Prunus gongshanensis J.Wen, J. Wen, 2012

Wen, Jun & Shi, Wenting, 2012, Revision of the Maddenia clade of Prunus (Rosaceae), PhytoKeys 11, pp. 39-59: 50-52

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Prunus gongshanensis J.Wen

sp. nov.

4. Prunus gongshanensis J.Wen   sp. nov. Fig. 4 View Figure 4


China. Yunnan: Gongshan Xian, Gongshan, on the way from Qingnatong to Anwalong, 3100 m, small tree 4 m tall, in the valley in shrublands, 31 May 1979, fl, flowers white, common, Lujiang Expedition 790292 (holotype: KUN!; isotype: KUN!).

Maddenia himalaica   var. glabrifolia H.Hara, J. Jap. Bot. 51(1): 8. 1976. Type: Bhutan. Rukubi: Chendebi, 2600 m, 14 Apr 1967, H. Kanai, G. Murata, H. Ohashi, O. Tanaka & T. Yamazaki 4191 (holotype: TI; isotype: E!).


Small trees 4-8 m tall. Branches purple, shiny glabrous; branchlets of first year’s growth pubescent. Winter buds purplish brown, ovoid; scales to 4-20 × 3-15 mm, ovate, outside brown pubescent but glabrescent. Stipules lanceolate to broadly so, 12-25 × 2-8 mm, membranaceous, margin with glandular teeth, apex acuminate to acute. Petiole 2.5-5 mm, brownish pubescent. Leaves oblong, elliptic to ovate, 5-13 × 2-6 cm, abaxially light green, nearly glabrous, only pubescent on lateral vein axils, adaxially dull green and glabrous, margin doubly irregularly serrate at the upper 2/3, glandularly serrulate at the lower 1/3, teeth at the margin sharp, apex acuminate, base subcordate to broadly cuneate; secondary veins 20-24 on either side of midvein. Racemes 4-6 cm, brown pubescent, 12-16 flowered; bracts lanceo late to ovate, 4.5-6 × 2.5-3.4 mm, membranaceous, margin entire to serrate. Pedicel 2.5-4 mm at anthesis, densely brown-pubescent. Hypanthium campanulate, 4-6 × 4-9 mm, brownish pubescent outside, glabrous inside. Perianth segments 10, narrowly triangular to lanceolate, 1.5-3.2 × 0.7-1 mm, caduceus, pubescent. Stamens 25-45, 5.5-7 mm long; filaments 5-7 mm; anthers oblong, 0.3-0.35 × 0.25-0.3 mm. Ovary glabrous, 1-locular. Style slender, 7-9 mm long. Drupe ovoid, glabrous, 8-9 × 5-6.5 mm, dark purple to black.


Western China, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, and northern India.


Shady valleys and forests. Fl. Mar-Jul; fr. Jun-Jul; 2100-3500 m.


This species is named after the mountain range, the Gaoligong mountains or known as Gongshan, where this species was first recognized.

Specimens examined.

