Leptomyrmex species

Lucky, Andrea & Ward, Philip S., 2010, Taxonomic revision of the ant genus Leptomyrmex Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) 2688, Zootaxa 2688 (1), pp. 1-67 : 26-62

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.2688.1.1

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/87233600-FFA1-FF8C-FF5D-8BA4FF40BD9A

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Leptomyrmex species
status

 

The macro- Leptomyrmex species  

Leptomyrmex cnemidatus Wheeler   , stat. nov. ( Figs 2a–c View FIGURES 2–6 , 23a View FIGURES 23 , 24a View FIGURE24 )

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus var. cnemidatus Wheeler, 1915: 268   .

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus subsp. venustus Wheeler, 1934: 87   , fig. 5. Syn. nov.

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus subsp. brunneiceps Wheeler, 1934: 88   . Syn. nov.

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus subsp. cnemidatus Wheeler   ; Wheeler, 1934: 92. Description of male.

Type material examined

L. erythrocephalus cnemidatus Wheeler.   Holotype, worker, Australia, “NSW” (Staudinger & Bang-Haas) [ MCZ].

L. erythrocephalus venustus Wheeler.   Syntypes, six workers, one queen, Australia, New South Wales: Mt. Tomah (Taylor, F.H.) [MCZ].

L. erythrocephalus brunneiceps Wheeler.   Syntypes, four workers, Australia, New South Wales: Mt. Wilson (Darlington, P.J.) [MCZ].

Other material examined

AUSTRALIA: New South Wales: 10km S of Mangrove Mountain (Lowery, B.B.); 15km E Legume (Greenslade, P.J.M.); 17km S Gosford (Katz, D.); 3 mi SSE Pt Macquarie (Upton, M.S.); 4km E Bilpin, 420 m (Ward, P.S.); 4km NE Bulahdelah, 100 m (Ward, P.S.); 7km NE Woodenbong, 520 m (Ward, P.S.); 8km NE Blackheath, 440 m (Ward, P.S.); 8km S Ebor, 1400 ft (Taylor, R.W.); Acacia Plateau (McAreavey, J.); Acacia Plateau (Bugeja, J.); Banjo Creek Rd. at stream crossing, Doyles River State Forest, 2.2km along road from Oxley Hwy., 620 m (Shattuck, S.O.); Bellangry Forest, NW Wavehope (Darlingtons); Berowra Waters, Sydney, 200 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Berowra, 40 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Berowra, 500 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Blackheath, 450 m (Ward, P.S.); Bowens Creek, 4km E Bilpin, 2km SE Mt. Irvine, 420 m (Shattuck, S.O.); Brindle Crk, Bor- der Ranges NP (Naumann, I. & Cardale, J.); Brindle Crk. Wiangarie SF, 740 m (Newton, A. & Thayer, M.); Brindle Crk. Wiangarie, 740 m (Ward, P.S.); Brooklana (Froggatt, W.W.); Bruxner Park, Coffs Harbour, 250 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Bruxner Park, Coffs Harbour, 70 m (Taylor, R.W.); Bulahdelah State Forest (Lowery, B.B.); Bulga (Froggatt, W.W.); c. 15km SE Legume (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Calga, 700 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Calga, nr. Gosford, 400ft (Lowery, B.B.); Cambridge Plateau, Richmond SP (Lowery, B.B.); Cowan Ck., Sydney (Lowery, B.B.); Cowan, 500 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Dalrymple Forest, St. Ives, Sydney (Lowery, B.B.); Dorrigo (Darlington); Dorrigo (Heron, W.); Dorrigo N.P. via Dorrigo (Taylor, R.W.); Dorrigo Nat'l Park, 600 m (Ward, P.S.); Dorrigo Nat'l Park, 750 m (Ward, P.S.); Dorrigo NP, E end Blackbutt Track, 710 m (Newton, A. & Thayer, M.); Doyles River State Forest, 620 m (Ward, P.S.); Eastern New South Wales (Darlingtons); Ebor (Greaves, T.); Ebor, Upper Ebor Falls overlook (Lohman, D. & Eastwood, R.); Frazer Park, 6mi. S Swansea (Lowery, B.B.); Frenchs Forest, Sydney (Lowery, B.B.); Frenchs Forest, Sydney, 200 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Holgate, 50 m (Ward, P.S.); Killara (Day, M.F.); Kyogle (Froggatt, W.W.); Lismore (Deuquet, C.); Martinsville, nr Morisset, 500 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Morisset, 300 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Mt Tomah, 900 m (Ward, P.S.); Mt Warning, 1200 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Mt. Glorious, 630 m (Taylor, R.W. & Kohout, R.J.); Mt. Tomah, 900 m (Shattuck, S.O.); Muogamarra Sanct., Hawkesbury River, 500 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Murwillumbah area (Lowery, B.B.); Myall Lakes N.P. (Ward, P.S.); Myall Lakes, Bingwahla Hill (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Ourimba State Forest, 500 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Ourimbah SF, Wyong, 200 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Pearl Beach, 30 m (Ward, P.S.); Point Lookout, New England NP, 1562 m (Newton, A. & Thayer, M.); Pt. Lookout, New England N.P., 1550 m (Ward, P.S.); 15mls SSE [SSW?] Pt. Macquarie (Upton, M.S.); Pymble (Brown, W.L.); Pymble (Lowery, B.B.); Pymble (McAreavey, J.); Pymble, 600 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Pymble, Sydney, 150 m (Ward, P.S.); Sydney, 10km S Mangrove Mtn (Lowery, B.B.); Sydney, Berowra, 40 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Sydney, Berowra, 500 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Sydney, Blue gum forest, Grose Valley (Lowery, B.B.); Sydney, Brooklyn, on Hawkesbury R. (Lowery, B.B.); Sydney, Cowan, 500 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Sydney, Dalrymple forest, St Ives (Lowery, B.B.); Sydney, Frenchs Forest (Lowery, B.B.); Sydney, Pearl Beach (Ward, P.S.); Sydney, Strickland State Forest nr Gosford, 100 ft (Lowery, B.B.); The Dorrigo, 3000 ft (Darlington); Tooloom Plateau, 14km W Urbenville (Naumann, I.D.); Tooloom Rge., 2000 ft (Darlingtons); Upper Allyn Valley, nr. Eccleston, 2000 ft (Taylor, R.W. & Brooks, C.); Urbenville (Armstrong, J.); Wentworth Falls (Darlington); Whian Whian S.F., 15min N Lismore, 400 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Whian Whian State For., 200 m (Ward, P.S.); Wiangaree SF, Brindle Ck., 740 m (Newton, A. & Thayer, M.); Wiangaree SF, Sheepstation Ck, 600 m (Newton, A. & Thayer, M.). Queensland: 15km ESE Gympie, 100 m (Ward, P.S.); 2km S Booroobin, 400 m (Ward, P.S.); 6km SSW North Tamborine, 500 m (Ward, P.S.); 7km NNW North Tamborine, 490 m (Ward, P.S.); 8km ESE North Tamborine, 500 m (Ward, P.S.); at foot of Blackall Ra., 30km W Kilcoy (Lowery, B.B.); Bald Mt area, via Emu Vale, 3–4000 ft (Monteith, G.B.); Binna Burra, Lamington NP (Kohout, R.J.); Binna Burra, Lamington NP, 2800–3000 ft (Taylor, R.W.); Boombana 24km WNW Brisbane, D'Aguilar NP, 420 m (Lucky, A.); Boombana 24km WNW Brisbane, D'Aguilar NP, 470 m (Lucky, A.); Boombana NP, 440 m (Burwell, C.J.); Boombana NP, 440 m (Queensland Museum Party); Boombana, D'Aguilar NP, 496 m (Lucky, A.); Bunya Mts (Davies & Raven); Bunya Mts (Dumigan, E.J.); Bunya Mts, 3000 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Bunya Mts, 3500ft (Darlingtons); Bunya Mts., 1mi. SE Mt. Mowbullan, 3500 ft (Britton, Holloway & Misko); Christmas Crk. Lamington Nat. Park, 450 m (Ward, P.S.); Cunninghams Gap, 2500 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Cunninghams Gap, 2500–4000 ft (Darlingtons); Cunninghams Gap, Mt. Cordeaux, 3000 ft (Taylor, R.W.); Gwongorella N.P. (Hebert, P.); Jimna (Darlingtons); Laidley [as “Laidely”] (Podenzana); Lamington NP, O'Reillys, 920 m (Taylor, R.W. & Kohout, R.J.); MacDonald NP, Mt Tamborine, 2000ft (Taylor, R.W.); Main Range NP, Bellbird Lookout nr Cunninghams Gap 8km E Maryvale, 480 m (Lucky, A.); Mapleton Falls N.P., 350 m (Ward, P.S.); Mapleton Falls NP, 3km W Mapleton, 450 m (Lucky, A.); Mary Cairncross Pk, S. Maleny (Brown, W.L. & D.E. Brown); Miala NP (Taylor, R.W.); Montville, Blackall Rge. (Darlingtons); Mt Chinghee, 12km SE Rathdowney, 720 m (Monteith, Yeates & Thompson); Mt D'Aguilar Ra, 2000 ft (Taylor, R.W.); Mt Glorious, 630m (R.W. Taylor & Kohout, R.J.); Mt Nebo (Taylor, R.W.); Mt Tamborine (c.u.); Mt. Coot-tha, Brisbane, 400 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Mt. Glorious, 630 m (Taylor, R.W. & Kohout, R.J.); Mt. Jacob, c. 45mi S Gladstone, 2000ft (Darlingtons); Mt. Nebo (Taylor, R.W.); Mt. Nebo, Brisbane (Lowery, B.B.); Mt. Nebo, Brisbane, 2000 ft (Lowery, B.B.); National Park [Lamington National Park] (Carter, H.J.); National Park [Lamington National Park] (Hacker, H.); Nat. Park Q., McPherson Rge (Darlington); nr Kenilworth, 150 m (Taylor, R.W. & Kohout, R.J.); Ravensbourne NP, 33km W Esk, 760 m (Lucky, A.); RF at the foot of Blackall Ra (Lowery, B.B.); Spring Brook, Nat. Park (Darlingtons); Tamborine Mt (Brown); Tambourine Mountain (Hacker, H.); Tomewin (Lowery, B.B.); Toowoomba (Greaves, T.); v. Binnaburra, McPherson Rge., 2600–3600 ft (Darlingtons); v. Manumbar, 20 mi SE Goomeri (Darlingtons); Dubious locality records: Queensland: Hyde Park (Conleth); Kamerunga (Podenzana); Mt. Bellendenker (Podenzana).

