Orasema costaricensis Wheeler & Wheeler, 1937,

Burks, Roger A., Heraty, John M., Dominguez, Chrysalyn & Mottern, Jason L., 2018, Complex diversity in a mainly tropical group of ant parasitoids: Revision of the Orasema stramineipes species group (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eucharitidae), Zootaxa 4401 (1), pp. 1-107: 26-27

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Orasema costaricensis Wheeler & Wheeler, 1937


Orasema costaricensis Wheeler & Wheeler, 1937 

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act: BFAD 8851-CCD9-46BB-9B2D-EAD8C2FD5 BAA ( Figs 41–52View FIGURES 41–52)

Orasema costaricensis Wheeler & Wheeler, 1937  . Type material: Costa Rica: Zent , 24.vi.1924, No. 473, G.C. Wheeler. (5 slides with various body parts from adult ♀ and at least one pharate adult ♀, USNM 63242View Materials). 

Diagnosis. Head and mesosoma blue to bluish-green. Mesoscutal midlobe mostly reticulate, sidelobe reticulate. Mesoscutellar disc areolate-reticulate, including near frenal groove. Axillula with reticulate sculpture and subparallel longitudinal carinae. Fore and mid femora brown.

Orasema costaricensis  is very similar to most other species of the O. rapo  complex, especially to O. rapo  , O. evansi  and O. minutissima  . Few other species in this group have a brown mid leg ( Fig. 41View FIGURES 41–52), but this is sometimes present in O. minutissima  , which differs from O. costaricensis  in having shoulder-like mesoscutal sidelobes ( Figs 142, 143View FIGURES 139–144).

Description. Female. Length 1.7–2.7 mm.

Color: Head and mesosoma blue to bluish-green, with yellowish luster. Pedicel yellowish brown; anellus yellowish brown; flagellum brown. Coxae brown; fore and mid femora mostly brown, tips pale; hind femur yellow. Fore wing hyaline; venation brown. Petiole dark blue; gaster brown.

Head: Head width:head height 1.1–1.2; face reticulate; longitudinal groove between eye and torulus present; eyes bare, inter-ocular distance:eye height 1.4–1.5; malar space:eye height 0.6–0.8; supraclypeal area slightly broader than long, smooth to weakly sculptured; clypeus smooth to weakly sculptured. Flagellum length:head height 1.2–1.4; F2 1.7–2.8× as long as broad, 0.9–1.3× as long as F3; following funiculars progressively shorter and broader.

Mesosoma: Mesosoma length:height 1.3–1.4. Mesoscutal midlobe mostly reticulate, areolate-reticulate posteriorly, with minute setae; lateral lobe reticulate. Axilla reticulate with weak longitudinal carinae; mesoscutellar disc areolate-reticulate; frenal line regularly foveate; frenum areolate-reticulate; axillular groove anteriorly narrow, broad and foveate posteriorly; axillula reticulate with weak longitudinal carinae. Propodeum with irregular median carina; propodeal disc areolate medially, areolate-reticulate laterally; callus reticulate, with a few small setae. Mesepisternum reticulate laterally, smooth ventrally, broadly rounded anterior to mid coxa. Upper mesepimeron smooth; lower mesepimeron reticulate; transepimeral sulcus distinct. Metepisternum laterally reticulate to nearly smooth. Hind coxa 1.6–2.3× as long as broad; hind femur 5–6× as long as broad. Fore wing 2.3–2.5× as long as broad, 2.4–2.9× as long as mesothorax; stigma with 4 sensilla in a row or separated into pairs. Hind wing costal cell with a broad bare area.

Metasoma: Petiole 1.7–2.3× as long as broad, 0.8–1.0× as long as hind coxa, areolate-reticulate to nearly smooth anteriorly, anterior carina weak to moderate. Antecostal sulcus irregularly sculptured; acrosternite posteriorly angulate.

Male. Length 2.2–2.3 mm. Head width:head height 1.2; scape yellow; flagellum length:head height 1.7–2.0, F2 1.8–2.4× as long as broad. Fore and mid femora mostly brown, tips pale; hind femur yellow. Petiole 5.5–6.2× as long as broad, petiole length:hind coxa length 1.8–1.9.

