Noronhia verticillata H. Perrier

Hong-Wa, Cynthia, 2016, A taxonomic revision of the genus Noronhia Stadtm. ex Thouars (Oleaceae) in Madagascar and the Comoro Islands, Boissiera 70, pp. 1-292 : 277-284

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Noronhia verticillata H. Perrier


87. Noronhia verticillata H. Perrier   in Mém. Inst. Sci. Madagascar, Sér. B, Biol. Vég. 2:

284. 1949 ( Fig. 67D).

Typus: M ADAGASCAR. Prov. Antsiranana: Forêt du Sambirano , à la base du massif de Manongarivo, [18°54’30’’S 48°37’30’’E], 500 m GoogleMaps   , VI.1909, Perrier de la Bâthie 4596 (holo-: P [ P00418105 ]!)   .

= Noronhia cruciata H. Perrier   in Mém. Inst. Sci. Madagascar, Sér. B, Biol. Vég. 2: 285. 1949. Lectotypus (designated here): MADAGASCAR. Prov. Toamasina: Rapides de l’Anosivola, 300 m, X.1927, Perrier de la Bâthie 18082 (P [ P00413220 ]!; isolecto-: P [ P00413221 ]!). Syntypi: MADAGASCAR. Prov. Toamasina: Ambatondrazaka   GoogleMaps , Onibe   GoogleMaps , [17°50’S 48°25’E], 1000 m, XI.1938, Cours 1027 (P [ P00701245 ]!); Analamazaotra RS, [18°55’48”S 48°25’48”E], 800 m, s.d., Perrier de la Bâthie 8810 ( P [ P00701244 ]!) GoogleMaps   . Anivorano, Andovoranto , bords de la Sahantandra, [18°55’S 48°30’E], 600 m, 16.X.1912, Viguier & Humbert 750 ( P [ P03559261 ]!) GoogleMaps   .

= Noronhia verticilliflora H. Perrier   in Mém. Inst. Sci. Madagascar, Sér. B, Biol. Vég. 2: 284. 1949. Typus: M ADAGASCAR. Prov. Antsiranana: Haut bassin du Mananjeby, 300 m, VII.1913, Perrier de la Bâthie 8814 (holo-: P [ P00418106 ]!; iso-: K [ K000233179 ] image seen, P [ P00418107 ]!).

Shrubs to trees to 8 m tall, trunk to 20 cm diameter; young twigs subquadrangular to quadrangular, 1.7-5.7 mm diameter, glabrous; bark medium gray to brownish, smooth to rugose. Leaves verticillate, persistent; bud scales persistent; blades dark green above, lighter below, linear to lanceolate, 5.5-22 3 0.8-4.2 cm, coriaceous, glabrous, domatia casual, base acute, margin flat to slightly revolute, apex retuse to acute, the point 1-8 mm long, midrib slightly sunken above, distinctly raised below, secondary veins conspicuous, 9-24 per side, 5-17 mm apart, looping 0.8-3 mm from the margin; petiole medium gray, 5-21 3 1.2-3 mm, entirely woody, glabrous. Thyrses geminate to fasciculate, multiflorous, somewhat diffuse; peduncle 5-38 mm long, very sparsely pubescent; pedicel 2-15 mm long, very sparsely pubescent; calyx very sparsely pubescent outside, glabrous inside, lobes deltate, 0.7-2 3 0.6-1.6 mm; corolla yellow, sometimes greenish, cupuliform to subrotate, 2.5-5.5 mm long, slightly tomentose outside, glabrous inside, the tube 1-2.5 mm long, lobes ovate, apex slightly acute; corona present, 1-2.2 mm long, undivided; stamens 1.6-2.8 mm long, anthers obconical, 1.1-1.7 mm long; pistil 1.5-2.8 mm long, stigma capitate. Fruiting pedicel 5-45 3 0.7-3.1 mm; young fruits green, brownish to dark red when mature, ovoid to subglobose, 9-22 3 6.5-18 mm, covered with white dots, apex flat to apiculate; dry pericarp 0.4-1.5 mm thick; endocarp woody; seed 6.5-14.5 3 3-11 mm.

278 Distribution, ecology and phenology

Conservation status


Additional specimens examined

Noronhia verticillata   occurs in low- to mid-elevation humid forests in the Sambirano region and along the east, from Vohémar to Fort-Dauphin ( Fig. 68). It produces flowers and fruits throughout the year except in April and May.

