Balanophyllia (Balanophyllia) capensis Verrill, 1865

Filander, Zoleka N., Kitahara, Marcelo V., Cairns, Stephen D., Sink, Kerry J. & Lombard, Amanda T., 2021, Azooxanthellate Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) from South Africa, ZooKeys 1066, pp. 1-198: 1

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1066.69697

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:133CE040-A5AF-44F1-BC9A-558C2F06A8AA

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/7B89349F-4A47-C966-0113-3B2CBBD6DA98

treatment provided by

ZooKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Balanophyllia (Balanophyllia) capensis Verrill, 1865
status

 

Balanophyllia (Balanophyllia) capensis Verrill, 1865  

Fig. 7K, N View Figure 7

Balanophyllia capensis   Verrill, 1865: 149. -van der Horst 1938: 140-142. pl. 6, figs 1-6. - Boshoff 1981: 40. - Cairns 1999b: 25.

Balanophyllia bonaespeii   . - Boshoff 1981: 40.

Balanophyllia cummingii   . - Boshoff 1981: 41.

Balanophyllia (Balanophyllia) capensis   . - Cairns 2001: 16.

Type locality.

Off Simonstown, South Africa; 567 m ( Verrill 1865; van der Horst 1938).

Type material.

The holotype is deposited at the YPM ( Gall 2020).

Material examined.

