Macronematinae, Ulmer, 1905

Uy, Christine Jewel C., Malicky, Hans & Bae, Yeon Jae, 2018, Review of the filter-feeding caddisfly subfamily Macronematinae (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) in tropical Southeast Asia, Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 66, pp. 664-703: 699-701

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5360916

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:5AC21789-E1C1-4B48-813D-667D7638893C

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/862D87A3-FF96-FFBB-FF3E-AA4AFA587832

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Macronematinae
status

 

Key to the Genera and Species of the Tropical Southeast Asian Macronematinae   (adult males)

1. Without mouthparts.................................................................2

– With mouthparts ..................................................................12

2. Forewing with ‘false’ discoidal cell formed by fusion of R4 and R5 after basal furcation ( Fig. 1 View Figs ) ........................................ ................................ Aethaloptera   ( Aethaloptera sexpunctata   )

– Forewing without ‘false’ discoidal cell.................................3

3. Forewing without discoidal cell; Sc and R1 fused ( Fig. 177 View Figs ); thorax without any brown spot markings................................. ....................................... Oestropsyche   ( Oestropsyche vitrina   )

– Forewing with discoidal cell; Sc and R1 not fused ( Figs. 193 View Figs – 210); thorax with or without markings, either on mesoscutum or mesoscutellum....................................... Polymorphanisus   4

4. Without markings on mesoscutum and mesoscutellum ( Fig. 183 View Figs )..........................................................................................5

– With markings on either mesoscutum or mesoscutellum ( Figs. 184–192 View Figs ) .................................................................................6

5. With two brown spots on forewing, one on median cell and one on discoidal cell ( Fig. 194 View Figs ); male eyes large almost meeting ventrally; segment IX of male genitalia squarish apex dorsally ( Fig. 230 View Figs ) ....................................... Polymorphanisus ocularis  

– Without markings on forewing; eyes small, not meeting ventrally; segment IX of male genitalia produced into a spatulate lobe dorsally ( Fig. 226 View Figs .................... Polymorphanisus astictus  

6. Without markings on mesoscutellum; with large dark markings on each side of mesoscutum and metascutum ( Fig. 188 View Figs )........ ........................................... Polymorphanisus quadripunctatus  

– With markings on mesoscutellum; mesoscutum with or without markings, metascutum without markings ...............................7

7. With only one oval spot at center of mesoscutellum (occupying whole mesoscutellum for female ( Fig. 185 View Figs ) and covering only anterior third for male ( Fig. 184 View Figs ); forewing with two brown spots at the basal portion ( Fig. 194 View Figs ) Polymorphanisus fuscus  

– With paired spots or markings on mesoscutellum; forewing without brown spots ................................................................8

8. Paired spots or markings of mesoscutellum situated near center .......................................................................................9

– Paired spots or markings each situated near edge of mesoscutellum.......................................................................10

9. Each of paired markings with darker area concentrated at anterior and posterior portion as shown ( Fig. 186 View Figs ); segment X of male genitalia divided medially, each half with double lobe ( Fig. 228 View Figs )................................ olymorphanisus muluensis  

– Paired spots small ( Fig. 192 View Figs ); segment X of male genitalia divided medially with each lobe outer portion longer than the inner side ( Fig. 234 View Figs )................... Polymorphanisus unipunctus  

10. With two large oval spots on mesoscutellum located on each side covering most of the area for female ( Fig. 191 View Figs ) and smaller oval markings with darker areas concentrated on anterior and posterior ends for male ( Fig. 190 View Figs )............................................ .................................................... Polymorphanisus scutellatus  

– With smaller oval spots on mesoscutellum for both male and female ....................................................................................11

11. Mesoscutellum spots at each side elongated ( Fig. 189 View Figs ); segment X in dorsal view crown like in shape, divided medially with each half having longer inner lobe than the outer ( Fig. 232 View Figs ). ......................................................... Polymorphanisus semperi  

– Mesoscutellum spots located at each side circular ( Fig. 187 View Figs ); segment X in dorsal view divided medially with each half bilobed ( Fig. 229 View Figs )....................... Polymorphanisus nigricornis  

12. Forewing without discoidal cell, anal area dilated in males ( Figs. 8, 12 View Figs , 17, 26 View Figs ) ...................................... Amphipsyche   13

– Forewing with discoidal cell, sometimes very small...........19

13. Foretibia without spur ...........................................................14

– Foretibia with spur ................................................................16

14. Male phallotheca with three pairs of endothecal spines ( Figs. 25, 33 View Figs )....................................................................................15

– Male phallotheca with only 2 pairs of endothecal spines, mid and ventral spines short, dorsal endothecal spine absent ( Figs. 29, 30 View Figs )................................................. Amphipsyche meridiana  

15. Very large species 22–25 mm; with pair of round markings on mesoscutellum ( Fig. 23 View Figs ) .................... Amphipsyche magna  