Worker measurements (n = 9)

HL 1.99–2.29, HW 1.20–1.39, MFC 0.23–0.30, IOD 0.68–0.80, SL 3.64–4.18, EL 0.40–0.48, WL 3.79– 4.32, PW 1.07–1.25, DPW 0.37–0.50, HTL 4.44–5.08, HTWmin 0.12–0.17, HTWmax 0.27–0.31, CI 0.59– 0.63, SI 2.94–3.12, OI 0.10–0.14, HTC 0.41–0.60.

Worker description

Medium to small species (HW 1.20–1.39 mm; WL 3.79–4.32 mm) with head, excluding mandibles, less than twice as long as broad (CI 0.59–0.63). Head widest at eye level, sides of head subparallel, narrowing anteriorly, genae straight. Head posterior to eyes rounding and gently narrowing to flat posterior margin. Masticatory margin of mandible with approximately 7 teeth and 15 denticles interspersed. Anterior clypeal margin weakly concave medially. Eyes positioned approximately at midline of head, relatively small and hairless, reaching but not surpassing lateral margin of head. Antennae not compressed, scapes surpassing the posterior margin of head by about 3/5 of their length. Pronotum long and slender. Propodeal declivity about 1/3 as long as dorsal face, the latter bearing a transverse impression at anterior end. Propodeal angle rounded. Petiole in profile slightly bulbous, median longitudinal impression on anterior, dorsal and posterior faces. Posterior face of petiole concave, ventral face convex. Gaster elliptical. Femora and tibiae compressed. Whole body, including mandibles, subopaque, finely and densely shagreened. Mandibles with a row of coarse punctures along margin. Short, whitish pubescence covering surface, lending pruinose appearance. Pilosity confined to mandibles and clypeus and venter. Ventral face of fore, mid and hind tibia with irregular row of short dark bristles.

Typical color pattern consisting of rufotestaceous head and mesosoma, with gaster and distal portions of femora black. Variation from this color pattern is common; in the area of sympatry with erythrocephalus   (Sydney region) the central portion of clypeus, excluding the anterior margin, presents 2–4 black setae (sometimes abraded—look for black setal base); if only 2 setae are present, these are separated by less than 0.25 mm.

Queen description

Head broader than in worker, the posterior border slightly impressed medially. Three ocelli deeply set into head in triangular formation, the anteriormost one largest, the posterior two smaller. Anterior clypeal margin nearly flat. Pronotum, mesonotum and propodeum voluminous, convex. Dorsal face of propodeum convex, thus lacking transverse impression. Petiole broader than high, with distinct medial impression. Gaster globose, larger than in worker. Scapes, femora and tibiae broad, robust.

Surface of body dull and opaque, appearing dusty. Pilosity longer on the clypeus; pubescence on gaster longer and yellowish. Queen coloration similar to that of worker.

Male measurements (n = 5)

HL 1.37–1.55, HW 1.02–1.11, SL 0.44–0.50, EL 0.55–0.68, HTL 3.84–4.34, CI 0.70–0.78, SI 0.42–0.45, SI2 0.91–1.02.

Discussion

Throughout the major part of its range in northeastern New South Wales and southeastern Queensland, L. cnemidatus   can be distinguished from congeners by the combination of head shape (elongate, with rounded postocular margin and long scapes: CI 0.59–0.63; SI 2.94–3.12), coloration (orange, with gaster and distal portions of the femora black) and size (HW 1.20–1.39 mm; WL 3.79–4.32 mm). These characters separate it from sympatric species with which it might be confused, including L. nigriventris   (considerably larger: HW 1.49–1.76 mm; WL 4.32–4.98 mm; legs unicolorous orange), L. rothneyi   (postocular margin of head constricted and projecting; head and pronotum spotted or mottled), L. rufipes   (postocular margin of head constricted and projecting), L. tibialis   (considerably larger and head broader: HW 1.68–1.96 mm; WL 4.51–5.13 mm; CI 0.71–0.79), L. varians   (legs, including coxae, black) and L. wiburdi   (head broad, scapes shorter: CI 0.66–0.70; SI 2.29–2.64).

In some portions of its range, L. cnemidatus   can be difficult to distinguish from its sister species, L. erythrocephalus   . In the Blue Mountains these species maintain morphological and color differences in sympatry, and north of Sydney L. cnemidatus   occurs within 100km of the coast whereas L. erythrocephalus   is found in inland, more than 100km from the coast. In the Sydney region, however, L. cnemidatus   becomes variable in coloration and can be difficult to distinguish from its sister species. This area of confusion may represent a recent contact zone where the two species are introgressing, or it may be that in this region complete divergence has never occurred. Study of this scenario on the population level will be needed to gain insight into the status of these two species in this area. In general, L. cnemidatus   is the smaller of the two species, and can be identified by the presence of 2–4 black setae on the clypeus ( L. erythrocephalus   has 0–2 black setae). If only 2 setae are present, then these are separated by less than 0.25 mm, whereas L. erythrocephalus   possesses 0-2 setae and the hairs are separated by more than 0.25mm.

L. cnemidatus   has been recorded in wet sclerophyll, dry sclerophyll, rainforest and semi-evergreen vine thicket. Nests occur in or under rocks and logs, or in holes in the ground.

Leptomyrmex darlingtoni Wheeler   ( Figs 3a–c View FIGURES 2–6 , 24b View FIGURE24 )

Leptomyrmex darlingtoni Wheeler, 1934: 104   , fig. 13.

Leptomyrmex darlingtoni subsp. fascigaster Wheeler, 1934:107   . Syn. nov.

Leptomyrmex darlingtoni subsp. jucundus Wheeler, 1934: 107   . Syn. nov.

Type material examined

L. darlingtoni Wheeler.   Syntypes, 21 workers, 2 males, Australia, Queensland: Lankelly Creek, McIlwraith Range [as “McIlthwaite”], Cape York (Darlington) [ MCZ].

L. darlingtoni fascigaster Wheeler.   Syntype, 1 worker, Australia: Queensland: Coen, Cape York (Darlington) [MCZ].

L. darlingtoni jucundus Wheeler.   Syntypes, 2 workers, Australia: Queensland: Coen, Cape York (Darlington) [MCZ].

Other material examined

AUSTRALIA: Queensland: 11km ENE of Mt. Tozer (Weir, T. & Calder, A.); 13km WNW Lockhart River, 60 m (Ward, P.S.); 28 km NNE Coen, 420 m (Ward, P.S.); 28 km NNE Coen, 420 m (Wild, A.L.); 3km ENE Mt. Tozer (Cardale, J.C.); 3km ENE Mt. Tozer (Weir, T.A.); 3km ENE of Mt. Tozer (Colless, D.H.); Iron Ra. NP, 23km ex. Portland Rd. (Kistner & Jacobson); Black Mountain NP, 25km W Cooktown (Andersen, A.); Iron Range (Filewood, P.); Iron Range (Sedlacek, J.); Iron Range (Taylor, R.W. & Feehan, J.); Iron Range NP, Cooks Hut area (Hertog, A.L.); Lankelly Creek (Gray, B.); Rocky R., Cape York (Darlington); Somerset, Cape York (Monteith, G.B.); W. Claudie R. 12km WNW Lockhart R, 30m (Ward, P.S.); West Claudie R., Iron Range (Monteith, G. & Cook, D.). Dubious locality records: Queensland: Mossman (Geeves, M.); Mossman (general) (Greaves, T.).

Worker measurements (n = 7)

HL 1.60–1.72, HW 0.94–1.03, MFC 0.18–0.21, IOD 0.56–0.62, SL 3.36–3.73, EL 0.35–0.38, WL 3.11– 3.30, PW 0.85–0.92, DPW 0.31–0.34, HTL 2.87–4.19, HTWmin 0.11–0.14, HTWmax 0.21–0.24, CI 0.56– 0.62, SI 3.51–3.77, OI 0.09–0.11, HTC 0.50–0.61.

Worker description

Small species (HW 0.94–1.03 mm; WL 3.11–3.30 mm) with head, excluding mandibles, less than twice as long as broad (CI 0.56–0.62) and widest at eye level. Sides of head straight, genae parallel and slightly concave. Behind the eyes, sides gently rounding to a flat postocular margin. Masticatory margin of mandible with approximately 15 small, irregular teeth and denticles. Anterior clypeal margin weakly concave medially. Eyes positioned posterior to midline of head, relatively large and convex, hairless, not surpassing lateral margins of head. Antennae extremely long and slender (SI 3.51–3.77), somewhat compressed, scapes surpassing posterior margin of head by 3/5 their length.

Pronotum slender, distinctly elongate. Propodeum short, not much longer than broad, propodeal angle very rounded, dorsal face weakly convex, declivitous face short. Gently sloping petiolar node a triangular wedge with broad base, anterior and posterior faces meeting at sharp angle, in profile anterior face 2/3 length of posterior face, ventral surface of petiole weakly convex. Gaster elongate-elliptical. Legs very long and slender tibiae compressed but not dramatically so (HTC 0.50–0.61).

Surface very finely shagreened and somewhat shining throughout. Pubescence white, moderately dense over whole surface. Pilosity sparse, confined to clypeus, mandibles, apical portions of the tibiae, gastral ventrites and 4th (apical) tergite. Pilosity lacking on the 6 th abdominal tergite. Head and antennae rufotestaceous, but color pattern on remainder of body variable, ranging from dark with rufotestaceous legs to rufotestaceous body with black gaster and legs dark reddish brown with testaceous joints. An entirely pale yellow form is also known. Femora and tibiae. Intermediate forms may be mottled with dark spots on a pale thorax, with gaster either entirely black or with first tergite pale.

