Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret),

Moghaddam, Masumeh, 2013, A review of the mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae, Putoidae and Rhizoecidae) of Iran, with descriptions of four new species and three new records for the Iranian fauna, Zootaxa 3632 (1), pp. 1-107: 76-77

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Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret)


Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) 

( Fig. 42View FIGURE 42)

Dactylopius indicus Signoret, 1875 a: 317  . Dactylopius viburni Signoret, 1875 a: 323  . Dactylopius affinis Maskell, 1894: 90  . Pseudococcus obscurus Essig, 1909: 43  . Pseudococcus capensis Brain, 1912: 182  . Pseudococcus nicotianae Leonardi, 1913: 76  . Pseudococcus longispinus latipes Green, 1917: 264  . Pseudococcus fathyi Bodenheimer, 1944: 90  . Pseudococcus malacearum Ferris, 1950: 185  .

DIAGNOSIS. Body of adult female oval, with anal lobes moderately developed. Antennae 8 segmented. Legs well developed; translucent pores absent from hind coxae, but numerous on posterior surfaces of hind femur and tibia. Cerarii numbering 17 pairs, each normally with 2 enlarged conical setae, except for each anterior mesothoracic pair (C 5) and frontal cerarii, each usually with 3 conical setae. Circulus present. Ostioles well developed. Dorsal oral rim ducts often each with a discoidal pore next to rim, present singly behind each frontal cerarius, and normally between cerarii C 6 and C 7 and on abdomen near cerarii C 11 and C 13 –-C 16; other oral rim ducts present on thorax and anterior abdominal segments, and near midline of posterior abdominal segments. Ventral oral rim ducts usually present on margins of thorax and abdominal segment I. Total number of oral rim ducts on abdomen 10–18. Dorsal setae mostly short; ventral setae normal, flagellate. Trilocular pores present, evenly distributed on dorsum and venter. Multilocular disc pores present posterior to vulva and on anterior and posterior edges of abdominal segments V –VII, not reaching margins; others located on posterior edge of abdominal segment IV; sometimes 1 or 2 present medially on thorax. Discoidal pores scattered on dorsum and venter, plus 1–3 present adjacent to each eye on a membranous area. Dorsal oral collar ducts few, present on margins of abdominal segments III –VII. Ventral oral collar ducts normally of 2 sizes: a large duct similar to dorsal ducts, distributed across abdominal segments III –VII, present in groups around abdominal margins and sparsely on anterior margin, except for a cluster situated lateral to each first spiracle; also with others on anterior margin forwards to between antennal bases; plus a minute and slender duct present medially across abdominal segments and medially on thorax.

DISTRIBUTION. Afrotropical, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oriental, Palaearctic: Afghanistan, Belgium, Bulgaria, China, England, Germany, Hungary, Iran, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Turkey. In Iran, P. viburni  occurs in Esfahan, Gilan, Khorasan, Khouzestan, Mazandaran and Tehran. This mealybug is known from 92 plant families (Ben-Dov et al., 2012).

MATERAIL EXAMINED. Esfahan: Kashan, Bagherabad, 3 adult Ƥ, on Punica granatum  ( Lythraceae  ), (Unknown). Gilan: Astaneh Ashrafiyeh, 8 adult Ƥ, on Thea sinensis  ( Theaceae  ), 19.ix. 2004, 23 m; Lahijan, Kelarsar, 8 adult Ƥ, on T. sinensis  , 2 adult Ƥ, Rosa  sp. ( Rosaceae  ), 7 adult Ƥ, Catalpa speciosa  ( Bignoniaceae  ), 2000, (Unknown); Nashtarood, 2 adult Ƥ, on T. sinensis  , 27.vii. 2006 (Malkeshi); Rasht, Lashtenesha, 1 adult Ƥ, unknown plant, 23.viii. 2009; Roodbar, Garmabsar, 2 adult Ƥ, on Albizzia  sp. ( Fabaceae  ), 7.ix. 2005; Siyahkal, Mehrbon, 8 adult Ƥ, on T. sinensis  , 19.ix. 2004, 201 m.; Siyahkal, Azbaram, 11 adult Ƥ, on Albizzia  sp., 14.xi. 2007 (Pournasir). Khorasan –e Razavi: Kashmar, 3 adult Ƥ, on Vitis persica  ( Vitaceae  ), 22.iv. 1995, (Unknown). Khouzestan: Ahvaz, 3 adult Ƥ, on Dieffenbachia  sp. ( Araceae  ), 1.iv. 1996 (Bani-Ameri). Mazandaran: Abbasabad, 4 adult Ƥ, on Codiaeum variegatum  ( Euphorbiaceae  ), 30.9.2008; Chalus, 4 adult Ƥ, C. bariegatum  ( Euphorbiaceae  ); Ramsar, 15 adult Ƥ, on Cupressus  sp. ( Cupressaceae  ), 2 adult Ƥ, Buxus hyrcana  ( Buxaceae  ), 2 adult Ƥ, Ficus  carica  ( Ficeae  ), 5 adult Ƥ, Solanum tuberosum  ( Solanaceae  ); Tonekabon, 1 adult Ƥ, on Ginko biloba  ( Ginkgoaceae  ), 4.i. 1969. Tehran: Tehran, 1 adult Ƥ, on Cupressus  sp., 3.x. 1969, 14 adult Ƥ, Amaranthus blitum  ( Amaranthaceae  ), 27.viii. 2007 (Malkeshi); 7 adult Ƥ, Morus alba  ( Moraceae  ), 6.iii. 2009 (Solhjou).

COMMENTS. P. viburni  is a common polyphagous mealybug in much of northern Iran, except in southern Khouzestan. This mealybug was incorrectly identified as P. maritimus  for many years in Iran (Kiriukhin, 1947). Heidari (1985) corrected it as P. v i bu r n i. This mealybug is a dominant species in tea gardens in Mazandaran and Gilan in northern Iran. One of the most important studies on P. viburni  has been done in Iran by Abbasipour & Taghavi (2007) who found four generations per year, as indicated by peaks in crawler density, with the population increasing rapidly to an early peak in April. A molecular study on the identification of three of the most important mealybug species on ornamental plants in Gilan ( P. citri  , P. viburni  and P. c o m s t o c k i) was done by Hosseini & Hajizadeh (2011). With regard to natural enemies, one of the most effective predators of P. v i b u r n i in Iran is the ladybird Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant  ( Coleoptera  , Coccinellidae  ), which has been mass produced in insectariums at IRIPP (Biological Control Researches Dept.) (Malkeshi et al. 2010). The plant families Amaranthaceae  , Ginkgoaceae  and Lythraceae  are new records for P. viburni  .

The accompanying illustration first appeared in Gimpel & Miller (1996) and is reproduced here, with permission from the authors and the editor of Contributions on Entomology, International.