Austrocarabodes nortoni, Hugo-Coetzee, Elizabeth A., 2011

Hugo-Coetzee, Elizabeth A., 2011, Three new species of Austrocarabodes (Oribatida: Carabodidae) and notes on Austrocarabodes pinnatus Mahunka, 1986, from South Africa, Zootaxa 3011, pp. 1-15: 2-6

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.202559


persistent identifier

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scientific name

Austrocarabodes nortoni

sp. nov.

Austrocarabodes nortoni   sp. nov.

( Figs 1–3 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 )

Colour. Light brown

Dimensions. Length: females (n = 7) mean 827 μm (range 710–890), males (n = 10) mean 687 μm (range 600– 760). Width: females mean 527 μm (range 430–590), males mean 429 μm (range 350–490). Holotype (male): length 740 μm, width 470 μm.

Prodorsum ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 A). Surface of lamella smooth, prodorsal surface between lamellae foveolate, foveolae arranged in rows, foveolae smaller in anterior region than posterior; rostrum rounded; rostral seta (ro), interlamellar seta (in) phylliform, smooth, ro inserted on tubercle originating on translamella, curving forward and downwards, in curving laterally, lamellar seta (le) phylliform, barbed; sensillus (ss) with short peduncle (specimens from Vernon Crooks Nature Reserve and Umtata River mouth have longer peduncles, so that the head curves slightly backward), head clavate, spiculate, circular darker patch in middle of head.

Notogaster ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 A). Surface foveolate, foveolae arranged in polygonal structure, regions around alveoli of notogastral setae without ornamentation; anterior margin convex; notogastral setae phylliform, smooth, with strong midribs, ending in sharp, slightly bent tips, inner margin of setae (facing middle of notogaster) thinner than outer margin; c 1, da not reaching alveolus of da, dm respectively.

Coxisternal region ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 B). Epimeral surface finely punctate, surface of mentum rugulose; apodemes and borders clearly visible; setae 1 a, 1 c very short, barely visible, setae 1 b, 2 a, 3 a, 3 b, 4 a spiniform, smooth, setae 3 c, 4 b, 4 c spiniform, barbed.

Anogenital region ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 B). Surface foveolate, foveolae arranged in rows, surface of genital and anal plates punctate; genital, aggenital (ag), anal setae spiniform, smooth, adanal (ad) setae phylliform, smooth, similar to notogastral setae but smaller; lyrifissure iad situated anterio-laterally to ad 3, halfway between ad 3 and lateral margin of ventral plate.

Legs ( Figs 2–3 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 ). Leg IV> leg I> leg III> leg II; setation of legs I–IV (solenidia in parentheses) (including famulus): trochanters ( Tr) 1 - 1-2 - 1, femora (Fe) 4 - 4 - 3 - 2, genua (Ge) 3 (1)- 3 (1)- 1 (1)- 2, tibiae (Ti) 4 (2)- 3 (1)- 2 (1)- 2 (1), tarsi (Ta) 16 (2)- 15 (2)- 15 - 11 (see Table 1 for setation detail); seta u proximally dilated, tapering into long slen- der sharp tip; seta p on Ta I shorter than on legs II–IV, seta l” on Ge I–II, Fe I–II, seta l’ on Ge III–IV, Fe III phylliform, heavily barbed; paraxial surface of Fe I–IV, Tr III–IV punctate, antiaxial surface of Fe III–IV, Tr III–IV punctate, rugulose towards the edges.

Trochanter Femur Genu Tibia Tarsus

Leg I v’ d, (l), bv” (l), v’, σ (l), (v), ϕ 1,ϕ 2 (ft) ω 1, ω 2, ε, (tc), (it), (p), (u), s, (a), (pv) Leg II v’ d, (l), bv” (l), v’, σ (v), l’, ϕ (ft) ω 1, ω 2, (tc), (it), (p), (u), s, (a), (pv) Leg III l’, v’ d, l’, e v’ l’, σ (v), ϕ (f t), (tc), (it), (p), (u), s, (a), (pv) Leg IV v’ d, e v’ d, l’ (v), ϕ ft”, (tc), (p), (u), (a), s, pv’

Etymology. This species is named in honour of Prof. Roy Norton from SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, New York, USA, for his insightful comments and guidance in various previous papers of mine.

Differential diagnosis and remarks. The combination of the form of the sensillus (clavate head with dark patch), the smooth phylliform notogastral setae, the barbed lamellar seta and the particular ornamentation makes A. nortoni   unique.

The most apparent characteristic of this species is the clavate, barbed sensillus with a darker patch in the middle of the head. Other species with a similar form of sensillus include A. falcatus Hammer, 1973   , A. bacilliger Mahunka, 1978   , A. spathulatus Mahunka, 1978   , A. boninensis ( Aoki, 1978)   , A. vaucheri Mahunka, 1984   , A. latissimus Mahunka, 2000   , A. obscurus Aoki, 2006   and A. patakii Mahunka & Mahunka-Papp, 2009   . However, none of these species have a darker patch in the middle of the sensillar head. Another clear characteristic of A. nortoni   is the smooth phylliform notogastral setae which end in very sharp, slightly bent tips. Other species with smooth phylliform notogastral setae are A. sphaerula Balogh, 1970   , A. haradai ( Aoki, 1978)   , A. sinuosociliatus Mahunka, 1983   , A. flabellifer Mahunka, 1986   , A. tarandus Mahunka, 1986   , A. ocellatus Mahunka, 1987   , A. picturatus Mahunka, 1987   , A. polytrichus Balogh & Mahunka, 1978   , A. rimosus Mahunka, 1987   , A. bellicosus Balogh, 1988   , A. mixtus Mahunka, 1996   , A. bituberculatus Aoki, 2006   , A. obscurus Aoki, 2006   , A. falcatus   , A. boninensis   , A. latissimus   and A. luciensis   . The notogastral setae of A. haradai   are the most similar to A. nortoni   , also ending in very sharp, slightly bent tips. Austrocarabodes nortoni   has barbed lamellar seta (le) while all the other dorsal setae are smooth. Other species with this characteristic are A. polytrichus   and A. latissimus   . The particular ornamentation on the notogaster of A. nortoni   (foveolate, regions around setal alveoli without ornamentation) is very similar to that of A. bellicosus   .

Type material. The holotype (3303.14.1) and 10 paratypes (3303.14.2) were sampled at Kogel Bay in the Western Cape (34 º02’S, 18 º 43 ’E) in humid soil and decomposed plant debris near the beach by C. M. Engelbrecht, 4.v. 1983. The holotype and paratypes are deposited in the Acarology collection of the National Museum, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

Collection data. Known distribution of A. nortoni   is indicated by filled squares on the map of South Africa, Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 . Abbreviations for provinces: KZN = KwaZulu-Natal; EC = Eastern Cape; WC = Western Cape.

Glentana WC (34 º01’S, 22 º 18 ’E, humid soil in indigenous forest); Kogel Bay WC (34 º02’S, 18 º 43 ’E, humid soil and decomposed plant debris near beach); Umtata River mouth EC (31 º 56 ’S, 29 º 11 ’E; humid soil with organic material); Vernon Crookes Nature Reserve KZN (30 º07’S, 30 º 23 ’E; soil and decomposed plant debris); Hluleka Nature Reserve Transkei EC (31 º 49 ’S, 29 º 15 ’E, soil from under driftwood in the supralittoral region of a sandy bay).