– Small species 10 – 22 mm; without markings on mesoscutellum ........................................... Amphipsyche parva  

16. Fork II on forewing stalked ( Fig. 12 View Figs ); inferior appendages slender....................................................................................17

– Fork II on forewing not stalked ( Fig. 8 View Figs ); coxopodite very much broader than harpago ( Fig. 9 View Figs ) ............ Amphipsyche bifasciata  

17. Male phallus with everted endotheca, connective membrane bearing many small spines ( Figs. 15, 16 View Figs ) ................................ .............................................................. Amphipsyche exsiliens  

– Male phallus without everted endotheca ..............................18

18. Forewing pattern with five dark brown spots and other paler brown markings ( Fig. 17 View Figs ); male phallotheca with large dorsal leaf-like lobes ( Figs. 20, 21 View Figs )................. Amphipsyche gratiosa  

– Forewing with only one dark brown spot in fork I; male phallotheca without dorsal leaf-like lobes ( Figs. 35, 36 View Figs ) ........ .............................................................. Amphipsyche petiolata  

19. R1 on hind wing fused with Sc ( Fig. 172 View Figs ); segment X of male genitalia bilobed with warts and clusters of setae, each lobe elongated ( Figs. 49 View Figs , 92 View Figs , 128 View Figs , 77 View Figs )................. Macrostemum   27

– R1 on hind wing ending on R2+3, joined to Sc with a short cross-vein ( Fig. 240 View Figs ); segment X bilobed, lobes not as longer as Macrostemum sp.   ( Figs. 237 View Figs , 260, 265 View Figs ) ..........................20

20. Species size ranging from 15–24 mm; forewing with base of Rs obsolete, joined to R1 by cross-vein; phallus apex without complicated structures........................... Trichomacronema   21

– Smaller species 10–12 mm; forewing base of Rs entire; phallus with more complicated structures in apex than ....................... ................................................................ Pseudoleptonema   23

21. Species 15–22 mm; forewing black with white marking rectangular and V-shape markings ( Figs. 258, 263 View Figs )............22

– Species very large 22–24 mm; forewing lighter with white markings different with previous ( Fig. 268 View Figs ) (only female known) ............. Trichomacronema vietnamensis   new species

22. Phallus apex rounded in lateral view ( Fig. 261 View Figs )...................... ......................................................... Trichomacronema paniae  

– Phallus apex oval and broad in lateral view ( Fig. 266 View Figs )........... ........................................................ Trichomacronema tamdao  

23. Phallus having circular apex with tongue-like projection from base pointing apically ( Fig. 254 View Figs )..........................................24

– Phallus having circular apex without tongue-like projection .. ...............................................................................................25

24. Body black and may appear dark brown in alcohol; forewing with black and white bands ( Fig. 251 View Figs )..................................... ......................................... Pseudoleptonema quinquefasciatum  

– Body yellowish brown; forewing yellowish brown and black with white bands similar to P. quinquefasciatum   but with large transparent region subapically ( Fig. 257 View Figs )................................. .............................................. Pseudoleptonema tansoongnerni  

25. Phallus with curved elongated apex ( Fig. 238 View Figs ); segment X widely separated medially in dorsal view forming a U-shaped opening at the middle ( Fig. 237 View Figs ).... Pseudoleptonema erawan  

– Phallus with rounded apex ( Figs. 243, 248 View Figs ); segment X not as widely separated medially as above ( Figs. 242, 247 View Figs )..........26

26. Segment X with rounded setal area at tip in dorsal view ( Fig. 241 View Figs ); forewing with white circular and long V-shape white markings, apex evenly curved ( Fig. 240 View Figs )................................. ...................................................... Pseudoleptonema sinuatum  

– Segment X without setal area at tip ( Fig. 246 View Figs ); forewing with a small V-shape marking, apex with anterior half longer than posterior half ( Fig. 245 View Figs ).................. Pseudoleptonema supalak  

27. Forewing half dark brown, half pale ( Fig. 37 View Figs ); head is yellow, unmarked except the silvery mark near eyes........................... Macrostemum albardanum  

– Forewing marking not as above; head usually dark brown to yellowish with dark brown bands.........................................28

28. Forewing without markings; phallus apex squaris.................9

– Forewing with evident dark brown and light markings; phallus not squarish ..........................................................................30

29. Segment X without bifid protrusion at apex ( Fig. 138 View Figs ); phallus with tongue-like protrusion in dorsal view ( Fig. 141 View Figs ); distributed in Sabah, Borneo .................................. Macrostemum pallipes    

– Segment X with bifid protrusion at apex in lateral view ( Fig. 173 View Figs ); phallus without protrusion in dorsal view ( Fig 176 View Figs ); distributed in the Philippines....................... Macrostemum sp.  