The assessment included 52 collections representing 45 localities and indicated an EOO of 195,817 km 2, an AOO of 164 km 2, and 36 subpopulations representing 27 locations, of which 13 occur within protected areas (Ampasindava, Analamazaotra, Andohahela, Anjanaharibe-Sud, Corridor Ankeniheny-Zahamena, Manongarivo, Marojejy, Masoala, Ranomafana, Tsaratanana, Tsitongambarika, and Zahamena). With such a large distribution and presence within many protected areas, N. verticillata   is assigned a preliminary status of “Least Concern”.

Noronhia verticillata   can be recognized by its verticillate leaves and somewhat punctate fruits. Although Noronhia cruciata   and N. verticilliflora   , both of which have verticillate leaves, were distinguished from N. verticillata   by PERRIER DE LA BâTHIE (1949, 1952) based on a rotate corolla and verticillate flowers, respectively, they are placed here in synonymy because these character states fall within the range of variation of N. verticillata   , as circumscribed here. PERRIER DE LA BâTHIE (1949, 1952) also mentioned the presence of four stamens and the absence of a corona in N. verticilliflora   , which he only knew from the type specimen, but these features were not observed in any other collections and their presence is ambiguous in the type. Noronhia cruciata   was based on four syntypes: Cours 1027, Perrier de la Bâthie 8810 and 18082, and Viguier 750. Perrier de la Bâthie 18082 has been chosen as the lectotype as it comprises the best material.

MADAGASCAR. Prov. Antsiranana: Antalaha, Ambohitralalana (Cap-Est), Tanandavahely, 15°18’S 50°29’E, 0-15 m, 8.IX.1994, Bernard et al. 5 ( K, MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Tsaratanana Massif, 13°52’03”S 48°50’43”E, 557 m, 13.XI.2001, Birkinshaw 1024 ( MO, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Besinkara, Ambalafary , 350 m, 24.IV.1994, Gautier 2436 ( G, P, TAN)   ; Ampasindava, 13°47’17”S 47°59’04”E, 242 m, 6.XI.2009, Gautier et al. 5323 ( G, K, MO, P, TEF, WAG) GoogleMaps   ; Maroambihy, Mandena, Marojejy PN, 14°26’13”S 49°46’32”E, 460 m, 20.III.2009, Hong-Wa et al. 634 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Massif du Marojejy, [14°18’S 49°33’E], 100-300 m, 14-15.III.1949, Humbert 23398 ( MO, P) GoogleMaps   ; Antongondriha, [14°12’S 49°52’E], 100-250 m, 1-24.XI.1951, Humbert & Capuron 23957 ( G, P) GoogleMaps   ; Marojejy PN, base of Mt. Beondroka , 14°27’S 49°47’E, 180-230 m, 20.X.1989, Miller & Randrianasolo 4306 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Ambodimanga, Tsaratanana RNI, 13°52’04”S 48°50’39”E, 900 m, 5.X.1998, Rabenantoandro & Birkinshaw 43 ( G, K, MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Marojejy PN, Mandena, Maroambihy, 14°26’13”S 49°46’32”E, 460 m, 9.X.1996, Rakotomalaza et al. 720 ( G, K, MO, P) GoogleMaps   ; Anketrakabe, Manongarivo RS, 13°55’03”S 48°27’04”E, 180 m, 23-25.VII.1998, Ranaivojaona et al. 211 ( G, MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Andapa, Marojejy PN, 14°31’S 49°38’E, 603 m, 1-3. II.1994, Rasoavimbahoaka et al. 61 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Anjanaharibe-Sud RS, 14°46’S 49°30’E, 985 m, 10.VII.1996, Razafimandimbison et al. 237 ( K, MO, P, TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Ambanja, Marovato, [13°58’S 48°50’E], 15.VII.1953, Réserves Naturelles 5739 ( P, TAN, TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Sambava, Andrah- anjo, [14°18’30”S 49°49’00”E], 200 m, 3.XI.1950, Service Forestier 741 ( P, TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Ambanja, Ankaramy, Antsambalahy-Beraty, [14°01’30”S 48°14’40”E], 100-200 m, 4.XI.1950, Service Forestier 1612 ( P, TAN, TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Sambava, Antelimena, [14°27’30”S 49°42’30”E], 75-2123 m, 26.III.1953, Service Forestier 7251 ( MO, P, TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Beampongy, [13°40’30”S 48°27’00”E], 0-100 m, 4.X.1953, Service Forestier 7714 ( MO, P, TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Andapa, Doany, Androranga, bord de Bemarivo, [14°11’30”S 49°52’00”E], 100 m, 20.X.1953, Service Forestier 7781 ( P, TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Antsahalava, [14°04’30”S 48°16’00”E], 360 m, 19.VII.1954, Service Forestier 10455 ( P, TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Andapa, Doany, Androranga, 14°27’30”S 49°42’30”E, 75-2123 m, 23.VII.1988, Service Forestier 34007 ( TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Ampasindava, forêt de Betsistsika, 13°40’37”S 47°59’16”E, 110 m, 24. I.2009, Tahinarivony et al. 279 ( G, MO, TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Ambahatra, cours supérieur, 13°57’S 48°26’E, 350 m, 11.VIII.1998, Wohlhauser 60024 ( G, MO, P, TEF) GoogleMaps   . Prov. Fianarantsoa: Ranomafana PN, [21°10’S 47°29’E], 1955, Rauh 689 ( TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Ambohimanga, Antanjona, [21°20’S 47°35’E], 30.IX.1955, Service Forestier 16292 ( P, TEF) GoogleMaps   . Prov. Toamasina: Ambatovy, 18°50’24”S 48°18’15”E, 1092 m, 16. V.2010, Bernard et al. 1570 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Androrangabe , 1200 m, 9.X.1945, Cours 2776 ( MO, P)   ; Analamazaotra RS, 18°55’21”S 48°25’23”E, 876 m, 3. V.2010, Hong-Wa & Ortiz 654 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Andasibe, 18°56’S 48°25’E, 860 m, 20.X.1996, Miller 8747 ( K, MO, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Vatomandry, Ambalabe, Tobin’i Foara, 19°11’18”S 48°33’08”E, 500 m, 17.III.2005, Razanatsima et al. 14 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Ambatondrazaka, Manakambahiny Est, [17°46’S 48°39’E], 21.X.1963, Réserves Naturelles 12629 ( TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Soanierana Ivongo, [16°54’30”S 49°35’00”E], 0-50 m, 27.XII.1949, Service Forestier 2347 ( P, TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Andriantantely, Brickaville, [18°44’S 48°38’E], 200-300 m, 21.IV.1955, Service Forestier 13177 ( TEF) GoogleMaps   . Prov. Toliara: Andohahela PN, Parcelle 3, 24°40’S 46°48’E, 200-700 m, 9-26.VIII.1993, Randriamampionona 589 ( K, MO, P) GoogleMaps   ; Bevoay, Fenoambany, Androranga, 24°29’39”S 47°05’39”E, 171 m, 15.XI.2009, Razakamalala et al. 4532 ( G, MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Fort-Dauphin, Enaniliha, [24°39’S 46°52’E], 15.VII.1956, Service Forestier 17334 ( TEF) GoogleMaps   .