DEFF/SEAON _ A33997 View Materials (2 specimens): Southern margin, 39 km from Cape Padrone / 40 km off Boknes Estuary, 34°03'53.52"S, 26°42'11.58"E; 100 m. GoogleMaps   DEFF_BD17.INV02B (2 specimens): Southern margin, 27 km off Cintsa Mouth / 25 km off Bulura Estuary, 33°01'22.58"S, 28°17'18.05"E; 122 m. GoogleMaps   DEFF_NANSEN-INV 16 (1 specimen): Eastern margin, 16 km from Scottburgh /off Mahlongwana Estuary, 30°18'01.19"S, 30°54'47.40"E; 226 m. GoogleMaps   ORI_EIa3 (28 specimens), ORI _ EIa4 (1 specimen), ORI _ EIa5 (1 specimen): Eastern margin, other locality data unknown. SAMC_A073003 (2 specimens): Southern margin, other locality data unknown. SAMC_A073020 (8 specimens): Southern margin, Wavecrest Rocks ; depth unknown. SAMC_A073032 (1 specimen): Eastern margin, 9 km from Shaka’s Rock / 12 km off Mhlali Estuary, 29°32'06.00"S, 31°19'47.99"E; 50 m. GoogleMaps   SAMC_A073034 (12 specimens): Eastern margin, 53 km from Shaka’s Rock / 46 km off Zinkwasi Estuary, 29°33'29.87"S, 31°46'59.88"E; 180 m. GoogleMaps   SAMC_A073080 (3 specimens): Eastern margin, 49 km from Mtunzini / 42 km off Nyoni Estuary, 29°21'24.12"S, 31°56'12.11"E; 180 m. GoogleMaps   SAMC_A073111 (1 specimen): Southern margin, off Buffalo Bay; 10 m.   SAMC_A073121 (2 specimens): Eastern margin, 19 km from Shaka’s Rock /off Mhlali Estuary, 29°32'53.88"S, 31°25'30.00"E; 65 m. GoogleMaps   SAMC_A073122 (2 specimens): Eastern margin, 39 km from Port St. Johns / 13 km off Mkweni Estuary, 31°30'06.11"S, 29°55'12.00"E; 200 m. GoogleMaps   SAMC_A073163 (2 specimens): Eastern margin, 18 km from Coffee Bay / 16 km off Mdumbi Estuary, 32°01'59.87"S, 29°19'05.88"E; 200- 210 m. GoogleMaps   SAMC_A073174 (8 specimens): Eastern margin, 14 km from Coffee Bay / 9 km off Mdumbi Estuary, 31°58'48.00"S, 29°16'48.00"E; 90 m. GoogleMaps   SAMC_A073188 (1 specimen): Western margin, 31 km from Cape Point / 13 km off Krom Estuary, 34°09'24.00"S, 18°16'29.99"E; 75 m. GoogleMaps   SAMC_A073194 (1 specimen): Eastern margin, 46 km from Gonubie / 5 km off Berg River V Estuary, 32°57'11.87"S, 28°02'48.12"E; 30 m. GoogleMaps   SAMC_A073201 (2 specimens): Eastern margin, 10 km from Shaka’s Rock / 12 km off Mhlali Estuary, 29°31'59.88"S, 31°19'59.88"E; 51 m. GoogleMaps   SAMC_A073224 (1 specimen): Southern margin, Cape Point; 13 m.   SAMC_A073227 (5 specimens): Southern margin, 18 km from Pringle Bay / 16 km off Buffels Oos Estuary, 34°12'36.00"S, 18°46'54.00"E; 40 m. GoogleMaps   SAMC_A073229 (2 specimens): Southern margin, False Bay ; depth unknown. SAMC_A073230 (2 specimens): Southern margin, False Bay ; depth unknown. SAMC_A073231 (12 specimens): Southern margin, False Bay ; depth unknown. SAMC_A073234 (1 specimen): Southern margin, False Bay ; depth unknown. SAMC_A073244 (2 specimens): Southern margin, other locality data unknown. SAMC_A073246 (1 specimen): Eastern margin, 34 km from Coffee Bay / 7 km off Ntlonyane Estuary, 32°15'11.99"S, 28°57'42.00"E; 47 m. GoogleMaps   SAMC_A090104 (1 specimen): Southern margin, 24 km from Pringle Bay / 21 km off Buffels Oos Estuary, 34°09'18.00"S, 18°49'36.00"E; 18 m. GoogleMaps   SAMC_A090106 (1 specimen): Western margin, off Paternoster; depth unknown. SAMC_A090107 (1 specimen): Southern margin, 15 km off Arniston / 21 km off De Mond-Heuningnes Estuary, 34°46'59.99"S, 20°19'00.00"E; 80 m. GoogleMaps   SAMC_A090108 (3 specimens): Southern margin, False Bay ; depth unknown. SAMC_A090109 (1 specimen): Southern margin, 8 km from Port Elizabeth / 3 km off Bakens River Estuary, 33°58'05.99"S, 25°38'53.99"E; 9 m. GoogleMaps   SAMC_A090110 (1 specimen): Southern margin, 11 km off Pringle Bay / 8 km off Buffels Oos Estuary, 34°16'29.99"S, 18°49'29.99"E; 14- 17 m. GoogleMaps   SAMC_A090111 (6 specimen): Southern margin, 19 km from Pringle Bay / 16 km off Buffels Oos Estuary, 34°12'36.00"S, 18°46'41.99"E; 40 m. GoogleMaps   SAMC_A090120 (2 specimens): Western margin, 16 km from Cape Town /off Diep Estuary, 33°58'59.99"S, 18°21'00.00"E; 17 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H1368 (9 specimens): Southern margin, 29 km from Kenton On Sea /off Boesmans Estuary, 33°53'39.99"S, 26°51'00.00"E; 121 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H1371 (1 specimen): Southern margin, 3 km from East London / 2 km off Buffalo Estuary , 33°00'48.00"S, 27°55'18.73"E; intertidal. SAM_H1377 (1 specimen): Southern margin, 28 km from Port Alfred / 3 km off Old Woman’s Estuary, 33°30'00.00"S, 27°08'59.99"E; 93 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H1383 (1 specimen): Southern margin, 18 km from Cape Padrone / 30 km off Boknes Estuary, 33°49'00.00"S, 26°16'59.99"E; 65 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H1402 (2 specimens): Southern margin, 16 km from Cape Padrone / 28 km off Boknes Estuary , 33°54'15.00"S, 26°22'59.99"E; depth unknown. SAM_H1423 (1 specimen): Southern margin, off Great Fish Point Lighthouse, 183 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H1438 (1 specimen): Southern margin, 8 km from Pringle Bay / 6 km off Buffels Oos Estuary, 34°17'55.37"S, 18°49'10.85"E; 33 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H1471 (3 specimens): Eastern margin, 27 km from Mtunzini / 25 km off Matigulu Estuary, 29°10'36.00"S, 31°51'00.00"E; 115 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H1479 (3 specimens): Southern margin, 11 km from East London / 5 km off Gouda Estuary, 33°04'59.99"S, 27°49'29.99"E; 146- 283 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H1483 (9 specimens): Eastern margin, 27 km from Mtunzini / 25 km off Matigulu Estuary, 29°10'36.00"S, 31°51'00.00"E; 115 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H1484 (2 specimens): Western margin, 14 km from Cape Town / 8 km off Diep Estuary, 33°53'59.99"S, 18°23'59.99"E; 40 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H1501 (1 specimen): Eastern margin, 207 km from Coffee Bay /off Mdumbi Estuary, 33°12'00.00"S, 30°49'00.00"E; 73 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H3043 (6 specimens): Southern margin, 28 km from Port Alfred / 3 km off Old Woman’s Estuary, 33°30'00.00"S, 27°08'59.99"E; 93 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H3044 (9 specimens): Southern margin, 17 km from Cape Point / 7 km off Elsies Estuary, 34°12'36.38"S, 18°27'45.71"E; 31 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H3045 (1 specimen): Southern margin, 29 km from Kenton On Sea /off Boesmans Estuary, 33°53'39.99"S, 26°51'00.00"E; 121 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H3046 (3 specimens): Southern margin, 6 km from Kenton On Sea / 5 km off Boknes Estuary, 33°43'07.59"S, 26°37'37.95"E; 90 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H3047 (6 specimens): Southern margin, 2 km from Mosselbaai / 10 km off Hartenbos Estuary, 34°10'37.57"S, 22°09'19.14"E; 54 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H3048 (1 specimen): Southern margin, 20 km from Cape Point / 4 km off Elsies Estuary , 34°11'30.71"S, 18°25'55.55"E; depth unknown. SAM_H3143 (1 specimen): Southern margin, 177 km from Gonubie / 18 km off Berg River V Estuary, 33°04'36.00"S, 28°06'35.99"E; 90 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H3144 (19 specimens): Southern margin, 47 km from Port Alfred / 14 km off Mgwalana Estuary, 33°30'18.00"S, 27°22'05.99"E; 80 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H3145 (19 specimens): Southern margin, 15 km from Port Alfred / 11 km off Riet Estuary, 33°39'18.00"S, 27°01'36.00"E; 90 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H3146 (1 specimen): Southern margin, 46 km from Port Alfred / 12 km off Mgwalana Estuary, 33°29'24.00"S, 27°21'11.99"E; 80 m. GoogleMaps   SAM_H3367 (2 specimens): Southern margin, 15 km from Port Elizabeth / 16 km off Bakens River Estuary, 33°49'59.99"S, 25°40'00.00"E; depth unknown. SAM_H3835 (1 specimen): Southern margin, 21 km from East London / 18 km off Buffalo Estuary, 33°08'59.99"S, 28°01'59.99"E; 84 m. GoogleMaps   USNM 91776 (9 specimens): Eastern margin, 26 km from Durban / 22 km off Beachwood Mangroves, 29°48'00.00"S, 31°16'00.00"E; 232 m. GoogleMaps  