Discussion. 28S D2 and COI data ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3) indicate that the Costa Rican and West Indies populations of O. costaricensis  are genetically distinct. This is problematic, because they do not differ morphologically, and are morphologically and genetically distinct from O. minutissima  and other Caribbean species. However, the genetic difference is based entirely on silent "wobble base" changes in COI that do not result in amino acid changes. It is possible that the West Indies populations represent a different, sibling species, but no action is taken here, because of a lack of morphological or amino acid changes distinguishing this population. Notably, this collection was made in a dry forest, which is atypical for O. minutissima  , but which is common on Dominica. Additionally, a specimen from Florida exists that may be related to the Dominican specimen, but which could not be examined genetically. Future investigation of these populations is recommended to confirm their species membership.

Biology. Parasitoid of Pheidole flavens  (see Wheeler & Wheeler 1937). A specimen previously identified as Orasema smithi  ( Wolcott 1948; UCRCENT 00248526) was collected from a María leaf (Callophyllum?, Calophyllaceae  ) in Puerto Rico. Other specimens have been collected on coffee leaves ( Coffea  , Rubiaceae  ).

Distribution. Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, Montserrat, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts, St. Lucia, Tortola, USA (Florida).

Material examined. Syntypes: (5 slides with various body parts from adult ♀ and at least one pharate adult ♀, USNM 63242View Materials) COSTA RICA: Zent, 24.vi.1924, No   . 473, G.C. Wheeler. [USNM: UCRCENT00247788–93]. Additional material examined: COLOMBIA: Antioquia: vi.1963 [ BMNH: UCRCENT00309914]  . Cuaca: Buenaventura, 3°53'12"N, 77°04'13"W, 2.xi.1950 [1 ♀, CASC: UCRCENT00240684]. COSTA RICA: Alajuela: P.N. Volcán Tenorio, Sector El Pilón, 700–800m, 10°42'11"N, 84°59'25"W, 11–17.ii.2004, JGoogleMaps  . Azofeifa, C. Janzen, screen sweep [1♂, INBIO: INB03983195View Materials]. San Pedro de la Tigra, 200m, 10°22'07"N, 84°34'55"W, i –ii.1990, RGoogleMaps  . Cespedes, Cacao [1 ♀, MUCR: UCRCENT00479311]. San Pedro de la Tigra, 200m, 10°22'07"N, 84°34'55"W, iii – iv.1990, RGoogleMaps  . Cespedes, Cacao [1♂ 5 ♀, MUCR: UCRCENT00479302–04, UCRCENT00479342, UCRCENT00237532–33]. Soltis Center, canopy trail, 477m, 10°22'59"N, 84°37'05"W, 1.v.2016, Heraty, swp [1 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00479699 (D4622)]. Guanacaste: Cerro el Hacha N.W. Volcan Orosi, 300m, 11°00'00"N, 85°33'00"W, 1988 [5 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00237555–59]GoogleMaps  . Est. Las Pailas, P.N. Rincon de la Vieja, 800m, 10°46'31"N, 85°20'59"W, 15.v –11.vi.1993, K.E. Taylor [1 ♀, INBIO: INBIOCRI01384010]GoogleMaps  . Est. Las Pailas, P.N. Rincon de la Vieja, 800m, 10°46'31"N, 85°20'59"W, 23.iv –20.vii.1993, G. Rodriguez [1 ♀, INBIO: INBIOCRI01673777]GoogleMaps  . Est. Las Pailas, P.N. Rincon de la Vieja, 800m, 10°46'31"N, 85°20'59"W, 27.vii – 15.viii.1992, CGoogleMaps  . Cano [1 ♀, INBIO: INBIOCRI00925922]. Est. Pitilla, 9 km S Santa Cecilia , P.N. Guanacaste, 700m, 10°59'28"N, 85°25'39"W, 