280 Unplaced material

T he modated following within specimens any of the mapped species on recognized Fig. 68, could here not due be to confidently intermediate accom- morphologies and/or incompleteness of material, which is mostly problematic for speci-

mens taken from young individuals that exhibit juvenile morphology. Some of these

specimens were initially analyzed statistically (HONG- WA & BESNARD, 2014) but were

subsequently removed for being uninformative due to insufficient sampling and/or

missing data. The collection of additional specimens and molecular data may help to

clarify their identity. It is likely that some of this unplaced material represents new


MADAGASCAR. Prov. Antananarivo: Ankazobe, Manerinerina, 17°57’31”S 47°07’35”E, 1470 m, 19.XI.2006, Ranaivojaona et al. 1624 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   . Prov. Antsiranana: Ampasindava, forêt de Bongomihiravavy, 13°45’26”S 48°05’34”E, 400 m, 26.XI.2008, Ammann et al. 87 ( G, MO, TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Ampasindava, Tsarabanja, 13°45’42”S 48°05’32”E, 411 m, 10.XI.2008, Bernard et al. 1185 ( G, MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Andranomalaza, Manongarivo RS, 14°02’S 48°25’E, 1660 m, 1. VI.2000, Gautier 3729 ( G, MO) GoogleMaps   ; Daraina, forêt de Binara, 13°16’15”S 49°35’56”E, 1030 m, 29.XI.2006, Gautier & Chatelain 4956 (Daraina, G, K, MO, TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Montagne d’Ambre PN, 12°30’55”S 49°10’34”E, 891 m, 24. I.2009, Hong-Wa 588 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Anjangoveratra, forêt d’Andalibe, 14°07’35”S, 50°03’07”E, 115 m, 23.III.2009, Hong-Wa 635 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Anivorano-Nord , Andrafiabe, Mont Antsahabe, 12°54’50”S 49°19’41”E, 408 m, 3.VII.2010, Hong-Wa 724 ( TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Vallée de la Lokoho ( NE)   , [14°39’S 49°44’E], 250-550 m, 11. I.1949, Humbert 22983 ( P) GoogleMaps   ; Andapa, Ambodisatrana, 14°32’S 49°26’E, 1100-1200 m, 3.VIII.1997, McPherson 17201 ( K, MO, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; 35 km S of Vohémar , 13°42’56”S, 50°06’11”E, 5 m, 25.X.2002, McPherson et al. 18811 ( G, MO, P, TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Daraina, forêt d’Antsahabe, 13°14’02”S 49°33’11”E, 950 m, 15. I.2004, Nusbaumer 980 (Daraina, G, K, MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Ampasindava, 13°46’34”S 47°59’54”E, 250 m, 1.XI.2008, Nusbaumer & Tahinarivony 2958 ( G, MO, TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Manongarivo RS, Ankaramibe, Bekolosy, 14°03’05”S 48°17’07”E, 600-800 m, 8.XII.1993, Rakotomalala 66 ( G, MO, P) GoogleMaps   ; Ambilobe, Marivorahona , Ankatsaka, forêt d’Andavakoera, 13°06’01”S 49°10’36”E, 50 m, 13.IX.2004, Randrianaivo et al. 1092 ( CNARP, MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Anjangoveratra, Ambavala, 14°05’40”S, 50°02’37”E, 160 m, 21.IV.2008, Randrianarivony et al. 145 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Andapa, Marojejy PN, 14°27’30”S 49°34’54”E, 920-1040 m, 15-29. V.1995, Rasoavimbahoaka 690 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Andrafiabe, Mont Andrahona , 3 km au NE d’Andrafiabe, 12°28’49”S 49°26’56”E, 400 m, 31. I.2005, Ratovoson et al. 809 ( CNARP, MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Sambava , Andratamarina, Bemanasy, 14°24’04”S 49°51’40”E, 418 m, 20.X.2010, Ravelonarivo & Raharivelo 3535 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Tsaratanana