Queen UNKNOWN.

Male measurements (n = 2)

HL 1.40–1.44, HW 0.93–1.02, SL 0.37–0.38, EL 0.53–0.58, HTL 3.12–3.22, CI 0.66–0.70, SI 0.36–0.40, SI2 1.20–1.37.

Discussion

Leptomyrmex darlingtoni   is distinctive for its small size and restricted geographic range; it is found only on Cape York Peninsula, as far south as the vicinity of Cooktown. This species can be distinguished from its only sympatric congener, L. rufipes   , by its smaller size, HW 0.94–1.03 mm; WL 3.11–3.30 mm ( L. rufipes HW   1.08–1.39 mm; WL 3.61–4.52mm), and the rounded postocular portion of the head, which lacks the neck-like constriction of L. rufipes   . The new synonymies presented are based on recent collections in which different color forms were found within a single colony (28 km NNE Coen, 420 m; Ward, P.S. and Wild, A.L.).

L. darlingtoni   has been recorded from rainforest, savannah, Araucaria   forest and Eucalyptus   woodland, in ground nests.

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus (Fabricius)   ( Figs 4a–c View FIGURES 2–6 , 24c View FIGURE24 )

Formica erythrocephala Fabricius, 1775: 391   .

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus (Fabricius)   ; Mayr, 1862: 696. First combination in Leptomyrmex   .

Leptomyrmex froggatti Forel, 1910: 57   . Syn. nov.

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus subsp. clarki Wheeler, 1934: 117   . Syn. nov.

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus var. mandibularis Wheeler, 1915: 268   ; Syn. nov.

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus subsp. mandibularis Wheeler   ; Wheeler, 1934: 87.

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus subsp. unctus Wheeler, 1934: 87   . Syn. nov.

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus (Fabricius)   ; Wheeler & Wheeler, 1951: 179. Description of larva.

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus (Fabricius)   ; Imai, et al. 1977: 345. Description of karyotype.

See also: Wheeler, 1915: 265; Wheeler, 1934: 85.

Type material examined

L. erythrocephalus (Fabricius)   NEOTYPE worker, designated here. Australia, New South Wales: 5km SSW Blackheath (Ward, P.S.) [ ANIC, CASENT0011746 ]   .

L. erythrocephalus clarki Wheeler.   Syntypes, two workers, Australia, Queensland: Fletcher (Sutton, E.) [MCZ].

L. erythrocephalus mandibularis Wheeler.   Holotype, worker, Australia, New South Wales: Sydney (Ashton, H.) [MCZ].

L. erythrocephalus   . unctus Wheeler. Syntypes, 15 workers, Australia, Australian Capital Territory: Condor Creek, nr. Canberra (Tillyard, R.J.) [ MCZ]   .

L. froggatti Forel.   Syntypes, workers, Australia, New South Wales: Walcha [as “Walcher”] (Froggatt,

M.M. & Turner, R.) [MNHG, MNHN, ANIC]

Type material not examined

L. erythrocephalus (Fabricius)   . Syntype (s), workers(s), Australia: “New Holland” [Presumed lost; determined not to be in BMNH, ZMUC or HMUG]

Other material examined

AUSTRALIA: Australian Capital Territory: Above Gibraltar Crk. Falls (Lowery, B.B.); Blundells Camp [Blundells Flat] (Greaves, T.); Honeysuckle Crk., nr tracking station, 4000 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Jervis Bay (James, J.); Lees Creek (Greaves, T.); Lees Spring (Greaves, T.); Tidbinbilla Nature Res, Koala Enclosure (Shattuck, S.O.); Wombat Ck., 6km NE Piccadilly Circus, 750 m (Weir, T.A., Lawrence, J. & Johnson). New South Wales: 10km SW Tathra (Lowery, B.B.); 1km NNW Mt. Keira, 380 m (Ward, P.S.); 25mi E Queenbeyan, 2500 ft (Lowery, B.B.); 3 mi E Berry, 100 ft (Lowery, B.B.); 5km S Mongarlowe (Shattuck, S.O.); 5km SSW Blackheath, 680 m (Ward, P.S.); 9km NE Batemans Bay, West Side Hwy 1, ca. 0.5km N Durras Rd., 20 m (Shattuck, S.O.); 9km NE Blackheath, 1000 m (Ward, P.S.); above Jenolan Caves, 3000 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Bark Hut, Mt. Kaputar Nat. Pk., 1180 m (Shattuck, S.O.); Bark Hut, Mt. Kaputar Natl Pk, 1180 m (Ward, P.S.); below sublime Pt, Bulli, 200 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Berowra Waters, Sydney, 200 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Berowra, 500ft (Lowery, B.B.); Berry Rd., Gerroa (Lowery, B.B.); Bong Bong (Froggatt, W.W.); Bowens Creek, 4km E Bilpin, 2km SE Mt. Irvine, 420 m (Shattuck, S.O.); Braidwood (Riek, E.F.); Broulee (Lowery, B.B.); Bulli (Lowery, B.B.); Bulli Pass (Wheeler); Burrinjuck Dam Sanct. (Lowery, B.B.); Clarence (Gush, T.); Clyde Mt, nr Braidwood (Berg, R.Y.); Coachwood Nature Trail, 3km SSW Blackheath, 800 m (Shattuck, S.O.); Como (Froggatt, W.W.); Congo (Upton, M.S.); Congo, 8km ESE Moruya (Upton, M.S.); Cowan (Taylor, R.W.); Cowan, Sydney (Lowery, B.B.); Currowan SF, W of Nelligen (Lowery, B.B.); Dalrymple Forest, St Ives, Sydney (Lowery, B.B.); Dawsons Spring Mt. Kaputar Natl. Pk, 1380 m (Ward, P.S.); Dawsons Spring, Mt. Kaputar Natl. Pk, 1380 m (Shattuck, S.O.); East Boyd SF, 54km SE Bombala (Lambkin, C.L. & Starick, N.T.); Eastern Foothills, Clyde Mt (Riek, E.F.); Echo Pt. Katoomba, 940 m (Ward, P.S.); Eulah Ck., Narrabri (Room, P.M.); Forest Path, Royal National Park, 35km SW Sydney, 123 m (Lucky, A.); Gerroa (Lowery, B.B.); Gerroa, 150 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Girralang NR, 20.6km NE Orange (Lambkin, C.L. & Starick, N.T.); Green Camp, Mt. Kaputar Natl. Pk, 920 m (Ward, P.S.); Guyra (Riek, E.F.); Heaton SF, Sugarloaf, Ra., W of Newcastle (Lowery, B.B.); Jenolan Caves (Wiburd, J.C.); K Harb. [Coff’s Harbour?] (Day, M.F.); Kangaroo Valley (Riek, E.F.); Katoomba (Lowery, B.B.); Katoomba (Wheeler); King's Tableland, 5km S Wentworth Falls (Lowery, B.B.); Kioloa Rest Area, Boyne S.F., 30 m (Ward, P.S.); Kioloa S.F., 35 m (Ward, P.S.); Kioloa S.F., 70 m (Ward, P.S.); Kuring Gai Chase, Sydney(Ward, P.S.); Kurrajong (Taylor, F.H.); Lawson (Lea); Manly (Froggatt, W.W.); Maroota State Forest (Gush,T.); Minnihaha area, Katoomba (Lowery, B.B.); Mittagong (Lea); Mittagong, 2000–2400 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Mt Victoria (Lowery, B.B.); Mt. Capel, Narrabri (Room, P.M.); Mt. Conobolas, nr. Orange, 4200 ft (Taylor, R.W. & R.J. Bartell); Mt. Flora nr. Mittagong (Taylor, R.W., Sadler, R. & Bartell, R.J.); Mt. Keira, 300 m (Ward, P.S.); Mt. Keira, Scout Camp nr. Wollongong, 300 m (Shattuck, S.O.); Mt. Wilson (Darlington); Mt. Wilson (general) (Horning, D.S., Jr.); Mt. Wilson, 980 m (Ward, P.S.); Nadgee Reserve (Sugden, E.A.); Nadgee Reserve, 4.7km S. Merrica (Sugden, E.A.); Nadgee Reserve, 5km N Newton's Beach (Sugden, E.A.); Nadgee Reserve, Merrica Trail (Sugden, E.A.); National Park (Wheeler); New England, Glenrock (Hangay, G.); New South Wales (Wheeler); Newlands Crk. 10km W Merrinbula [Merimbula] (Lowery, B.B.); Pymble (McAreavey, J.); Pymble, 500 ft (Lowery, B.B.); R. Nat. Park [Royal NP] (c.u.); Rosedale, SE Batemans Bay, 40 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Royal N.P., 50 m (Ward, P.S.); Royal Nat. Park, 250 m (Ward, P.S.); Royal Nat. Park, nr. Oloola Falls, 130 m (Ward, P.S.); St. Ives (Lowery, B.B.); Sydney (Froggatt); Tallaganda S.F., nr Captain's flat, 3000 ft (Lowery, B.B.); The Gib, Bowral, 2800 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Tindery Mts, 4000 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Tollway w of Wollongong, nr Picton Turnoff (Lowery, B.B.); Tumut, 3000 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Upper Kangaroo Valley (Riek, E.F.); Vittoria, nr Bathurst (Crozier, R.H., Imai, H.T. & Ward, P.S.); Wallaga Lake, Bermagui (Liepa, Z.); Warrumbungle NP, 25 km W. Coonabarabran, 588 m (Lucky, A.); Warrumbungles NP [Warrumbungle NP], 1500 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Wattamolla (Brown); Wentworth Falls (Mann); Wentworth Falls (Wheeler); Wentworth Falls NP 2km SW Wentworth Falls, 850 m (Lucky, A.); Wentworth Falls nr. Valley of the Waters, West end of Fletcher St., 800 m (Shattuck, S.O.); Wentworth Falls, 800 m (Ward, P.S.); White Munghorn, 13mi. E Mudgee (Lowery, B.B.); White Munghorns, 13 mi E Mudgee, 1500 ft (Lowery, B.B.); White Munghorns, 13 mi E Mudgee, M 54, 500 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Wilton, 200 m (Ward, P.S.); Yambulla SF, 45km SE Bombala (Lambkin, C.L. & Starick, N.T.). Queensland: Girraween Natl. Park, 860 m (Ward, P.S.). Victoria: Cabbage tree (c.u.); Cann River. (Clark, J.); Croydon (c.u.); Dalesford [Daylesford] (G&B); E. Orbost (Darlingtons); Eltham (Dixon, J.E.); Eltham (W.K.); Greensborough (McAreavey, J.); Healesville (c.u.); Healesville (Dangerfield, D.); Healesville (Kelly, R.); Healesville (Shaw, A.E.); Hume Range (Ashton, D.); Kingslake NP (Crozier, R.); Lerderderg Gorge (Lowery, B.B.); Marlo, nr Orbost (Lowery, B.B.); Millgrove (E.E. Wilson); Mt. Ben Cairn, nr. Healesville (Greaves, T.); Mt. Drummer (Darlingtons); Narbethong (Lowery, B.B.); Narbethong (McAreavey, J.); near Melbourne (Hill, G.F.); Wallaby Ck. (c.u.); Wandong (c.u.); Warburtin [Warburton] (c.u.); Warrandyte (Greaves, T.); Woori Yallock (Thorn, L.B.). Dubious locality record: Queensland: Peak Downs (probably E. Dämel).