Imagery data.

BMNH 1939.7.20.479-500 (2 specimens), SS ' Valdivia   ' (1 specimen): South Africa, other locality data unknown. MN_SM179 (1 specimen): Southern margin, 47 km from Port Alfred/14 km off Mgwalana Estuary, 33°30'18.00"S, 27°22'05.99"E; 80 m. YPM 6827 (holotype): Western margin, off SIMONSTOWN; 567 m.

Description.

Corallum ceratoid to trochoid, straight to slightly curved, and attached through a robust pedicel (PD:GCD = 0.4-0.7) that expands into a thin encrusting base. Calice circular to elliptical (GCD:LCD = 1.1-1.3), calicular margin finely serrate. Largest specimen examined (SAM_H3146) 16.1 × 13.0 mm in CD, and 31.9 mm in H. Thick epitheca covering most of corallum, with transverse ridges. Costae conspicuous near calicular margin, equal in width, slightly convex, separated by porous and thin intercostal striae, and covered with fine pointed granules. Intercostal striae slightly sinuous. Epitheca slightly more solid than upper theca. Corallum white.

Septa hexamerally arranged in five cycles, the last being incomplete, according to the formula: S1 ≥ S2 > S3 > S4 > S5 or S1 ≥ S2 > S3 > S5 > S4 (≤ 74 septa). S1-2 independent but not reaching columella. S1 most exsert, with straight to dentate axial margins. S2 slightly less exsert, sometimes being slightly less wide, also having straight to dentate axial margins. S3-4 progressively less exsert. S3 half width of S2, with most dentate axial margins. S4 commonly arranged in a Pourtalès plan: in a half-system a pair of S4 fuses before S3, and then fuses before S2, before merging to columella. S4 axial margins laciniate. Sometimes S5 merge before S3, before meeting columella as one septum. In other cases, S5 restricted to calicular margin. Fossa of moderately depth, containing a varied slender and elongate spongy columella.

Distribution.

Regional: Western to southern margin of South Africa, extending from off Cape Town towards Mtunzini; 9-232 m. Elsewhere: Only known from South Africa.

Remarks.

Balanophyllia (B.) capensis   has overlapping distribution and common taxonomic characteristics (such as independent S1-2 that never meet columella, S4 arranged in a Pourtalès plan, and presence of epitheca) with B. bonaespei   , but may be distinguished by its larger corallum ( B. capensis   with GCD = 16.1 mm vs. B. bonaespei   GCD = 9.0 mm), and thicker epitheca that does not have transverse ridges.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Cnidaria

Class

Anthozoa

Order

Scleractinia

Family

Dendrophylliidae

Genus

Balanophyllia

Loc

Balanophyllia (Balanophyllia) capensis Verrill, 1865

Filander, Zoleka N., Kitahara, Marcelo V., Cairns, Stephen D., Sink, Kerry J. & Lombard, Amanda T. 2021
2021
Loc

Balanophyllia capensis

Verrill 1865
1865
Loc

Balanophyllia (Balanophyllia) capensis

Verrill 1865
1865