Coniocarpon cinnabarinum DC.

Frisch, Andreas, Moen, Victoria Stornes, Grube, Martin & Bendiksby, Mika, 2020, Integrative taxonomy confirms three species of Coniocarpon (Arthoniaceae) in Norway, MycoKeys 62, pp. 27-51 : 27

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Coniocarpon cinnabarinum DC.


Coniocarpon cinnabarinum DC. Figs 2 View Figure 2 , 3A View Figure 3 , 4A, B View Figure 4 , 5 View Figure 5 , 6A View Figure 6

Coniocarpon cinnabarinum DC.: Lamarck and de Candolle, Flore française 2: 323 (1805). Type: not selected [see under "Notes" below].

= Spiloma? tumidulum Ach., Methodus qua omnes detectos lichenes: 11 (1803) [MB 405550]. Type: Hispania, Schousboe (H-Ach. 3 c!, holotype).

= Spiloma tumidulum var. rubrum Ach., Lichenographia universalis: 137 (1810) - nom. illegit. Type: Gallia (H-Ach. 2 c!).


Thallus pale olive gray to brown, weakly glossy to matt, smooth, endophloeodal to partly epiphloeodal, continuous; prothallus line dark gray to brown, sometimes present when in contact with other lichens; photobiont trentepohlioid, the cells rounded to elliptical, 7-12 × 4-8 μm, forming short chains. Ascomata irregularly rounded to elliptical to weakly lobed, rarely distinctly lirellate, with steep flanks, emergent from thallus, 0.1-0.4 × 0.1-0.3 mm, 95-140 µm tall, solitary or forming loose to dense aggregations of 3-15 ascomata, (0.3-)0.5-2.0(-3.5) × 0.3-1.6 mm; disc dark purple black, flat to weakly convex, matt to weakly glossy, white pruinose, a layer of orange-red pruina sometimes present above the white pruina; old ascomata sometimes epruinose; margins level with the disc, typically orange-red pruinose, sometimes with additional patches of white pruina; proper exciple brown, 8-15 µm wide, composed of compressed and vertically oriented paraphysoidal hyphae, the hyphae 1-2 µm thick, branched and netted, often forming short hairs up to 15 µm long at the outer margin; old bark cells often attached to the exciple; epithecium brown, 10-25 µm tall, conglutinated only in the lower parts, composed of branched tips of the paraphysoidal hyphae extending horizontally above the asci; the tips slightly widened to 3(-4) µm, sometimes extending from the epithecium as sparsely branched anticlinal hairs up to 22 µm long; hymenium hyaline, strongly conglutinated, (45-)65-90 µm tall, paraphysoids densely branched and netted, 1-2 µm thick; hypothecium hyaline, conglutinated, 20-35 µm tall, formed of irregular prosoplectenchymatic hyphae 1-2 µm diam.; crystals common in epithecium and proper exciple, of two types: hyaline, leafy crystals, 1-5(-8) µm, and orange, red or purple, granular crystals, 1-2(-4) µm; a weak amorphous, red to purple pigmentation present in exciple, epithecium and patchily distributed in the hymenium. ASCI of the Arthonia -type, long obpyriform to clavate, 62-84 µm × 24-35 µm (n = 34), 8-spored, the ascospores stacked; tholus 8-11 µm thick, lateral ascospore wall 1-2 µm thick. ASCOSPORES hyaline, (3-)4-5(-8) transversely septate, (19-)23-28(-30) × (8-)10-11(-12) µm (l: mean = 25.7, STD = 2.3; w: mean = 10.5, STD = 0.9; n = 132), obovate, with enlarged apical cell, getting pale brown with granular ornamentation in the epispore at late maturity; development macrocephalic.