Worker measurements (n = 10)

HL 2.17–2.41, HW 1.31–1.47, MFC 0.27–0.32, IOD 0.78–0.93, SL 3.90–4.29, EL 0.41–0.50, WL 4.20– 4.64, PW 1.21–1.44, DPW 0.44–0.56, HTL 4.80–5.38, HTWmin 0.13–0.17, HTWmax 0.27–0.32, CI 0.59– 0.62, SI 2.87–3.20, OI 0.09–0.12, HTC 0.42–0.58.

Worker description

As in L. cnemidatus   , but larger on average: HW 1.31–1.47 mm; WL 4.20–4.64 mm ( L. cnemidatus HW   1.20–1.39 mm; WL 3.79–4.32 mm). Typical color pattern consisting of black body with contrasting rufotestaceous head, antennae and tarsi. In northern half of range (> 100km inland, e.g. Girraween NP) some individuals become variable in coloration, with head black and/or variable amounts of black and rufotestaceous color occuring on mesosoma.

Queen

UNKNOWN. A reference in Bolton et al. (2007) catalogue appears to be a mistake, as no queens of this species are currently known.

Male measurements (n = 9)

HL 1.60–1.80, HW 1.10–1.30, SL 0.56–0.64, EL 0.55–0.71, HTL 4.57–5.03, CI 0.65–0.76, SI 0.46–0.55, SI2 1.03–1.20.

Note: Emery’s (1891) description of the male of L. erythrocephalus   is probably a misidentification, as it does not correspond with known males of this species.

Discussion

In the Sydney region, where L. erythrocephalus   is sympatric with L. cnemidatus   , the two species can be quite difficult to distinguish, but the following characters will aid in separating them: in L. erythrocephalus   , the central portion of clypeus, excluding the anterior margin presents 0–2 black setae (2–4 in L. cnemidatus   ); if 2 setae are present then these are separated by 0.25 mm or more (<0.25 mm in L. cnemidatus   ). Outside of the Sydney region geographic distribution can also help distinguish these species: L. erythrocephalus   occurs coastally and inland from Victoria to the Sydney area, but farther north to the Queensland border it inhabits only inland areas (> 100km from the coastline), whereas L. cnemidatus   populations remain within 100 km of the coast.

In color pattern L. erythrocephalus   resembles L. ruficeps   , but the latter is confined to northern Queensland. The rounded postocular margin also helps to distinguish L. erythrocephalus   (elongate and constricted in L. ruficeps   ). L. erythrocephalus   may be difficult to distinguish from some individuals of L. wiburdi   , which possess the typical L. erythrocephalus   color pattern. The large size (HW 1.31–1.47 mm; WL 4.20–4.64 mm; in L. wiburdi HW   1.15–1.33 mm; WL 3.06–3.65 mm), narrower head (CI 0.59–0.62 mm; in L. wiburdi CI   0.66–0.70) and longer scapes (SI 2.87–3.20; in L. wiburdi SI   2.29–2.64) will identify L. erythrocephalus   upon close examination.

L. erythrocephalus   has been recorded in wet sclerophyll, dry sclerophyll, rainforest, gallery rainforest and beach scrub. Nests occur in the ground, under rocks, in soil at the base of trees and under or in logs.

Leptomyrmex flavitarsus (F. Smith)   ( Figs 5a–c View FIGURES 2–6 , 24d View FIGURE24 )

Formica flavitarsus F. Smith, 1859: 136   View Cited Treatment .

Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) flavitarsus (F. Smith)   ; Roger, 1863: 4.

Camponotus flavitarsus (F. Smith)   ; Emery, 1925: 90.

Leptomyrmex flavitarsus (F. Smith)   ; Shattuck, 1992: 114.

Leptomyrmex niger   ; Wheeler (nec Emery), 1934: 109.

Type material examined L. flavitarsus F. Smith.   Syntypes, 2 workers, Indonesia, Maluku: Aru Island (Smith, F.) [ OXUM].

Other material examined

INDONESIA: Irian Jaya: Japen I. Mt. Eiori, 2000 ft (Cheeseman, L.E.); Mimika R. (Wollaston, A.F.R.); PT Freeport Concession Siewa Camp, 200 ft (Snelling, R.R.); Waigeu Is., Mt. Nok, 2500 ft (Cheeseman, L.E.). PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Chimbu (Simbu): Crater Mtn. Station, 6mi E Haia, 800–1200 m (Wright, D.); Eastern Highlands Okapa (Hornabrook, R.). Gulf: Lakekamu Basin Ivimka Res. Station, 120 m (Heydon, S.L.); Lakekamu Basin Ivimka Res. Station, 120 m (Sears, T.A.); Lakekamu Basin Ivimka Res. Station, 120 m (Sears, T.A. & Binatung Brigade); Lakekamu Basin Ivimka Res. Station, 120 m (Heydon, S.L. & Schiff, N.). Madang: Finisterre Mts., Damanti, 3550 ft (Bacchus, M.E.). Morobe: Tekadu (Sears, T.A. & Binatung Brigade). Southern Highlands: Moro, L. Kutabu [Lake Kutubu], 2400 ft (Barrett, J.H.); Pengin Area, Talipiko (Thistleton). West Sepik (Sandaun): 12km SW Telefomin, 1600 m (Ward, P.S.); Telefomin, 1520 m (Ward, P.S.). Western: Star Mountains, near Tabubil, 640 m (Patel, D.).

Worker measurements (n = 10)

HL 1.74–1.99, HW 1.18–1.45, MFC 0.21–0.29, IOD 0.66–0.90, SL 3.26–3.62, EL 0.28–0.43, WL 3.25– 3.68, PW 0.89–1.04, DPW 0.34–0.43, HTL 3.68–4.19, HTWmin 0.12–0.14, HTWmax 0.18–0.23, CI 0.67– 0.73, SI 2.47–3.03, OI 0.06–0.15, HTC 0.55–0.71.

Worker description

Medium sized species (HW 1.18–1.45 mm; WL 3.25–3.68 mm) with broad head (CI 0.67–0.73), widest anterior to eyes. Sides of head convex, genae straight to slightly concave anteriorly. Behind the eyes, head gently rounding to flat postocular margin. Approximately 15 teeth and denticles interspersed along masticatory margin of mandible. Anterior clypeal margin weakly concave. Eyes positioned posterior to midline of head, small and round, convex and hairless, not reaching lateral margins of head. Antennae not compressed, scapes surpassing posterior margin of head by 3/5 their length.

Dorsal face of propodeum approximately as long as declivitous face, dorsal face with a slight transverse impression on anterior end. Petiolar node thick (DPW 0.34–0.43 mm), with rounded summit; anterior face short and perpendicular to base, with shallow median longitudinal groove. Posterior face of petiole long, flat and sloping, ventral surface flat, not projecting. Gaster broadly elliptical. Legs long and slender.

Surface distinctly shagreened and shining throughout, subopaque. Pubescence long and brownish, distributed all over the body, but especially prominent on the head, pronotum and gaster. Black, bristle-like hairs on clypeus, venter and gaster. Body generally dark brown with the tarsi, femoro-tibial joints and antennal funiculus yellow.

Queen UNKNOWN

Male measurements (n = 2)

HL 1.51–1.55, HW 1.00–1.03, SL 0.64–0.70, EL 0.52–0.57, HTL 4.54–4.65, CI 0.64–0.68, SI 0.63–0.70, SI2 0.38–0.40.

Discussion

This species superficially resembles the two other dark species of Leptomyrmex   known to occur in New Guinea, L. niger   and L. melanoticus   , but can be distinguished by the abundant pubescence on the head and body, especially the pronotum, which is lacking in the others. L. flavitarsus   is also relatively larger and stouter (HW 1.18–1.45 mm; WL 3.25–3.68 mm) than the other two ( L. niger HW   1.01–1.25 mm; WL 3.15–3.58 mm. L. melanoticus HW   0.99–1.06 mm; WL 3.32–3.76 mm), and closely resembles the pale L. puberulus   , but is darker in color and lacks the pubescent eyes of L. puberulus   .

L. flavitarsus   has been recorded in rainforest, including lowland secondary rainforest and montane rainforest. Nesting habits are unknown.

Leptomyrmex fragilis F. Smith   ( Figs 6a–c View FIGURES 2–6 , 23b View FIGURES 23 , 24e View FIGURE24 )

Formica fragilis F. Smith, 1859: 136   View Cited Treatment .

Formica fragilis F. Smith   ; Emery, 1897: 571. Description of male.

Leptomyrmex fragilis (F. Smith)   ; Stitz, 1912: 507.

Leptomyrmex fragilis var. femorata Santschi, 1932: 17   , fig. 3; Syn. nov.

Leptomyrmex fragilis subsp. femoratus Santschi   ; Wheeler, 1934: 113.