10–17.vi.1992, CGoogleMaps  . Moraga [1 ♀, INBIO: INBIOCRI00819168]. Est. Pitilla, 9 km S Santa Cecilia , P.N. Guanacaste, 700m, 10°59'28"N, 85°25'39"W, 19.v –3.vi.1993, CGoogleMaps  . Moraga [2 ♀, INBIO: INBIOCRI01341867, INBIOCRI01341876]. Est. Pitilla, 9 km S Santa Cecilia , P.N. Guanacaste, 700m, 10°59'28"N, 85°25'39"W, 21.iii –6.iv.1993, CGoogleMaps  . Moraga [2 ♀, INBIO: INBIOCRI01390711, INBIOCRI01390795]. Est. Pitilla, 9 km S Santa Cecilia , P.N. Guanacaste, 700m, 10°59'28"N, 85°25'39"W, 3–18.x.1991, CGoogleMaps  . Moraga [1 ♀, INBIO: INBIOCRI00548717]. Est. Pitilla, 9 km S Santa Cecilia , P.N. Guanacaste, 700m, 10°59'28"N, 85°25'39"W, ix.1993, EGoogleMaps  . Araya [2 ♀, INBIO: INBIOCRI01932757, INBIOCRI01932777]. Est. Pitilla, 9 km S Santa Cecilia , P.N. Guanacaste, 700m, 10°59'28"N, 85°25'39"W, vii.1994, CGoogleMaps  . Moraga [1 ♀, INBIO: INBIOCRI02001692]. Tierras Morenas, Tilaran, 685m, 10°36'32"N, 84°59'34"W, ix.1994, G. Rodriguez [1 ♀, INBIO: INBIOCRI02019280]. Heredia: Est  . Biol. La Selva , 10°43'00"N, 84°02'00"W, 3.viii.1993, MT [4 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00312196–98, UCRCENT00416342]. La Selva Biol. StaGoogleMaps  . 3 km S Pto. Viejo , 10°26'00"N, 84°01'00"W, 15.ii.1994, H. Hespenheide, Bosque secundario [1 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00448226]GoogleMaps  . La Selva Biol. Sta., 3 km S Pto. Viejo , 10°26'00"N, 84°01'00"W, ii –iv.1993, P. Hanson, Malaise Trap [1 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00412938]GoogleMaps  . La Selva Biol. Station , 10°25'48"N, 84°01'12"W, 1.x.1993, MT [1 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00312199]GoogleMaps  . La Selva Biol. Stn, 10°25'48"N, 84°01'12"W, 15.x.1993, ALAS, Malaise Trap [1 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00412884]. La Selva Biol. Stn, 10°25'48"N, 84°01'12"W, 18.iv.1993, ALAS, Malaise Trap [1 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00412883]. La Selva : SOR trail, 10°25'41"N, 84°00'14"W, 4.v.2016, AGoogleMaps  . Baker, J. Heraty, J. Hash, sweep [1 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00479700 (D4628)]. Santo Domingo, 1200m, 9°58'48"N, 84°05'24"W, ii – iii.2016, PGoogleMaps  . Hanson [1♂ 1 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00439156 (D4704), UCRCENT00479701 (D4703)]. Limon: sur de Iroquois, 300m, 10°07'12"N, 83°37'12"W, 23.v.1987, Paul Hanson [1♂, MUCR: UCRCENT00479295]GoogleMaps  . Puntarenas: San Luis, Monteverde, R.B. Monteverde, A.C. Arenal , 1040m, 10°16'31"N, 84°47'40"W, 10– 29.viii.1993, KGoogleMaps  . E. Taylor [1 ♀, INBIO: INBIOCRI01816409]. San Jose: Ciudad Colón, 800m, 9°56'00"N, 84°05'00"W, xii.1989GoogleMaps  – i.1990, Luis Fournier [1 ♀, BMNH: UCRCENT00237531]. CUBA: Hoyo , Colorado, 22°58'00"N, 82°32'00"W, vii.1981, CGoogleMaps  . P. Clausen [7 ♀, USNM: UCRCENT00248518–24]. DOMINICA: NE of Mahout along road, 320m, 15°23'15"N, 61°19'33"W, 27.v.2009, JGoogleMaps  . Heraty, dry forest scrub, sweep [1 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00235971 (D2761)]. