark area, but with some darker setae. Apical part of tibiae light brown, with a few darker setae. Apical ends of tarsomeres narrowly dark yellow to light brown (Fig. 18A View Figure 18 ). Tarsomeres with spurs very small, hardly discernible.
Wing: As in Fig. 5G View Figure 5 . Yellow pattern less intensive compared to other Japanese species. Spots around yellow costal region brown, not blackish as in N. trispinosa . Brown band running from base of R2+3 to crossvein m-m, but not reaching wing margin. Brown band along crossveins r-m and m-cu conspicuous. In paratype, wing with Rs divided to R2+3+4 and R5 (Fig. 5G View Figure 5 ), in holotype as usual in genus, divided to R2+3 and R4+5.
Abdomen: Abdomen covered with relative long dark setae. Tergites 2-6 each with a longitudinal narrow black line on lateral side, its length ranging from 1/2-3/4 of tergite length. Sternite 2 with a short black line at corner of membranous fold. Sternites 3-7 each with a broad brown patch, covering anterior half of segment (Fig. 18A, B View Figure 18 ). The abdomen of paratype removed for DNA extraction.
Male terminalia: Dark yellow to light brown (Fig. 18A View Figure 18 ). Median part of tergite 9 with posterior margin convex with two small obtuse peaks laterally (Fig. 19A, B View Figure 19 ). Gonocoxite with apical lobe 2.2 × longer than wide (in the middle) and 1.6 × longer than tergite 9 (Fig. 19E, F View Figure 19 ). Apical lobe of gonocoxite squarish in dorsal and ventral views (Fig. 19A-D View Figure 19 ), as long as width of gonocoxite at middle in lateral view (Fig. 19G, H View Figure 19 ). Basal lobe of gonocoxite prominent, both in ventral and lateral views, triangular in ventral view (Fig. 19C, D View Figure 19 ). Outer part of gonostylus slender in inner view (Fig. 19G, H View Figure 19 ), with 2 black spines, inner part of gonostylus triangular (Fig. 19A-D View Figure 19 ). Interbase elongated, gradually widening to tip, widest part twice wider than basal part in dorsal view (Fig. 19A, B View Figure 19 ), interbase curved dorsally in lateral view (Fig. 19G, H View Figure 19 ). Aedeagus rod-shaped, extending beyond interbase, tip acute, curved dorsally (Fig. 19I, J View Figure 19 ).
Japan: Ryukyu Islands: Yakushima Island (Fig. 9 View Figure 9 ).
Type specimens were collected at the end of April.
Yakushima Island is one of the northmost members of Ryukyu Islands, and also the largest island of the Osumi Archipelago. Yakushima is located approximately 70 km south of Kyushu and formed by a combination of sedimentary and orogenic volcanism processes ( Shibasaki 2018). The island is one of the world’s wettest locations, with the annual rainfall around 10000 mm in the mountains whose peaks reach 1900 meters. The island is characterized by a unique wet climate, which ranges from subtropical to high alpine climates, and hosts numerous endemic species ( Yahara et al. 1987; Smith and Kamiya 2006; Shibasaki 2018). Yakushima is located in the southern boundary of Palearctic faunal realm, and the new biogeographic boundary between the Palearctic and Oriental realm was proposed between Yakushima/Taneshima and Amami Islands ( Komaki and Igawa 2017). The crane fly fauna of the island is poorly known, at the moment only six species are known as endemic to the island; however, the second author has an additional 8-10 undescribed species from Yakushima. Based on the male terminalia the new species N. yakushimensis Kolcsár & Kato, sp. nov. is more closely related to N. gracilis , than to N. trispinosa . Both, N. yakushimensis Kolcsár & Kato, sp. nov. and N. gracilis have 2 spines on the gonostylus, aedeagi elongated, and the shapes of their interbases are also similar. Presumably the two species diverged from each other at least 1.706 Ma ago, when the Korean Peninsula & Kyushu and also Yakushima and Kyushu separated ( Osozawa et al. 2012).
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