Leptomyrmex gracillimus Wheeler, 1934:115   , fig. 16. Synonymy by Baroni Urbani & Wilson, 1987: 2.

Leptomyrmex fragilis var. maculatus Stitz, 1938: 108   . Syn. nov.

Leptomyrmex fragilis var. wheeleri Donisthorpe, 1948: 600   . Syn. nov.

See also Wheeler, 1934: 113.

Type material examined

L. fragilis (F. Smith)   . Syntype, 1 worker, Indonesia, Maluku: Aru Island (Smith, F.) [ OXUM]   .

L. fragilis gracillimus Wheeler.   Syntypes, 5 workers, Papua New Guinea, Morobe: Finsch Harbor ( Wagner   , N.G. L.) [MCZ].

L. fragilis femoratus Santschi.   Syntype, 1 worker, Indonesia, Irian Jaya: Siwi (Léopold) [IRSNB].

L. fragilis wheeleri Donisthorpe.   Syntypes, 5 workers, Indonesia, Irian Jaya: Maffin Bay (Ross, E.S.) [BMNH].

L. fragilis maculatus Stitz.   Syntypes, 8 syntype workers, Papua New Guinea: Kaiserin-Augustafluss Expedition [Sepik R.] ( Bürgers ) [ZMHB].

Other material examined

INDONESIA: Irian Jaya: Cyclops Mts. Mt. Lina, 3500–4500 ft (Cheeseman, L.E.); Cyclops Mts. Sabron, 930 ft (Cheeseman, L.E.); SE Salawati I (Phillips Base Camp) (Brown, W.L.); Mt. Nomo, S of Mt Bougainville, 600–1500 ft (Cheeseman, L.E.); PT Freeport Concession Siewa Camp, 200 ft (Snelling, R.R.); Waigeu (Wallace); Waigeu Is., Mt. Nok, 2500 ft (Cheeseman, L.E.). Ceram: Above Haruru, nr. Masohi [=Amahai], 50–150 m (Brown, W.L.). PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Central: 50km E Port Moresby (Room, P.M.); 5–6km W Brown R., 80 m (Brown, W.L.); Bisianumu, E Port Moresby, 500 m (Gressett,J.L.); Bisianumu, nr. Sogeri, 500 m (Wilson, E.O.); Brown R. (Taylor, R.W.); Brown R. (Ford, E.J.); Haveri (Loria); Iora Creek 17km S Kokoda, 1400 m (Ward, P.S.); Karema, Brown (Wilson, E.O.); Kavai River, Manari, 700 m (Ward, P.S.); Kovetapa, nr Tapini, 1000 m (Taylor, R.W.); Laloki R., nr. Little Mt. Lawes (Wilson, E.O.); Maru R., 32km S Wanigela, Papua (Pullen, R.); Moroka, 1300 m (Loria); Musgrove R. valley, Astrolabe Ra. [Musgrave River], 350 m (Taylor, R.W.); nr. Yahninga, 1250 m (Ward, P.S.); Ofi Creek, 8km SW Naoro, 650 m (Ward, P.S.); Owen Stanley Ra., 2900 ft (Littlechild, H.); Rubulogo Ck., c. 15 mi N Port Moresby (Pullen, R.); Sirinumu Dam, 600 m (Ward, P.S.); Tapini, 1000–1200 m (Taylor, R.W.); Tatupiti nr. Tapini, 1200 m (Taylor, R.W.); Variatara [sic], Port Moresby Dist. (Brown, E.S.); Varirata NP, 800 m (Ward, P.S.). Chimbu (Simbu): Crater Mtn. Station, 6mi E Haia, 800–1200 m (Wright, D.). East Sepik: 12km SSW Dagua, 850 m (Ward, P.S.); 3km S Wewak, 400 m (Ward, P.S.); 9km SSW Dagua, 800 m (Ward, P.S.); Ambunti, 150 m (Ward, P.S.); Ambunti, 50 m (Ward, P.S.); Angoram, <20 m (Taylor, R.W.); Baiyer R. Sanct. (MacKay, D. & Whalen, M.); Hayfield nr. Maprik [Hayfield Mission], 150 m (Taylor, R.W.); Maprik (Colless, D.H.); Passam, nr. Wewak, 270 m (Taylor, R.W.); Wamangu, 200–300 m (Janda, M. et al.). Gulf: Lakekamu Basin Ivimka Res. Station, 120 m (Sears, T.A.); Lakekamu Basin Ivimka Res. Station, 120 m (Heydon, S.L., Schiff, N. & Sears, T. A.); Lakekamu Basin Ivimka Res. Station, 120 m (Heydon, S.L.); Lakekamu Basin Ivimka Res. Station, 120 m (Binatung Brigade); Lakekamu Basin Ivimka Res. Station, 120 m (Sears, T.A. & Schiff, N.); Lakekamu Basin Ivimka Res. Station, 120 m (Sears, T.A. & Binatung Brigade); Lakekamu Basin Ivimka Res. Station, 120 m (Heydon, S.L. & Schiff, N.); Lakekamu Basin (Sears, T.A. & Heydon, S.L.); Near Takiloa, Bulldog Rd. 22km S. Edie Creek, 1300 m (Ward, P.S.); Orokolo (Littlechild, H.). Madang: Finisterre Mts., Damanti, 3550 ft (Bacchus, M.E.); Gogol Val. c. 24km W Madang, 50 m (Taylor, R.W.); Karap, N. of Jimi- Waghi div., 1550 m (Gressitt, J.L.); Madang (Hulcr, J. et al.); 35km SW Madang, 160 m (Ward, P.S.); 38km N Madang, 40 m (Ward, P.S.); 38km SW Madang, 340 m (Ward, P.S.); 40km W Madang, 140 m (Ward, P.S.); Wannang, 200 m (Hulcr, J. et al.). Morobe: Lakekamu Basin (Sears, T.A. & Heydon, S.L.); Bubia, 13 km NW Lae (Wilson, E.O.); Finschhafen (Wilson, E.O.); Lower Busu R., Huon Pen. (Wilson, E.O.); Nganduo, Mongi-Mape Watershed, Huon Pen., 1000 m (Wilson, E.O.); Sattleberg, Mongi-Mape Watershed, 660 m (Wilson, E.O.); Tekadu (T.A. Sears & Binatung Brigade); Tekadu (Binatung Brigade); Timber Track 16km NW Lae (Taylor, R.W.). Northern (Oro): 8km S Kokoda, 800 m (Taylor, R.W.); Mafulu [Wharton Range], 4000 ft (Cheeseman, L.E.); Kanga, 600 m (Hulcr, J. et al.); Kokoda (Room, P.M.); Kokoda, 1200 ft (Cheeseman, L.E.); Managalese area, 2500––3000 ft (Pullen, R.); Mt. Lamington, 600 m (Hulcr, J. et al.); Saiho (Room, P.M.); Sangara (Baker, G.). Southern Highlands: Erave, 3800 ft (Barrett, J.H.); Moro, L. Kutabu [Lake Kutubu], 2400ft (Barrett, J.H.). West Sepik (Sandaun): Bewani Rd., nr. Vanimo, ca. km, 12,500 m (Brown, W.L.); c. 12km SE Vanimo, 150 m (Brown, W.L.); nr. Vanimo, 50 m (Taylor, R.W.); Pes, nr. Aitape (Taylor, R.W.); Telefomin, 1520 m (Ward, P.S.); Utai (Hulcr, J. et al.). Western: Star Mountains, near Tabubil, 640 m (Patel, D.). Western Highlands: Korop, Upper Jimmi V., 1300 m (Gressett, J.L.); Kumur, Upper Jimi V, 1000 m (Gressitt, J.L.); Taenga, Upper Jimmi V., 1200 m (Gressett, J.L.); Wana, Upper Jimmi V., 1500 m (Gressett, J.L.); Wara Hill, Jimi Val., 500 m (Ward, P.S.); Wum, Upper Jimmi V., 840 m (Gressett, J.L.). Dubious locality record: PHILIPPINES: Mindanao: Agusan, S. Francisco 10km SE (Quate, L.W.).

Worker measurements (n = 10)

HL 1.74–1.98, HW 0.94–1.05, MFC 0.17–0.21, IOD 0.53–0.64, SL 3.96–4.61, EL 0.34–0.40, WL 3.21– 4.04, PW 0.85–0.96, DPW 0.27–0.33, HTL 4.41–5.02, HTWmin 0.11–0.15, HTWmax 0.16–0.21, CI 0.51– 0.58, SI 3.92–4.73, OI 0.12–0.16, HTC 0.55–0.74.

Worker description

Small, slender species (HW 0.94–1.05 mm; WL 3.21–4.04 mm) with elongate head (CI 0.51–0.58), excluding mandibles, nearly twice as long as broad, widest at eyes. Sides of head straight; gently tapering anteriorly, posteriorly narrowing abruptly to a conical neck-like constriction. Approximately 15 teeth and denticles interspersed on masticatory margin of mandible. Anterior clypeal margin weakly concave. Eyes positioned at midline of head, relatively small, round, hairless, not surpassing lateral margins of head. Antennae slender, not compressed, scapes surpassing posterior margin of head by 3/5 their length.

Pronotum slender, distinctly elongated anteriorly. Propodeum with dorsal face 1.5 times the length of declivitous face, both faces concave, and meeting at rounded angle. Petiolar node triangular in profile, dorsal face rounded and bearing a longitudinal impression. Ventral surface of petiole weakly concave. Gaster long and slender, legs very long and slender (HTL 4.41–5.02 mm), not compressed (HTC 0.55–0.74).

Surface very finely shagreened and shining. Pubescence yellow, moderately dense on head and gaster. Pilosity confined to clypeus, venter and gaster. Head, thorax and usually gaster rufotestaceous. Femora and tibiae ranging from pale to dark brown, tarsi white. While generally rufotestaceous throughout, some variants with dark spots laterally on the gaster, or with gaster entirely black.