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Barahona, 4km N Paraiso , 150m, 18°12'28"N, 71°05'57"W, 22.iii.1991, LGoogleMaps  . Masner [1 ♀, CNC: UCRCENT00425915]. Duarte, 6 km N Castillo , 19°15'27"N, 70°01'50"W, 8.viii.1978, RGoogleMaps  . O. Schuster [2 ♀, UCDC: UCRCENT00243428, UCRCENT00243432]. Barahona, 4km N Paralgo , 150m, 18°12'35"N, 71°06'02"W, 22.iii.1991, LGoogleMaps  . Masner, coffee plant, screen sweep [1 ♀, TAMU: UCRCENT00184067]. Durate, 20 km NE San Francisco de Macoris; Loma Quite Espuela , 300m, 19°20'31"N, 70°12'15"W, 18.iii.1991, LGoogleMaps  . Masner, coffee plant. along creek, screen sweep [4 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00237682, UCRCENT00237684–86]. Duarte, 20 km NE San Francisco de Macoris ; Loma Quite Espuela, 300m, 19°20'31"N, 70°12'15"W, vii.1991, malaise trap [1 ♀, CNC: UCRCENT00247677]GoogleMaps  . San Cristobal: 15 km. N. of S.Cristobal  , Colonia, 1000m, 15.iii.1978, L  . Masner [1 ♀, BMNH: UCRCENT00309924]. ECUADOR: Pichincha: 16km SE Santo Domingo, Tinalandia , 500m, 0°18'17"S, 78°59'00"W, 4–14.vi.1976, SGoogleMaps  . & J. Peck [2 ♀, CNC: UCRCENT00425710, UCRCENT00425711]. 16km SE Santo Domingo, Tinalandia , 680m, 0°18'17"S, 78°59'00"W, 15–30.vi.1975, SGoogleMaps  . & J. Peck [1 ♀, CNC: UCRCENT00425713]. 47km S. Santo Domingo, Rio Palenque Station , 0°39'05"S, 79°19'33"W, 18–30.v.1975, SGoogleMaps  . & J. Peck [1 ♀, CNC: UCRCENT00425712]. HONDURAS: Francisco Morazan: San Antonio de Oriente, El Zamorano , 14°01'02"N, 87°01'39"W, 4– 10.v.1990, RGoogleMaps  . Cave, coffee plantation ‘baja Inga’, malaise [1 ♀, EAPZ: UCRCENT00316478]. MONTSERRAT: Plymouth , 0–100m, 16°42'00"N, 62°13'00"W, vii.1971, NGoogleMaps  . L.H. Krauss [1 ♀, USNM: UCRCENT00248042]. Hope Ridge , 320m, 16°45'10"N, 62°12'44"W, 4.xii.2002, JGoogleMaps  . Boatswain and L. Martin, canopy fogging [1 ♀, MTEC: UCRCENT00439342]. Underwood Ghaut , 374m, 16°46'20"N, 62°12'44"W, 11.x.2003, LGoogleMaps  . Martin and L. Aymer, canopy fogging [1 ♀, MTEC: UCRCENT00439343]. PUERTO RICO: 408m, 18°15'51"N, 66°27'48"W, De Leon [1 ♀, USNM: UCRCENT00248526]GoogleMaps  . ST. KITTS: Phillips Level , 430m, 17°21'55"N, 65°49'42"W, 19.vii – 31.viii.1985, LGoogleMaps  . Coote, rain forest, malaise trap [1 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00236027]. Wingfield Mt. , 400m, 17°20'35"N, 62°45'21"W, 1–31.x.1985, LGoogleMaps  . Coote, old field/forest, malaise trap [1 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00237653]. ST. LUCIA: Edmund Forest Reserve, 13°50'11"N, 60°59'47"W, 1.iii.2000, LGoogleMaps  . Masner, s.s. [1 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00408454]. TORTOLA, Sage Mtn. N. Pk , 87m, 18°24'13"N, 64°39'38"W, 28– 29.viii.1986, JGoogleMaps  . LaSalle, screen sweep [9 ♀, MTEC: UCRCENT00439341; TAMU: UCRCENT00184063–64; UCRC: UCRCENT00237472–73, UCRCENT00237494–97]. USA: Florida: Naples, 1m, 26°08'31"N, 81°47'41"W, viii.1987, Belmont [1 ♀, NMPC: UCRCENT00416469]GoogleMaps  .


Universidad de Buenos Aires


University of Coimbra Botany Department


Museo de Insectos


University of California, Riverside


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes


R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology


Texas A&M University


Escuela Agricola Panamericana


Montana State Entomology Collection


National Museum Prague














Orasema costaricensis Wheeler & Wheeler, 1937

Burks, Roger A., Heraty, John M., Dominguez, Chrysalyn & Mottern, Jason L. 2018

Orasema costaricensis

Wheeler & Wheeler 1937