Bhutan. Griffith 2057 (GH, K); Gasa (2600) - Pari La (3550) - Chamsa (3500), 14 May 1967, Kanai et al.12806 (E). Gasa (2600 m) - Pari La (3550) - Chamsa (3500 m), 14 May 1967, Kanai et al.12895 (BM). Buhtan, Mishina (1300 m) - Dochu La (3950 m) - Thimphu (2250 m), 28 Apr 1967, Hara et al. 10319 (BM); Punakha district,forest slopes between Dochong La and Menchunang 27°30', 89°45', evergreen oak forest, large shrubs or small tree 8 m, deciduous young leaves dark red, stamens creamy, sepals and petals crimson, 2750 m, 19 Apr 1982, A.J.C.Grierson & D.G.Long 4481 (E, K). China. Yunnan: Fugong Xian, Yaping Xiang. Between the Shibali logging station and Yaping pass,ca. 8.5 km W of Shibali, on the road from the Nujiang to Yaping pass, E side of Gaoligong Shan, 3106 m, 27°11'6"N, 98°43'12"E, moist forests with thickets, tree, 6-7 m tall, fl white, growing in forest, 8 May 2004, Gaoligong Shan Biodiversity Survey 20474 (CAS). Fugong Xian, Yaping Xiang, in the vicinity of Yaping near the Myanmar border, E side of Gaoligong Shan, 3500 m, 27°12'37"N, 98°42'33"E, Rhododendron   -bamboo thicket, tree, 5 m tall, in moist area, along road, evergreen forest. 2 May 2004, Gaoligong Shan Biodiversity Survey 20059 (CAS). Gongshan Xian, Cikai Zheng, E side of Gaoligongshan, W of Gongshan, along the Pula He on the trail from Qiqi to Dongshao Fang and the Dulong Jiang Valley, 2770-3050 m, 27°42'28"N, 98°29'49"E, conifer-deciduous forest with mostly conifers at the upper elevation, deciduous tree ca. 7 m tall, young fruit green, growing along trail in sun, 15 July 2000, H.Li 12626 (CAS); Gongshan Xian, Dulongjiang, Dongshanpian, mixed forest, alt 2100m tree 8m tall, leaf purplish green, flower raceme, fruit green, 15 Apr 1991, Dulongjiang Expedition 5876 (CAS); Gongshan Xian, Cikai Zheng, E side of Gaoligongshan, W of Gongshan, along the Pula He on the trail from No. 12 bridge to Dongshaofang and Dulong Jiang Valley, 3000 m, 27°41'42.5"N, 98°29'5.8"E, primary evergreen broad-leaved forest, growing on the roadside, tree ca. 2 m tall, bud green, 1 May 2002, H.Li 14796 (CAS); Gongshan Xian, Mt. Kenicunpo, eastern and western slopes, Salwin and Irrawady divide, tree 10-12 ft tall, flowers yellow, middle slopes in forest, 10000 ft, May-July 1932, J.F.Rock 22026 (A, BM, E, K, NY); Gongshan Drungzu Nuza Zizhixian, Cikai Zheng. E side of Gaoligong Shan, W of Gongshan, along the Pula He on the trail from No. 12 bridge to Dongshaofang and Dulong Jiang valley, 3000 m, 27°42'54"N, 98°30'8"E, primary evergreen broad-leaved forest, tree ca. 6 m tall, calyx green, stamens ligh t yellow, growing on the roadside, 1 May 2002, H.Li 14808 (CAS); Gongshan Xian, Dulongjiang, Dizhenggang, Dongshanan mixed forest, 2100 m, deciduous tree 8 m tall, 15 Apr 1991, fl, Dulongjiang Expedition 5876 (KUN); Gongshan, at the divide of Chang River and Lu River, Doyon - Lumba, 3000-3200 m, frequent, tree, 25 Aug 1940, sterile, K.M.Feng 6922 (KUN); Gongshan, Bingzhongle, Songta, slope, in Tsuga forest, 2900 m, tree, 25 Jun 1982, late fl & young fr, Qing Zang Team 7537 (KUN, PE, 3 sheets); Gongshan, Songta Snow Mountain, 3200 m, 17 Jun 1960, fr, Nan Shui Bei Diao Team 8992 (KUN, PE); on the way from Gongshan to Dulong, Jidu to Dongshaofang, in Tsuga forest, 2800 m, tree 5-8 m tall, 22 Jul 1982, fr, lower leaf surface grayish green, fruits green, turning red, Qing Zang Team 8425 (PE, 3 sheets). Weixi Xian, Anyi, Shimian Chang, Ershui Tang, 3170 m, tree, 7 m, 3 May 1960, slope, in Betula forest, Nan Shui Bai Diao Team 8421 (KUN). Xizang: Tibet, Burma-Tibet Frontier, flowers white, practically over, a small soft wooded tree in thickets, rare, leaves glabrous, except petiole which is pubescent, teeth at the base of leaf with glandular hairs, inflorescence & shoots also pubescent, stamens indefinite, style 1 simple, ovary 1-celled, 1-seeded, first noticed, just in flower, on 12 March and not seen again, 1950, F.Kingdon-Ward 9340 (E); Tsarong, SE Tibet, in thickets by streams in side valleys on the Salwin-Kiu Chiang divide, N.W. of Si-chi-to, 28°24'N, long. 98°24'E, 10000 ft. May 1922, fl, G.Forrest 21598 (A, BM, E, US); Tsarong, SE Tibet, foliage only, Oct 1922, G.Forrest 22836 (A, E). Medog Xian, Lage to Hanmi, tree 8 m tall, 3000 m, in Abies forest, fruit purple, 26 Jun 1980, fr, W.-N.Chen 10630 (PE); Lage to Hanmi, 2800-2400 m, in Tsuga forest, 26 Jun 1980, fr, W.-N.Chen 10616 (PE, 3 sheets). Tibet, Rong To Valley, 6000-9000 ft, flower white, appearing with the leaves, a shrub, abundant in the temperate forest, particularly in damp places at lower levels, 25 May 1933, fl, F.Kingdon-Ward 10366 (BM, PE). India. Assam: Manda La, Balipara frontier, 9000 ft, in the drier forest, a small tree with white flowers, 2 Aug 1933, F.Kingdon-Ward 11471 (BM). Sikkim: S Dentam, 27°12'N, 88°8'E, 9500 ft, filaments white, calyx reddish, 25 Apr 1966, J.D.A.Stainton 5358 (BM). Myanmar. Tibet-Burma frontier, northern Myanmar, Advance Base, Seinghku Wang, 10000 ft, flower white, very fragrant, small shrub in thickets or in the open steef faces, 1 Jun 1926, F.Kingdon-Ward 6811 (K). Nepal. Ilam, NW Ilam, 9000 ft, tree 20 ft, 4 May 1981, J.D.A.Stainton 8264 (BM).


Prunus gongshanensis   is similar to Prunus hypoleuca   in its glabrous leaf abaxial surface and the pubescent axils on vein joints. It also resembles Prunus himalayana   in the many glandular teeth at the lower part of leaf margin (c 1/3 of the leaf base). Prunus gongshanensis'   relatively large bud scales, stipules and bracts are similar to those of Prunus hypoxantha   . Prunus gongshanensis   seems to share a close relationship with the other three species. However, Prunus gongshanensis   stands out from the rest of the group by its subcordate to cordate leaf bases. It differs from Prunus himalayana   and Prunus hypoxantha   in its almost glabrous lower leaf surfaces (except on vein axils). It is also distinguishable from Prunus hypoxantha   and Prunus hypoleuca   by its highly glandular lower part of the leaf margin. Furthermore, the leaves of Prunus gongshanensis   are much more mature than those of Prunus hypoleuca   at anthesis.