Queen description

Head broader than in worker. Three ocelli deeply set into head in triangular formation, the anteriormost one largest, the posterior two smaller. Pronotum, mesonotum and propodeum voluminous, convex. The anterior portion of the mesonotum with a distinctly raised medial bump. Dorsal face of propodeum broadly convex. Petiole broader than high, with distinct medial impression. Gaster globose, larger than in worker. Scapes, femora and tibiae broad, distinctly robust.

Surface of body appearing velvety, shagreened. Queen coloration similar to that of worker; gaster may be unicolorous pale or portions may be black.

Male measurements (n = 3)

HL 1.41–1.58, HW 1.01–1.04, SL 0.34–0.39, EL 0.58–0.65, HTL 4.74–5.26, CI 0.64–0.73, SI 0.34–0.38, SI2 1.09–1.15.

Discussion

L. fragilis   is the most commonly encountered Leptomyrmex species   in New Guinea. Distinctively slender (HW 0.94–1.05 mm; PW 0.85–0.96 mm; DPW 0.27–0.33 mm), yellow and virtually hairless, it is unlikely to be confused with the one other pale species found in New Guinea, L. puberulus   , which is stout and hairy, notably on the pronotum, head and eyes. Closely related to L. fragilis   is the entirely black L. melanoticus   , which may be a melanic form of L. fragilis   . Although no intermediate color forms are currently known, future collections may reveal these sister species to be mere color variants within a single species.

L. fragilis   has been recorded in rainforest, including lowland secondary and primary rainforest, montane rainforest and native gardens. Nests occur in the soil and in logs.

Leptomyrmex geniculatus Emery   , stat. nov. ( Figs 7a–c View FIGURES 7–11 )

Leptomyrmex pallens var. geniculatus Emery, 1914: 418   .

Leptomyrmex pallens subsp. geniculatus Emery   ; Wheeler 1934: 109.

Type material examined

Leptomyrmex pallens geniculatus Emery.   Syntypes, 2 workers, New Caledonia: Coula-Boréaré (Sarasin & Roux) [ MSNG]; syntypes, 2 workers, New Caledonia: Tchalabel (Sarasin & Roux) [ MSNG]; also 1 syntype worker, New Caledonia: " New Caledonia " [ MCZ]. One worker from Coula-Boréaré here designated lectotype ( CASENT0127391 ).

Other material examined

NEW CALEDONIA: Bourail (Cheeseman, L.E.); Col de Mouirange, 240 m (Ward, P.S.); Col de Petchecara, S. End (Monteith, G.); Farino, 5km N, 750 m (Monteith, G.); Grottes de Koum, 40 m (Ward, P.S.); Tiebaghi (LeBreton, J.).

Worker measurements (n = 7)

HL 1.80–1.95, HW 0.99–1.10, MFC 0.22–0.26, IOD 0.55–0.61, SL 3.36–3.81, EL 0.33–0.38, WL 3.21– 3.52, PW 0.86–0.94, DPW 0.40–0.43, HTL 3.80–4.17, HTWmin 0.10–0.15, HTWmax 0.17–0.19, CI 0.54– 0.57, SI 3.39–3.63, OI 0.09–0.11, HTC 0.61–0.85.

Worker description

L. geniculatus   is a small species (HW 0.99–1.10 mm; WL 3.21–3.52 mm) with elongate head nearly twice as long as broad, excluding mandibles (CI 0.54–0.57). Sides of head parallel, slightly convex, posterior to eyes head narrowing gently to flat postocular margin. Approximately 15 teeth and denticles interspersed on masticatory margin of mandible. Anterior clypeal margin flat to weakly concave. Eyes positioned approximately at midline of head, relatively large, convex, hairless, not reaching the lateral margins of head. Antennae extremely slender, but not compressed. Scapes extending past the posterior margin by 2/3 their length.

Pronotum elongate. Propodeum short, dorsal face about 1.5 times as long as the convex declivitous face, angle rounded. Dorsal face of propodeum convex, with a transverse impression at the anterior end. Petiolar node small, triangular in profile with a rounded dorsum. Anterior, dorsal and posterior face of petiole with longitudinal impression posterior face longer than anterior, ventral surface flat. Gaster broadly elliptical. Legs very slender, not compressed (HTC 0.61–0.85).

Surface finely and densely shagreened, slightly shining. Mandibles with a single row of coarse punctures along margin. Pubescence white, extremely fine standing hairs scarce, confined to clypeus, venter and gaster. Body mostly pale rufotestaceous, with first two segments of gaster and distal 1/2 to 1/3 of femora black. Head and sometimes pronotum slightly darker than body.

Queen UNKNOWN.

Male UNKNOWN.

Discussion

The distinctive color pattern that distinguishes L. geniculatus   from its two New Caledonian congeners is the combination of dark gaster and dark distal portions of the femora on an otherwise orange body. In some specimens the pronotum may also be dark. Aside from these color differences, this species greatly resembles L. pallens   and L. nigriceps   . There are scattered records of this species throughout the island, where it has been found in sympatry with L. pallens   . This species appears to be less commonly encountered than L. pallens   .

L. geniculatus   has been recorded in rainforest and dry forest. Nesting habits are unknown.

Leptomyrmex melanoticus Wheeler   , stat. nov. ( Figs 8a–c View FIGURES 7–11 , 24f View FIGURE24 )

Leptomyrmex fragilis subsp. melanoticus Wheeler, 1934: 113   , fig.15. Stat. nov.

Leptomyrmex contractus Donisthorpe, 1947: 586   . Syn. nov.

Type material examined

L. fragilis melanoticus Wheeler.   Syntypes, 6 workers, 2 males, Papua New Guinea: China Straight (Eyerdam, W.J.) [ MCZ].

L. contractus Donisthorpe.   Syntype, 1 worker, Papua New Guinea: KB Mission (Krombein, K.V.) [BMNH].

Other material examined

INDONESIA: Irian Jaya: Cyclops Mts., Sabron, Camp 2, 2000 ft (Cheeseman, L.E.); Japen I. Mt. Baduri, 1000 ft (Cheeseman, L.E.). PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Morobe: 4mi N Butala, Mongi R, Huon Pen. (Wilson, E.O.); Bulolo (Lowery, B.B.); Bulolo, 1000 m (Ford, E.J.); Sepalakambang, Salawaket Ra, 1920 m (Ford, E.J.); Tumnang, Mongi Watershed, Huon Peninsula, 15–1600 m (Wilson, E.O.). Northern (Oro): Kokoda, 1200 ft (Cheeseman, L.E.); Sangara Poppondetta Dist. (Brown, E.S.).

Worker measurements (n = 6)

HL 1.77–2.00, HW 0.99–1.06, MFC 0.18–0.24, IOD 0.56–0.61, SL 3.96–4.54, EL 0.36–0.39, WL 3.32– 3.76, PW 0.86–1.01, DPW 0.27–0.35, HTL 4.34–5.09, HTWmin 0.10–0.13, HTWmax 0.15–0.19, CI 0.54– 0.56, SI 4.02–4.05, OI 0.11–0.15, HTC 0.62–0.75.

Worker description

As in L. fragilis   , but body unicolorous black with only the antennal funiculi, the mandibles and the tarsi pale yellow.

Queen UNKNOWN.

Male measurements (n = 2)

HL 1.46–1.52, HW 1.04–1.05, SL 0.37–0.38, EL 0.64, HTL 4.78–4.83, CI 0.68–0.72, SI 0.36–0.37, SI2 1.08–1.09.

Discussion

L. melanoticus   is distinctively slender, unicolorous black and virtually hairless. It is unlikely to be confused with the stout and hairy L. flavitarsus   , but superficially does resemble L. niger   . L. melanoticus   can be distinguished from this species by its narrow and conical ‘neck’, an extension of the posterior portion of the head not found in L. niger   . The round eyes of L. melanoticus   (EL 0.36–0.39) are generally smaller than the large, elongate eyes of L. niger   (EL 0.38–0.47 mm). Additionally, the propodeal angle of this species gradually rounds into the dorsal and posterior faces, in contrast to the distinct angle of the propodeum of L. niger   . See the discussion of L. fragilis   for consideration of the close relationship between L. melanoticus   and L. fragilis   .

L. melanoticus   has been recorded in rainforest. Nesting habits are unknown.

Leptomyrmex mjobergi Forel   ( Figs 9a–c View FIGURES 7–11 , 23c View FIGURES 23 , 24g View FIGURE24 )

Leptomyrmex mjobergi Forel, 1915: 84   .

Type material examined

L. mjobergi Forel.   Syntypes, workers, Australia, Queensland: Colosseum, Tolga & Herberton (Mjöberg, E.) [ MHNG].

Other material examined

AUSTRALIA: Queensland: 15km ESE Gympie, 100 m (Ward, P.S.); 6km S Eungella, 700 m (Ward, P.S.); 7km NNW North Tamborine, 490 m (Ward, P.S.); 8km N Finch Hatton, 200 m (Ward, P.S.); 8km W Paluma, 950 m (Taylor, R.W. & Feehan, J.); Babinda (Wilke, J.); Bellenden Ker (c.u.); Boombana, D'Aguilar NP, 496 m (Lucky, A.); Broken R. Eungella NP, 700 m (R.W. Taylor & Wier, T.A.); Broken R., 6km S Eungella, 700 m (Brown, W.L. & Brown, D.E.); Buhot Crk, Burbank, 50 m (Burwell, C.J.); Buhot Crk, Burbank, 50 m (Queensland Museum Party); Callide Ck. Mine (Smith, A.); Callide Ck. Mine (Hoffman, B.); Canungra, Brisbane region (Polo, C.); Cooloola Natl. Pk., Como Forestry HQ (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Cooran Plateau, nr Traveston, 400 m (Taylor, R.W. & Kohout, R.J.); Dingo Ck., 1 km E Traveston, 80 m (Taylor, R.W. & Kohout, R.J.); Eungella Ra., W of Mackay, 2–3000 ft (Darlington); Josephine Falls Bellenden Kerr N.P., 180 m (Ward, P.S.); Malanda (Bourne, E.H.); Mapleton Falls NP, 3km W Mapleton, 450 m (Lucky, A.); Mossman Gorge, 3 mi E Mossman (Taylor, R.W.); Mt. Jacob, c. 45mi S Gladstone, 2000 ft (Darlington); Mt. Nebo, 1800 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Mt. Nebo, Brisbane (Lowery, B.B.); Mt. Spec plateau, c. 40mi N Townsville, 2–3000 ft (Darlington); N. Tamborine, 1800 ft (Upton, M.S.); Palmerston NP, I km SE Crawford's Lookout, 300 m (Taylor, R.W.); Tamborine Mt (Brown, W.L.); Toowoomba (Greaves, T.).

