Cryphalus paramangiferae Johnson,

Johnson, Andrew J., Li, You, Mandelshtam, Michail Yu., Park, Sangwook, Lin, Ching-Shan, Gao, Lei & Hulcr, Jiri, 2020, East Asian Cryphalus Erichson (Curculionidae, Scolytinae): new species, new synonymy and redescriptions of species, ZooKeys 995, pp. 15-66: 15

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Cryphalus paramangiferae Johnson

sp. nov.

Cryphalus paramangiferae Johnson  sp. nov. Figures 2KView Figure 2, 3KView Figure 3, 15A-IView Figure 15

Type material examined.

China • 1 ♀ Holotype; Fujian, Quanzhou, Yongchun, Diyiyan; 25.3169°N, 118.2751°E; 26 Nov. 2015; You Li leg.; ex. Mangifera indica  ; IOZ(E)225765; ex v12347; UFFE:34967; ( IOZ) • 1 ♂ Paratype; same collection data; IOZ(E)225766; UFFE:34969; ( IOZ) • 1 ♀, 1 ♂ Paratypes; same collection data; pair in gallery with larvae; 1 larva used for DNA extraction without voucher; DNA: 28S:MG051113; UFFE:22108; ( UFFE) • 5 ♀♀, 5 ♂♂ Paratypes; same collection data; ex v12352; UFFE:34970; ( NHMUK, 1♀, 1♂; FSCA, 1♀, 1♂; MZB, 1♀, 1♂; NIAES, 1♀, 1♂; NMNS, 1♀, 1♂) • 6 ♀♀, 6 ♂♂ Paratypes; Fujian, Quanzhou, Nan’an, Pushan village; 25.1189°N, 118.4276°E; 01 May 2017; You Li leg.; ex. Mangifera indica  ; UFFE:34974; (RIFID, 1♀, 1♂; UFFE, 3♀♀, 3♂♂; USNM, 1♀, 1♂; ZIN, 1♀, 1♂).

Other material examined.

China • 1 ♂; Fujian, Quanzhou, Yongchun, Diyiyan; 25.3172°N, 118.2798°E; 17 Nov. 2015; You Li leg.; ex. Mangifera indica  ; UFFE:22062; ( UFFE) • 1 ♂; Fujian, Quanzhou, Yongchun, Diyiyan; 25.3169°N, 118.2751°E; 26 Nov. 2015; You Li leg.; ex. Mangifera indica  ; ex v12348; dissected; UFFE:34909 ( UFFE) • 1 ♂; same collection data; destructively extracted; DNA: 28S:MG051111; UFFE:25415; ( UFFE) • 1 ♂; same collection data; UFFE:34968; ( UFFE) • 3; Fujian, Quanzhou, Nan’an, Pushan village; 25.1189°N, 118.4276°E; 28 Apr. 2017; You Li leg.; ex. Mangifera indica  ; UFFE:26956 ( UFFE) • 1 ♂ ; same collection data; dissected; mango 5; UFFE:34965 • 2 ♀♀; Guangdong, Shenzhen, Yantian; 22.5889°N, 114.2842°E; 08 Apr. 2017; Wei Lin leg.; EtOH trap; UFFE:33204; ( UFFE).

Type locality.

China, Fujian, Quanzhou, Yongchun, Diyiyan; (25.317°N, 118.275°E).


This species is distinguished from other similar Cryphalus  by the frons with an aciculate texture, the frons of the male which also has a shining patch in the median made from a fine file-like structure, the pronotal disc which is long, and has fine hair-like setae with some bifurcating setae on baso-lateral areas, the elytral striae which are barely impressed, and the striae 1, 2 and 3 which on the declivity, is barely apparent.

This species is externally very similar to C. mangiferae  . They can be distinguished by the frons of the male ( C. paramangiferae  : with fine shining file like structure versus C. mangiferae  : identical to female), by a subtle difference in the vestiture of the pronotum ( C. paramangiferae  : very fine and hair like versus C. mangiferae  : coarse hair like), by a subtle difference in striae 1, 2, and 3 on the declivity ( C. paramangiferae  : slightly impressed and barely apparent with some ground vestiture between punctures versus C. mangiferae  : apparent without ground vestiture between punctures), by the setae near the dorso-anterior corner of the metaventrite ( C. paramangiferae  : fewer than 10 multifurcate setae not distinct from hair-like setae versus C. mangiferae  : 20 or more multifurcate setae, all distinctly smaller than other setae), and by the spinulae on the ejaculatory duct inside the aedeagus ( C. paramangiferae  : large spinulae versus C. mangiferae  : many small spinulae).