30. Species yellowish; with dark brown band markings in the middle of the forewing running through the entire width ( Figs. 90 View Figs , 126 View Figs )..................................................................................31

– Species either dark brown or light brown, or if species is yellowish, without forewing markings as above..................32

31. Dark brown stripe along middle of the width of forewing somewhat straight, anterior band thicker and narrowing posteriorly until the arculus and continuing with a dot like dark brown spot ( Fig. 90 View Figs ) ................. Macrostemum fastosum  

– Dark brown stripe along middle of the width of forewing curving anteriorly ( Fig. 126 View Figs ) ................. Macrostemum midas  

32. Forewing with orange, white and black markings ( Fig. 54 View Figs ); segment X with each lobes longer as compared to the male genitalia of other Macrostemum species   ( Fig. 56 View Figs ); species endemic in the Philippines............... Macrostemum boettcheri  

– Forewing not as above; segment X not as long as above; species can also be found in other geographic area.........................33

33. Species pale yellowish; forewing with dark brown spots ...34

– Species dark brown ...............................................................38

34. Forewing with three dark brown bands: one near base not reaching costa, one at middle formed by four connected spots, and one broad band almost covering apex ( Fig. 165 View Figs ) ............. ....................................................... Macrostemum trifasciatum  

– Forewing with dark brown spots instead of bands ( Figs. 42 View Figs , 149 View Figs , 142–144 View Figs )........................................................................35

35. Forewing with three dark brown spots or less; segment IX of male genitalia usually broad ................................................36

– Forewing with five dark brown spots or more ( Fig. 149 View Figs ); segment IX of male genitalia thin and annular ( Fig. 151 View Figs ) ...... ............................................. Macrostemum quinquepunctatum  

36. Forewing with two or no dark brown spot ( Figs. 142–144 View Figs ); phallus in lateral view with longer posterior portion of the apex ( Fig. 147 View Figs ) making it having an opening anteriorly ......... .......................................................... Macrostemum punctatum  

– Forewing with three dark brown spots; phallus in lateral view if with posterior portion, making it just like a protrusion and not an opening.......................................................................37

37. Forewing with three dark brown spots located on the radial sector, cubital area near base, and anal area almost near the posterior edge of forewing ( Fig. 42 View Figs ) ... Macrostemum bacham  

– Forewing with three dark brown spots located on crossvein behind median cell, in front of anal vein, and on vein from median to cubitus near base......... Macrostemum tripunctatum  

38. Endemic to the Philippines...................................................39

– Distributed in other area .......................................................40

39. Forewing darker apically and lighter basally, with two curved light bands divided in the middle, with lighter bands running toward the length of forewing occupying three-fourths of the length, and four lighter streak bands near the apex ( Fig. 59 View Figs ). ............................................................ Macrostemum caliptera  

– Forewing dark brown, with several silvery white marks as a subapical streak, two coastal spots tending to form V-shape, two spots near the base, and two streaks located toward the posterior portion of the forewing ( Fig. 52 View Figs ) .............................. ................................................................ Macrostemum bellum  

40. Phallus apex divided into two lobes ( Figs. 68 View Figs , 117 View Figs , 163 View Figs ) ...41

– Phallus not divided into two lobes .......................................43

41. Phallus apex in lateral view opening widely forming a U-shape ( Figs. 68 View Figs , 163 View Figs ), in ventral view, apex round; segment X medially separated and joined at the center forming a V-shape area in dorsal view ( Figs. 67 View Figs , 162 View Figs ) ...................................................42

– Phallus opening V-shaped and not as deep as wide ( Fig. 117 View Figs ), in ventral view, apex heart-shaped ( Fig. 118 View Figs ); segment X medially separated with lobes directed downwards ( Figs. 114, 116 View Figs ).......................................................... Macrostemum hestia  

42. Phallus opening broad with each lobe thick ( Fig. 163 View Figs ); forewing with white markings where one is C-shape occupying almost half of anterior area ( Fig. 160 View Figs )....... Macrostemum tonkinensis  

– Phallus opening narrow, twice as deep as wide ( Fig. 68 View Figs ); forewing with white markings as shown ( Fig. 65 View Figs ).................. ............................................................. Macrostemum dairiana  

43. Phallus with spine-like structure at the tip of apex ( Figs. 73 View Figs , 105 View Figs )........................................................................................44

– Phallus without spine-like structure at the tip of apex.......45

44. Segment X with apical lobes separated by parallel-sided gap narrower than width of either lobe ( Fig. 72 View Figs ); spine-like structure at the tip of phallus seems not pointed in dorsal view ( Fig. 74 View Figs ), but obviously pointed in lateral view ( Fig. 73 View Figs ) ....................... .................................................................. Macrostemum dione  