Worker measurements (n = 10)

HL 1.40–1.53, HW 0.82–0.87, MFC 0.15–0.18, IOD 0.46–0.51, SL 2.44–2.80, EL 0.33–0.38, WL 2.58– 2.97, PW 0.75–0.85, DPW 0.29–0.33, HTL 2.17–3.30, HTWmin 0.09–0.14, HTWmax 0.17–0.21, CI 0.57– 0.61, SI 2.85–3.34, OI 0.11–0.13, HTC 0.48–0.79.

Worker description

Relatively small species (HW 0.82–0.87; WL 2.58–2.97). Head, excluding mandibles, nearly twice as long as broad (CI 0.57–0.61), with nearly straight and parallel sides. Postocular margin of head broadly rounded. Masticatory margin of mandible with approximately 20 small, mostly uniform teeth. Anterior clypeal margin convex. Eyes positioned approximately at the midline of the head; large, somewhat flattened to head, hairless and not surpassing lateral margins. Antennae lightly compressed, scape surpassing posterior margin of head by 3/5 of its length.

Pronotum approximately 1.5 times as long as broad, thorax distinctly laterally compressed. Propodeum abruptly raised from mesonotum; dorsal surface twice as long as declivity, dorsal face weakly convex. Petiole flattened and scale-like, strongly inclined forward, twice as high as long, rounded at apex, ventral surface feebly convex. Gaster elongate-elliptical.

Body surface finely shagreened, somewhat shining, with delicate short sparse pubescence throughout. Standing hairs sparse, confined to gaster, venter, clypeus and mandibles. Body black, mandibles reddishbrown, femora scapes and tibiae brown, tarsi reddish-yellow.

Queen description

Head broader than in worker. Three ocelli deeply set into head in triangular formation, the anteriormost one largest, the posterior two smaller. Pronotum, mesonotum and propodeum voluminous, convex. Petiole node-like and vertical, not scale-like or inclined forward, taller than broad, rounded dorsally. Gaster globose, larger than in worker. Scapes, femora and tibiae broad, distinctly robust. Surface of body appearing velvety, shagreened.

Male measurements (n = 4)

HL 1.14–1.26, HW 0.84–0.95, SL 0.17–0.18, EL 0.53–0.64, HTL 2.72–2.90, CI 0.73–0.78, SI 0.19–0.20, SI2 0.53–0.65.

Discussion

This smallest macro- Leptomyrmex species   can be readily identified by both size (HW 0.82–0.87 mm; WL 2.58–2.97 mm) and by the presence of a strongly inclined, scale-like petiole (all others are node-like). Workers of L. mjobergi   are approximately half the size of the larger species in the genus (e.g. L. tibialis HW   1.68– 1.96 mm), but remain larger than any of the micro- Leptomyrmex   (HW <0.80 mm). Leptomyrmex mjobergi   occurs from Queensland’s northern Wet Tropics to the state’s southern border with New South Wales. Although it is unicolorous black, this nearly hairless species is unlikely to be confused with the other entirely black macro- Leptomyrmex   in Australia, L. unicolor   , which is distinctly pubescent, and quite large and stout (HW 1.37–1.51 mm; WL 3.27–3.73).

L. mjobergi   has been recorded in rainforest, open rainforest, wet sclerophyll and eucalyptus forest. Nests occur in the soil and under rocks.

Leptomyrmex niger Emery   ( Figs 10a–c View FIGURES 7–11 )

Leptomyrmex niger Emery, 1900: 333   , pl. 8, Figs 3–4 View FIGURES 2–6 .

Leptomyrmex niger Emery   ; Karavaiev, 1926: 430. Description of male.

Leptomyrmex lugubris Wheeler, 1934: 110   , fig.14. Syn. nov.

Type material examined

L. niger Emery.   Syntypes , 2 workers, Papua New Guinea, "New Guinea" [German New Guinea] (Biró) [ MSNG]. One syntype here designated lectotype ( CASENT0127396 , top specimen).

L. lugubris Wheeler.   Syntypes, 2 workers, Papua New Guinea, Morobe: Biolowat (Stevens) [MCZ].

Other material examined

INDONESIA: Irian Jaya: Cyclops Mts. Sabron, Camp 2, 2000 ft (Cheesman, L.E.); SE Salawati I., Phillips Base Camp (Brown, W.L.). PAPUA NEW GUINEA: East Sepik: 9km SSW Dagua, 800 m (Ward, P.S.); Baiyer R. Sanct., 1150 m (Ward, P.S.). Gulf: Wana, Upper Jimi V., 1500 m (Gressitt, J.L.). Madang: Kunai Crk. SW side Wau valley, 1300 m (Taylor, R.W.); Wannang, 200 m (Hulcr, J. et al.). Morobe: 4 mi N of Butala, Mongi R., Mongi Watershed, Huon Pen. (Wilson, E.O.); Boana to Bandong, Bunbok V., 800–1300 m (Wilson, E.O.); Bubia, 13km NW Lae (Wilson, E.O.); Bulolo R. valley, 6km NE Wau, 1100 m (Taylor, R.W.); Finchhafen, Mongi-Mape watersheds, Huon Penin. (Wilson, E.O.); Lower Busu R., Huon Pen. (Wilson, E.O.); Mt. Misim, 5850ft (Stevens); Sambeang, Mongi Watershed, Huon Peninsula, 400 m (Wilson, E.O.); Sattelburg to Maroruo, Mongi-Mape watersheds, Huon Penin. (Wilson, E.O.); Sattleberg to Maroruo, Mongi- Mape Watershed, 800–900 m (Wilson, E.O.); Surprise Crk. (Stevens); Timber Track 16km NW Lae, 220 m (Taylor, R.W.); Tumnang, Mongi Watershed, 1500–1600 m (Wilson, E.O.). Northern (Oro): Dobodura (Darlington); Ilimo, Kokoda to Popondetta (Carne, P.B.); Kanga, 600 m (Hulcr, J. et al.); Kokoda (Room, P.M.); 8 km S. Kokoda, 800 m (Taylor, R.W.); Managalese Area, 2500–3000ft (Pullen, R.); Popondetta (Hulcr, J. et al.); Popondetta, 200 m (Hulcr, J. et al.); Sangara (Room, P.M.). Western Highlands: Tsenga, Upper Simi V., 1200 m (Gressitt, J.L.); Wara Hill, Jimi Val., 500 m (Ward, P.S.).

Worker measurements (n = 11)

HL 1.76–1.89, HW 1.01–1.25, MFC 0.18–0.33, IOD 0.55–0.62, SL 3.62–3.94, EL 0.38–0.47, WL 3.16– 3.58, PW 0.90–1.00, DPW 0.31–0.39, HTL 3.25–4.45, HTWmin 0.09–0.14, HTWmax 0.16–0.23, CI 0.57– 0.69, SI 2.96–3.89, OI 0.11–0.14, HTC 0.50–0.81.

Worker description

Small and slender (HL 1.76–1.89; HW 1.01–1.25) with head, excluding mandibles, less than twice as long as broad (CI 0.57–0.69) and widest just posterior to eyes. Sides of head straight and subparallel, tapering anteriorly to slightly concave genae, rounded posterior to eyes, gently tapering to flat postocular margin. Approximately 20 teeth and denticles interspersed on masticatory margin of mandible. Anterior clypeal margin flat to slightly concave. Eyes positioned slightly posterior to midline of head, relatively large, oblong, hairless and reaching lateral margins of head. Antennae slender and slightly compressed. Scapes surpassing posterior margin of head by nearly 3/5 their length.

Pronotum with anterior portion dorsoventrally flattened, posterior portion domed. Propodeum with a longitudinal impression, dorsal face 1.5 times length of declivitous face, faces meeting at a distinct (not broad and rounded) angle. Dorsal face of propodeum concave in profile at anterior end. Petiole nearly twice as long as broad, node triangular in profile. Dorsal surface of node with longitudinal impression, anterior face of node much shorter and more rounded than flat posterior face, the two meeting at a rounded angle. Ventral surface flat to weakly concave.Gaster elongate-elliptical. Legs very slender, compressed.

Surface very finely shagreened and shining. Mandibles shining with a row of coarse punctures along margin. Pubescence yellow, mostly limited to head and gaster. Pilosity confined to clypeus, venter and gaster with irregular row of ~4 dark bristles on hind tibiae. Generally black throughout, but portions of mandibles, tarsi, joints and antennal funiculus pale yellow.

Queen UNKNOWN.

Male measurements (n = 2)

HL 1.52–1.65, HW 1.06–1.10, SL 0.39–0.41, EL 0.63–0.68, HTL 4.80–5.14, CI 0.64–0.72, SI 0.35–0.39, SI2 1.00–1.24.

Discussion

L. niger   is one of three unicolorous black species found in New Guinea. Lacking dense pubescence, it is unlikely to be confused with the stout and hairy L. flavitarsus   . Superficially, L. niger   resembles L. melanoticus   , but can be distinguished by its lack of a narrow and conical ‘neck’ and relatively stout head (CI 0.57–0.69 vs 0.53–0.56 in L. melanoticus   ). The elongate eyes (EL 0.38–0.47 mm) are generally larger than the small, round eyes of L. melanoticus   (EL 0.36–0.39). Antennal scapes of L. niger   are relatively shorter (SI 2.96–3.89) than those of L. melanoticus   (SI 4.02–4.05). Additionally, the junction of the dorsal and declivitous faces of the propodeum is distinctly angular, unlike in L. melanoticus   where the dorsal face gradually rounds into the declivitous face.