RNI, Beangona, 14°01’33”S 48°39’05”E, 1487-1550 m, 1.XII.2000, Razakamalala et al. 43 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Marosena , Ampanovoana, [15°17’S 50°11’E], 4. II.1955, Réserves Naturelles 6938 ( MO, P, TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Antalaha, Andrakaraka, [14°53’S 50°15’E], 90 m, 24. VI.1953, Service Forestier 7436 ( MO, TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Massif de l’Ankarana (partie S du massif de Mafokovo), [13°15’S 49°50’E], 50-450 m, 17.XII.1966, Service Forestier 27384 ( MO, TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Massif de Manongarivo , Maitsamalaza, Antsatrotro, 14°04’17”S 48°23’48”E, 1600 m, 27.XI.2000, Wohlhauser 408 ( G, MO) GoogleMaps   ; ibid. loc., 14°04’28”S 48°23’34”E, 1570 m, 27.XI.2000, Wohlhauser 413 ( G, MO) GoogleMaps   . Prov. Fianarantsoa: Anankara , Manombo RS, 23°00’S 47°42’E, 5.III.2009, Hong-Wa et al. 615 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Ranomafana PN, Vatoharanana, 21°16’06”S 47°25’30”E, 923 m, 8. V.2010, Hong-Wa & Ortiz 668 ( MO, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Ranomafana PN, Parcelle 1, near village of Miaranony, Anosimasina, 21°09’S 47°32’E, 900- 100 m, 22.IX.1992, Malcomber et al. 1620 ( K, MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Ranomafana PN, Vatoharanana, 21°16’S 47°26’E, 1000- 1100 m, 18-31. I.1993, Malcomber et al. 2063 ( MO, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Ranomafana PN, Vohiparara, 21°16’S 47°24’E, 1300 m, 20.IV.1993, Malcomber & Randriamanantena 2391 ( K, MO, TAN) GoogleMaps   . Prov. Mahajanga: Maintirano, Belitsaky , Ankilimanarivo, forêt de Beanka, 18°00’07”S 44°27’43”E, 210 m, 20.X.2009, Andriamihajarivo et al. 1785 ( MO, P, TAN, TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Kimanambolo , Belitsaka, 18°02’09”S 44°19’28”E, 18.X.2009, Rakotonasolo et al. 1390 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   . Prov. Toamasina: Maroantsetra , Anjahana, Hiaraka, 15°28’43”S 49°54’07”E, 200 m, 3.IX.2002, Antilahimena 1319 ( MO, P) GoogleMaps   ; Antsirabe Sahatany, Anjiahely, 15°24’45”S 49°22’29”E, 1201 m, 19. VI.2004, Antilahimena 2526 ( MO, P) GoogleMaps   ; Ambatovy, 18°50’27”S 48°18’17”E, 1084 m, 13. V.2010, Bernard et al. 1567 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Analamazaotra RS, 18°56’12”S 48°25’09”E, 953 m, 2. V.2010, Hong-Wa & Ortiz 646 ( TAN) GoogleMaps   ; ibid. loc., 18°49’32”S 48°26’04”E, 941 m, 3. V.2010, Hong-Wa & Ortiz 664 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Tampolo STF, [17°17’00”S 49°23’30”E], 10 m, 1-2.XI.1963, Service Forestier 22814 ( MO, P, TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Foulpointe , Analalava, 17°42’18”S 49°27’17”E, 30. V.2005, Skema et al. 69 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   . Prov. Toliara: Iabakoho , Antsotso Avaratra, Ivohibe, 24°34’10”S 47°12’26”E, 105 m, 24. V.2006, Birkinshaw 1646 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; ibid. loc., 24°33’52”S 47°14’25”E, 112 m, 26.XI.2005, Razakamalala et al. 2314 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; ibid. loc., 24°33’52”S 47°11’43”E, 386 m, 1.XI.2005, Razakamalala et al. 2565 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Iaboko, Antsotso Avaratra, 24°33’54”S 47°11’55”E, 432 m, 11.XII.2007, Razakamalala et al. 3900 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; ibid. loc., forêt de Tsitongambarika, 24°34’16”S 47°12’05”E, 271 m, 1.IV.2008, Razakamalala et al. 4122 ( MO, TAN) GoogleMaps   .