– Segment X with apical lobes separated by U-shaped gap ( Figs. 103, 104 View Figs ); spine-like structure at the tip of the phallus pointed in dorsal view ( Fig. 106 View Figs ) .............. Macrostemum fenestratum  

45. Phallus with protrusion almost in the middle of the apex in lateral view ( Figs. 63 View Figs , 86 View Figs ).....................................................46

– Phallus without protrusion, or if with protrusion at apex, concentrated on posterior area..............................................47

46. Phallus with curved protrusion very obvious in ventral view ( Fig. 89 View Figs ); forewing black in fresh specimens with white markings, three large across costa, other marking originating from arculus running upwards across the width of forewing ( Fig. 85 View Figs ) ........ ............................................................ Macrostemum eleanora  

– Phallus without protrusion in dorsal view; forewing with three white markings, two across costa and one originating from arculus ( Fig. 60 View Figs ) ............................... Macrostemum centrotum  

47. Phallus strongly convex subapicoventrally with apicoventral protrusion 90° from ventral margin basal of convexity in lateral view ( Figs. 78 View Figs , 50 View Figs ) ................................................................48

– Phallus rounded to an angle less than 90° in lateral view ..50

48. Phallus in dorsal view with apex oval narrowing in the body and with broad base ( Fig. 51 View Figs ); segment X in lateral view narrowing toward apex ( Fig. 48 View Figs ); forewing pattern dark brown in alcohol with white bands as shown in Fig. 47 View Figs ...................................... ....................................................... Macrostemum bellerophon  

– Phallus in dorsal view with rounded apex; segment X in lateral view narrowing toward the apex but with broader tips with presence of warts ( Fig. 76 View Figs ); forewing pattern with three white bands running across the length of the forewing as M. bellerophon   , but no white markings running towards the length of the forewing length, or if there is very tiny white streak ( Figs. 75 View Figs , 170 View Figs ) .......................................................................49

49. Phallus in dorsal view with raised curve protrusion at apex ( Fig. 79 View Figs ); forewing pattern with two white bands in anterior and one white band in posterior and one small streak band running toward forewing length ( Fig. 75 View Figs ), but in some individuals, the small white streak is not evident .............................................. ................................................... Macrostemum distinguendum  

– Phallus in dorsal view rounded; forewing pattern with four white bands running across the length of the forewing, two anterior and two posterior ( Fig. 170 View Figs ) .... Macrostemum zenon  

50. Phallus apex with ventral area much more protruded than anterior ( Fig. 125 View Figs ); segment X lobes separated only half of length of segment X by narrow V-shaped notch ( Fig. 124 View Figs ) ... .............................................................. Macrostemum luteipes  

– Phallus apex not as above, if with protrusion, not as much protruded as above; segment X usually widely separated or if not, the lobes are not as attached as above..........................51

51. Phallus with truncate apex, in dorsal view as broad basally as apically, slightly narrower in middle ( Fig. 165 View Figs ); forewing with variation ( Figs. 131, 132 View Figs )................. Macrostemum opulentum  

– Phallus rounded; forewing pattern mostly black or brown with fewer pale areas that are not interconnected........................52

52. Forewing with white markings as shown in Fig. 53 View Figs , most prominent large triangular marking at the middle part............ ..................................................... Macrostemum bifenestratum  

– Forewing pattern with various white markings, but none dominating middle of wing...................................................53

53. Phallus apex with small tongue like projection in lateral view ( Figs. 83 View Figs , 110 View Figs ) .......................................................................54

– Phallus without small projection at apex .............................55

54. Phallus in dorsal view with apex as wide as base and twice as wide as middle ( Fig. 84 View Figs ); forewing with four white markings, two triangular across costa, one linear running parallel to the length of forewing, and one circular near basal area ( Fig. 80 View Figs ); segment X divided mesally by narrow V-shaped pad, with each side consisting of two lobes, one is smaller and located at anterior of major lobe ( Fig. 82 View Figs )......... Macrostemum dohrni  

– Phallus in dorsal view with apical portion twice as wide as basal portion ( Fig. 111 View Figs ); forewing with more than four white markings ( Fig. 107 View Figs ); segment X bilobed and each lobe widely separated in dorsal view ( Fig. 109 View Figs ..... Macrostemum floridum  

55. Phallus with dorsal part of apex more protruded ( Fig. 158 View Figs ) in lateral view, protrusion very much obvious in dorsal view ( Fig. 159 View Figs ); segment X with each lobes widely separated forming a U-shape space ( Fig. 157 View Figs ); forewing with variation ( Fig. 154, 155 View Figs )............................................................ Macrostemum seba  

– Phallus with dorsal part of apex flat, ventral part a little longer in lateral view ( Fig. 122 View Figs ); segment X with each lobe flat at apex ( Fig. 121 View Figs ); forewing pattern as shown in Fig. 119 View Figs ......... ....................................................... Macrostemum indistinctum