Tactusinae Fibiger

FIBIGER, MICHAEL, 2010, Revision of the Micronoctuidae (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea) Part 3, Taxonomy of the Tactusinae, Zootaxa 2583 (1), pp. 1-119: 11-12

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http://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.2583.1.1

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scientific name

Tactusinae Fibiger

new subfamily

Subfamily Tactusinae Fibiger   , new subfamily

Type genus: Tactusa   , new genus; type-species Tactusa sumatrensis Fibiger   , new species.

Taxonomic notes. The subfamily consists of two tribes, Tactusini   , new tribe, with 10 new genera: Tactusa   , Conspica   , Tumula   , Dignus   , Vas, Nigerides   , Fustis   , Bruma   , Costasensora   , and Longiantrum   ; altogether with 49 species, 48 new, one previously described by Hampson (1898); and Obscurini   , new tribe, with 8 new genera: Abes   , Asyprocessa   , Tantulius   , Asylemissa   , Clarior   , Obscura   , Editum   , and Asytegumen   ; altogether with 15 new species. The genera are listed starting with the presumably most ancestral tribe and the most ancestral genus; within each genus, the first species is considered the most ancestral. It is possible to identify some genera by external characters and some species also, but the general rule in regard to Micronoctuidae   is that a correct identification of the species requires careful examination of the genitalia.

Diagnosis. Apomorphic character states of subfamily Tactusinae   present, but with only a few prominent synapomorphies; important ones indicated by (apo.); however, some weak, e.g., loss/absence of a character; and other apomorphies convergences with other groups.

Imago (external). Wingspan: in average sized Micronoctuidae   : between 8–12 mm.

Labial palps: dark brown, inside lighter brown; 2 nd segment ovoid, tufted scales downwards; 3 rd segment cylindrical; 1/3 length of 2 nd.

Antenna of both sexes: ciliate, with very small hairlike setae.

Forewing basal area: blackish patch on costa.

Tegulae, thorax, and ground colour of forewing: light yellowish brown, often with a well-marked costal patch between antemedial and postmedial lines; patch is either quadranglar or triangular.

Reniform stigma: whitish (not yellowish), often somewhat disguised in outer part of large costal patch; sometimes even difficult to detect, although it is always present.

Hindwing: marginally invaginated under apex.

Hindwing: greyish brown; with brown terminal line and indistinct discal spot; without medial line (apo.).

Underside: unicolorous greyish brown, except for a few, small beige costal spots on forewing, and indistinct discal spot on hindwing.

Hindleg: without scent brushes.

Abdomen: first segments with black or brown dorsal tufts.

Male genitalia. Tegumen: narrow, considerable narrower than vinculum and saccus (apo).

Vinculum: strongly built, loglike.

Saccus: short; strongly built, broadly V or U shaped.

Tergite and sternite: inconspicuous, except in one species.

Fultura superior and diaphragm dorsal to anellus: membranous (apo.).

Valva: asymmetrical.

Ampulla: asymmetrical; more or less T shaped with axis of valva, in Tactusa   often with ‘hanging arms’ (apo.); tapered at ventral and dorsal ends (apo.); some species with short, stout spines at ends; and different shape of inner and outer arms.

Digitus: absent or small in few species.

Pollex: absent.

Juxta and anellus plate: fully fused, with hole for phallus; slightly or strongly asymmetrical.

Phallus long; clockwise coiled; tapered towards apex; coecum upturned; broadest posterior to ductus ejaculatorius; subapically usually with one often prominent, long spine (apo.); some species with a shorter straight cylinder; and some with less prominent subterminal curve.

Vesica: often without, or with a single cornutus.

Female genitalia. Ovipositor: quadrangular with rounded corners.

Posterior apophyses: longer than ovipositor.

8 th abdominal segment: narrow; anterior margin without or with short extension ventrally (apo.).

8 th abdominal segment: usually separated from 7 th by membrane.

Anterior apophyses: shorter than posterior apophyses.

Ostium: more or less displaced to left.

Antrum: cylindrical; short or long; conelike, heavily sclerotised.

Ductus bursae: membranous, long, often coiled.

Appendix bursae: arising anteriorly from ductus bursae, immediately posterior to antrum.

Corpus bursae: globular.

Signum: cross shaped.

Differential diagnosis. Species of Tactusinae   differ from those of four previously described subfamilies Pollexinae, Belluliinae, Magninae, and Parachrostiinae   ( Fibiger, 2007; 2008) in a few prominent characters: costa of forewing with a well-marked quadranglar or triangular patch between antemedial and postmedial lines; reniform stigma whitish or occasionally yellowish, often somewhat disguised in outer part of large costal patch; sometimes even difficult to detect, although always present; 8 th abdominal segment narrow and anterior margin not or shortly extended ventrally; usually connected by a membrane to 7 th segment; fultura superior membranous; anellus usually inconspicuous, except in Fustis   , where it is log- or clublike; and