Female. Length 1.4-1.9 mm (Holotype 1.8 mm). Proportions 2.2 × as long as wide. Frons with converging aciculations and weakly emarginated at epistoma. Antennal funiculus usually with 4 segments. Antennal club with three evenly procurved sutures, slightly wider at apex. Pronotal profile widest in line with summit, approx. 0.85 × as long as wide. Pronotal margin armed with four to six serrations, the median pair larger and near contiguous. Pronotal declivity with more than 60 asperities (holotype has 68). Pronotal disc approximately one third of the length, gently sloped. Pronotal vestiture entirely fine hair-like, some bifurcating setae bifurcating in baso-lateral area. Suture between pronotum and elytra weakly sinuate. Scutellum shaped as a rounded triangle, almost semi-circular, with sparse, pale, hair-like setae. Elytra 1.6 × as long as pronotum, usually slightly darker colour than pronotum, medium-brown, broadly rounded with no clear transition to the declivity. Striae weakly visible as rows of punctures and hair like setae, slightly impressed. Interstrial bristles erect, curving posteriorly, slightly wider at base. Interstrial ground vestiture near triangular, dagger-like, tapering to a fine point, longer on declivity, ground vestiture on basal third are usually a light brown/cold colour. Protibiae and protarsi with only straight, hair-like setae. Mesocoxae moderately separated, much more than metacoxae. Ventrites with mostly hair-like setae. Last abdominal ventrite with margin of rounded tubercles. Proventriculus sutural teeth very weakly sclerotised, barely visible, rounded, in multiple irregular rows each side of suture. Apical teeth in multiple rows, extending almost the width of a segment. Closing teeth long, barely branched, extending beyond masticatory brush with fine, pointed branched tips. Masticatory brush slightly shorter than apical plate.

Male. Similar to female except: Length 1.4-1.9 mm. Frons with similar aciculations to females, but upper levels with glabrous patch with extremely fine transverse aciculations. Pronotal profile slightly more triangular, widest nearer base. Pronotal vestiture with fine hair-like setae and some bifurcating setae on baso-lateral areas. Protibiae and protarsi with coarse, curved setae on proximal edge of protibia and on the first few tarsi. Last abdominal ventrite very weakly emarginated. Aedeagus shorter, penis body sclerotised, only slightly tapered to a broadly rounded point at apex, ejaculatory duct with very large, rose-thorn-shaped spinulae, especially along portion inside penis body, end plates large and strongly sclerotised. Penis apodemes 1.5 × as long as penis body. Tegmen broad, with very short apodemes.


China (Fujian, Guangdong)


The name is derived from a combination of the Ancient Greek παρά, meaning near, next to or besides, and mangiferae  , the specific epithet of the species Cryphalus mangiferae  , a species which is phylogenetically and morphologically very similar. It is invariable.

Suggested vernacular name.

Chinese: 伪芒果梢小蠹; English: False mango bark beetle.

Recorded plant hosts.

Anacardiaceae  : Mangifera indica  L.


Johnson et al. (2017) noted a high genetic diversity of Cryphalus mangiferae  in Asia, suggesting that there are likely cryptic and near-cryptic species present. Two of the specimens used in the molecular study (specimen 54 and 71) are of this newly described species, from the type locality.

The morphological differences are sexual characters, likely to be a reproductive barrier between the two species. In a location near the type locality ( Nan’an), a sample reared from one log was of a mixture of C. mangiferae  and C. paramangiferae  , though no obvious differences in the biology were noted. All individuals collected in pairs corroborate these differences.

None of the examined types of synonyms of C. mangiferae  have the fine hair-like setae on the pronotum or less distinct striae.

Based on the key for Chinese Cryphalus  by Tsai and Li (1963), specimens of this species would fail on couplet 2/3, because the male frons does not have a prominent carina and the spinulae on the ejaculatory duct are distinctly spine-like rather than setiform.