Pigments A1, A3 and A4 in variable amounts detected by HPTLC. Proper exciple Idil+ blue, I+ blue, KI+ blue; epithecium Idil+ blue, I+ blue, KI+ blue; hymenium Idil+ red, I+ red, KI+ blue; hypothecium Idil+ red, I+ red, KI+ blue. A hemiamyloid ring present in the tholus of the asci. Hyaline crystals dissolve in K. Orange, red and purple crystals dissolve in K with a clear, fleeting, purplish solution.

Specimens examined.

Norway - Rogaland • Rennesøy, Berge; 59°05.868'N, 05°42.320'E; on C. avellana ; 30-40 m a.s.l.; 12. Jan. 2008; J. I. Johnsen leg.; BG L-86128. - Hordaland • Askøy, close to Ask farm; on S. aucuparia ; 10-30 m a.s.l.; 31. Aug. 1909; J. J. Havaas leg.; UPS-L-277202. • Bømlo, Børøy, Storavatnet; 59°42.9420'N, 05°15.7680'E; on C. avellana ; 30. Apr. 2018; G. Gaarder leg.; TRH-L-18030 • ibid.; Lykling; 59°42.6780'N, 05°12.3540'E; on C. avellana ; 30. Apr. 2018; G. Gaarder leg.; TRH-L-18036 • ibid.; S of Liarnuten; on C. avellana ; 21. Jun. 1997; T. Knutsson leg.; UPS-L-737333 • ibid.; Skogafjellet; 59°38.812'N, 05°12.098'E; on C. avellana ; 35 m a.s.l., 19. Jul. 2017; A. Frisch leg.; TRH-L-29000 • ibid.; 59°38.818'N, 05°12.082'E; on C. avellana ; 10 m a.s.l.; 19. Jul. 2017; A. Frisch leg.; TRH-L-29006, TRH-L-29007, TRH-L-29008 • ibid.; on F. excelsior ; A. Frisch leg.; TRH-L-29009 • ibid.; 59°38.833'N, 05°12.153'E; on C. avellana ; 50 m a.s.l.; 19. Jul. 2017; A. Frisch leg.; TRH-L-29001, TRH-L-29002. • Kvam, Gravdal SW, Geitaknottane Nat. Reserve, NE of Lønningshaugen; 60°06.690'N, 05°51.068'E; on C. avellana ; 150-250 m a.s.l.; 28. Aug. 1997; P. G. Ihlen leg.; BG-L-35863. • Lindås, Kvalvika-Røyldalane; 60°38.338'N, 05°26.258'E; on C. avellana ; 35 m a.s.l.; 14. May 2018; A. Frisch leg.; TRH-L-29010, TRH-L-29011, TRH-L-29012. • Os, Innerøya, Halhjem; 60°08.5020'N, 05°24.8520'E; on S. aucuparia ; 10. May 2018; G. Gaarder leg.; TRH-L-18042 • ibid.; 60°08.5920'N, 05°25.3440'E; on C. avellana ; 10. May 2018; G. Gaarder leg.; TRH-L-18043. • Stord, Digernes, Geitåsen; 59°45.402'N, 05°25.092'E; on C. avellana ; 28. Apr. 2018; G. Gaarder leg.; TRH-L-18033 • ibid.; Valavåg, Nes-Åsen; 59°46.0740'N, 05°24.8040'E; on C. avellana ; 27. Apr. 2018; G. Gaarder, U. Hanssen leg.; TRH-L-18087. • Tysnes, Beltestad, Beltestadknappen; 59°59.883'N, 05°27.543'E; on C. avellana ; 13 m a.s.l.; 9. May 2018; A. Frisch leg.; TRH-L-29003, TRH-L-29004 • ibid.; 59°59.900'N, 05°27.555'E; on C. avellana ; 5 m a.s.l.; 9. May 2018; A. Frisch leg.; TRH-L-29005. SWEDEN - Gotland • Stenkumla, Myrsö; 1869; Laurer leg.; UPS-L-002825. - Skåne • Dalby, Dalby Söderskog; on F. excelsior ; 23. Jul. 1947; R. Santesson leg.; UPS-L-118296 • ibid.; Ottarp, Bälteberga; on F. excelsior ; 20. Aug. 1946; O. Almborn leg.; S-F-71116, UPS-L-60625 • ibid.; 16. Sep. 1959; G. Degelius, O. Almborn leg.; UPS-L-60624. DENMARK - Jylland • Horsens, Elling Skov; on F. excelsior ; 26. Mar. 1887; J. Jeppesen leg.; C-L-28996 • ibid.; on F. sylvatica ; 26. Mar 1887; J. Jeppesen leg.; C-L-28993 • ibid.; on F. excelsior ; 26. Feb. 1887; J. Jeppesen leg.; S-F-71202, C-L-28992 • ibid.; on F. excelsior ; 20. Feb. 1887; J. P. Pedersen leg.; C-L-28991, C-L-28994 • ibid.; Hansted Skov; on F. excelsior ; 5. Des. 1886; J. Jeppesen leg.; C-L-29000 • ibid.; 1. Feb. 1887; J. Jeppesen leg.; C-L-28999 • ibid.; on F. sylvatica ; 6. Mar. 1887; J. Jeppesen leg.; C-L-28998. • Lihme, Kås skov; on C. avellana ; 6. Aug. 1979; G. Thor leg.; UPS-L-165392 • ibid.; on F. excelsior ; 25. May. 1976; S. Svane leg.; C-L-28997, C-L-28988 • ibid.; on C. avellana ; 25. May 1976; M. S. Christansen leg.; C-L-28990 • ibid.; Bringsbjerg Krat; 56°37.129'N, 08°41.423'E; on C. avellana ; 21. Oct. 2002; R. S. Larsen leg.; C-L-17076. - Sjælland • Haslev; 29. Jul. 1887; Taussieng leg.; C-L-28995 • ibid.; Skarresø; 4. Nov. 1870; C. Grönlund leg.; UPS-L-002896.