282 Acknowledgements

C urators housed at in G their, MO respective, P, TAN and institutions TEF are thanked. Support for for granting this study access – financial to the specimens, logistical, material, administrative or otherwise – was provided by the US National Science Foundation (NSF DEB 1011208), the Garden Club of America, the Whitney R. Harris World Ecology Center at the University of Missouri-St. Louis ( UMSL), the E. Desmond Lee endowment to the Kellogg Lab at UMSL, the Missouri Botanical Garden ( MBG) and its Madagascar Program, Madagascar National Parks, the Ministère des Eaux et Forêts de Madagascar, Idea Wild and Rio Tinto-QMM. Among many other people, I especially want to thank Lalao Andriamahefarivo and Faranirina Lantoarisoa at MBG in Madagascar for assistance with obtaining research permits; Rico Andrianjaka, Mbola Botsilahy, Riri Guittou, Rosa Ortiz, Hanta Razafindraibe and Gico Velo for sharing with me the bad and good times in the field; Alyse Kuhlman, Armand Randrianasolo, Zachary Rogers and George Schatz at MBG for bringing new (or sometimes very old!) material from their respective projects to my attention; Laurent Gautier and Louis Nusbaumer at the Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève and their team for sending and gifting plant material and photographs I would otherwise not have been aware of; Pete Phillipson an MBG staff member based at the Paris herbarium for setting aside the requested material while the herbarium was being renovated; Roger Lala Andriamiarisoa for the fine illustrations; George Schatz for advice and comments on the IUCN conservation assessments; Zachary Rogers for helping with accession and barcode numbers; Peter Stevens for suggestions that improved the previous versions of this manuscript; and Martin Callmander for his help in nomenclature, historical collections and in the publication process. Special thanks to Pete Lowry and Martin Callmander for their thorough reviews of this manuscript and Laurent Gautier for his careful reading of the proofs. The following people are thanked for sharing photographs of Noronhia   taken in the field: Morgane Ammann, Patrice Antilahimena, Fabien Barthelat, Chris Birkinshaw, Ralph Bolliger, Martin Callmander, Christian Claude, Laurent Gautier, R. Mitia Hanitrarivo, late Jean-Noël Labat, Pete Lowry, Louis Nusbaumer, Fortunat Rakotoarivony, Charles Rakotovao, Solotiana Ramandimbimanana, Monique Randriatsivery, Patrick Ranirison, Haingo Rasoazanany, Fidy Ratovoson, Jérémie Razafitsalama, George Schatz, and Sonia Trigui.


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Royal Botanic Gardens


Missouri Botanical Garden


Parc de Tsimbazaza


Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève


Centre National de la Recherche Appliquée au Developement Rural


Wageningen University


"Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University


Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium


Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics


University of Warsaw


Mykotektet, National Veterinary Institute


University of New England


Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History


University of Copenhagen


University of Stellenbosch


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh














Noronhia verticillata H. Perrier

Hong-Wa, Cynthia 2016

Noronhia cruciata

H. Perrier 1949: 285

Noronhia verticilliflora

H. Perrier 1949: 284