Coniocarpon cinnabarinum differs from the other Coniocarpon species in Norway by distinctly larger ascospores and in ascospore septation: (19-)23-28(-30) × (8-)10-11(-12) µm, (3-)4-5(-8) transversely septate vs (15-)16-18(-20) × (6-)7-8(-9) µm, (2-)3(-4) transversely septate in C. cuspidans vs (15-)17-20(-22) × (6-)7-9(-10) µm, (1-)3-4(-5) transversely septate in C. fallax . Further, the ascomata in C. cinnabarinum are mostly irregularly rounded to elliptical and only rarely lirellate as in C. cuspidans and C. fallax . The ascomatal disc in C. cinnabarinum is typically covered by a thick layer of white pruina which may be overlaid by orange-red pruina, and the ascomatal margin is orange-red pruinose. In C. cuspidans , the ascomata completely lack orange-red pruina, while a thin white pruina may be occasionally present. In C. fallax , the distribution of pruina is similar to C. cinnabarinum , but the white pruina is less pronounced and may even be lacking. Additional differences have been observed in the reaction of proper exciple and epithecium to iodine: Idil/I+ blue in C. cinnabarinum and C. fallax vs Idil/I+ red in C. cuspidans . The quinoid pigments A1, A3 and A4 have been identified in C. cinnabarinum in various amounts. The quinoid patterns in C. fallax are similar, while in C. cuspidans A3 is absent or occurs in trace amounts only. The pigment A2 has only been found in C. cuspidans .

Coniocarpon cinnabarinum is the selected type species of Coniocarpon ( Santesson 1952), but the name is preceded by Spiloma tumidulum ( Acharius 1803) and possibly Sphaeria gregaria Weigel (1772). The situation is further complicated by the fact that the only specimen of C. cinnabarinum in PC that is unequivocally linked to the publication of Flore française and donated by de Candolle, represents C. fallax . Since C. cinnabarinum is a well established species and often cited in literature, we intend to propose this name for conservation. The typification of the species will be discussed in the proposal, which is currently under preparation.