Wheeler’s (1934) redescription of “ Leptomyrmex niger   ” actually refers to L. flavitarsis   . Wheeler’s concept of L. niger   was based on a “co-type” that he received from Emery but that “co-type” specimen (deposited in the MCZ) is a worker of L. flavitarsis   . It is not conspecific with the two syntype workers of L. niger   in MSNG. As a result of this confusion, Wheeler (1934) described a new species, L. lugubris   , which in fact corresponds to the true L. niger   .

L. niger   has been recorded from rainforest. Nesting habits are unknown.

Leptomyrmex nigriceps Emery   , stat. nov. ( Figs 11a–c View FIGURES 7–11 )

Leptomyrmex pallens var. nigriceps Emery, 1914: 418   .

Leptomyrmex pallens subsp. nigriceps Emery   ; Wheeler 1934: 109.

Type material examined

L. pallens nigriceps Emery.   Syntype, 1 worker, New Caledonia: La Madeleine (Sarasin & Roux) [ MSNG].

Other material examined

NEW CALEDONIA: 2km SW Yaté-village, 400 m (Ward, P.S.); Coulee R., 8km NE St. Louis, 100 m (Ward, P.S.); Farino (Queensland Museum); Lembi Riv., 40 m (Ward, P.S.); Lembi Riviere, 5.5km beyond road to Coulee R., on road to Yate (Ward, P.S.); Riv. Bleue, 370 m (Ward, P.S.); Riv. Bleue, 170 m (Ward, P.S.); Riv. Bleue, Kauri Track, 250 m (Wright, S.); Riv. Bleue, Kouri Track (Queensland Museum); Riviere Bleue (Franz, H.).

Worker measurements (n = 9)

HL 1.68–1.90, HW 0.92–1.01, MFC 0.20–0.25, IOD 0.54–0.60, SL 3.17–3.47, EL 0.29–0.36, WL 3.03– 3.41, PW 0.75–0.86, DPW 0.27–0.33, HTL 3.57–4.11, HTWmin 0.10–0.14, HTWmax 0.14–0.18, CI 0.52– 0.56, SI 3.27–3.56, OI 0.08–0.10, HTC 0.65–0.95.

Worker description

As in L. geniculatus   , but with femora unicolorous pale and head black. Gaster and head, excluding mandibles and antennae, black, with remainder of body pale orange.

Queen UNKNOWN.

Male measurements (n = 1) HL 1.24, HW 0.97, SL 0.36, EL 0.53, HTL 3.90, CI 0.78, SI 0.37, SI2 0.81.

Discussion

L. nigriceps   resembles the other two New Caledonian Leptomyrmex   ( L. pallens   and L. geniculatus   ) but can be recognized by its distinctive color pattern: dark head and gaster on an otherwise orange body. This species appears to be restricted to the ultramafic southern tip of the island, where it occurs in sympatry or parapatry with L. pallens   .

L. nigriceps   has been recorded in rainforest, Agathis   woodland, cloud forest and low, closed riparian forest. Nests have been found in rotting stumps.

Leptomyrmex nigriventris (Guérin 1831)   ( Figs 12a–c View FIGURES 12–16 , 24h View FIGURE24 )

Formica nigriventris Guérin-Méneville, 1831   : pl.8, fig. 4. Description based on figure.

Formica nigriventris Guérin-Meneville, 1838: 203   . Text description.

Leptomyrmex nigriventris (Guérin-Méneville)   ; Mayr, 1862: 696. First combination in Leptomyrmex   .

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus (Fabricius)   ; Mayr, 1876: 77. L. nigriventris   as junior synonym of L. erythrocephalus   .

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus var. nigriventris (Guérin-Méneville)   ; Emery, 1887: 252. Revived from synonymy, treated as variety of L. erythrocephalus   . Leptomyrmex nigriventris (Guérin-Méneville)   ; Emery, 1895: 351. Revived species status.

Leptomyrmex nigriventris (Guérin-Méneville)   ; Wheeler, 1915: 261. Description of larva.

Leptomyrmex nigriventris (Guérin-Méneville)   ; Wheeler, 1934: 95. Description of male.

Type material not examined

Formica nigriventris (Guérin-Méneville)   . Syntype (s), worker(s), Australia, New South Wales: Port Jackson (d’Urville) [location unknown, possibly MNHN]   .

Other material examined

Australia: New South Wales: 11km NNW Morrisset, 220 m (Ward, P.S.); 15km W Wombeyan Caves, 3000 ft (Lowery, B.B.); 1km NNW Mt. Keira, 380 m (Ward, P.S.); 4km NE Bulahdelah, 100 m (Ward, P.S.); 17km S Gosford (Katz, D.); 5km SSW Blackheath, 680 m (Ward, P.S.); 8km NE Blackheath, 1000 m (Ward, P.S.); 9km NE Blackheath, 440 m (Ward, P.S.); above Jenolan Caves, 3000 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Blackheath, Blue Mountains (Colvin, A. & Colvin, P.); Blue Mts. (Froggatt, W.W.); Broken Hill, North mine (Lowery, B.B. & Mew, A.H.); Calga (Lowery, B.B.); Colo Vale, near Mittagong (Greaves, T.); Comboyne Plateau, 2000–2800 ft (Darlingtons); Dorrigo (Froggatt, W.W.); Dorrigo Nat'l Park, 750 m (Ward, P.S.); Dorrigo, 3000 ft (Darlington); Doyles River State Forest, 2.2km along road from Oxley Hwy., 620 m (Shattuck, S.O.); Doyles River State Forest, 620 m (Ward, P.S.); Echo Pt. Katoomba, 700 m (Ward, P.S.); Gingra Rge. nr Kanangra Tops, 800 m (Ward, P.S.); Heaton S.F., 700 m (Ward, P.S.); Jenolan Caves (Wiburd, J.C.); Katoomba (Lowery, B.B.); Katoomba (Wheeler); Kings Tableland, 10km S Wentworth Falls (Lowery, B.B.); Kurrajong (McAreavey, J.); Leura (Froggatt, W.W.); Leura (Wheeler); Leura Falls, Blue Mts. (Froggatt, W.W.); Minni Hatta area, Katoomba (Lowery, B.B.); Morisset Ra., Dora Ck. (Lowery, B.B.); Mt. Flora nr. Mittagong (Taylor, R.W., Sadler, R. & Bartell, R.J.); Mt. Keira, 300 m (Ward, P.S.); Mt. Tomah (Taylor, F.H.); Mt. Tomah, 900 m (Shattuck, S.O.); Mt. Tomah, 900 m (Ward, P.S.); Mt. Victoria (Lowery, B.B.); Mt. Wilson nr. Cathedral of Ferns, 980 m (Shattuck, S.O.); Mt. Wilson, 3500 ft (Darlington); Mt. Wilson, 980 m (Ward, P.S.); Mt. Wilson, Blue Mts., 3500 ft (Darlington); Myall Lakes (Nicholson, A.J.); Myall Lakes, Wallangar SF (Greenslade, P.J.M.); O'Sullivans Gap Flora Reserve, 4km NE Bulahdelah, 100 m (Shattuck, S.O.); Ourimba State Forest, Wyong, 25 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Perry's Lookdown to Blue Gum Forest, nr Blackheath (Lowery, B.B.); Styx River (Riek, E.F.); Sydney (Ashton, H.); The Gib, Bowral, 2830 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Wentworth Falls (Darlington); Wentworth Falls (Wheeler); Wentworth Falls NP 2km SW Wentworth Falls, 850 m (Lucky, A.); Wentworth Falls nr. Valley of the Waters, West end of Fletcher St., 800 m (Shattuck, S.O.); Wentworth Falls, 800 m (Ward, P.S.). Dubious locality records: Queensland: Mt. Nebo, Brisbane (Lowery, B.B.); New South Wales: North Mine, Broken Hill, prob. ex. Truckload of timber from Oberon, New South Wales (Mew, A.H.); Victoria: 'Chiltern' [presumably Chiltern, Victoria] (c.u.).

Worker measurements (n = 10)

HL 2.27–2.53, HW 1.49–1.76, MFC 0.34–0.47, IOD 0.88–1.06, SL 3.67–4.15, EL 0.42–0.52, WL 4.32– 4.98, PW 1.34–1.53, DPW 0.55–0.66, HTL 4.52–5.20, HTWmin 0.17–0.21, HTWmax 0.29–0.36, CI 0.66– 0.75, SI 2.32–2.46, OI 0.08–0.11, HTC 0.52–0.66.

Worker description

Large species (HW 1.49–1.76 mm; WL 4.32–4.98 mm) with very broad head (CI 0.66–0.75). Excluding mandibles, head width nearly 3/4 of head length, broadest at eye level, narrowing anteriorly to concave genae. Posterior to eyes, sides of head broadly rounded and postocular margin broadly rounded. Masticatory margin of mandible with approximately 9 large teeth and 7 denticles interspersed. Anterior clypeal margin medially concave. Eyes positioned posterior to midline of head, small and hairless, not surpassing lateral margins of head. Antennal scapes not compressed, extending beyond posterior margin of head less than 2/3 of their length.

Pronotum rather short, less than 1.5 times as long as broad. Declivity of propodeum about half the length of the dorsal face, which is slightly concave in profile, and bears a longitudinal impression. Petiolar node high, summit convex and rounded. Posterior face of petiole flat to concave, longer than anterior face ventral surface of petiole, which is flat to feebly convex A distinct longitudinal impression lends a bilobed appearance to the petiole in anterior view. Gaster broad and elliptical. Femora and tibiae somewhat compressed (HTC 0.52–0.66).

Surface subopaque, finely and densely shagreened. Mandibles slightly shining, coarsely punctate along apical margin. Pubescence extremely short and fine, covering the body and appendages. Pilosity on mandibles and clypeus short and yellow. Hairs on venter of gaster and coxae longer and black. Posterior face of hind tibia with ten or more short, brown bristles. Body rufotestaceous throughout, except for black gaster. Head and scapes a deeper, purplish red than remainder of body.

Queen UNKNOWN

Male measurements (n = 3)

HL 1.91–2.10, HW 1.30–1.42, SL 0.79–0.86, EL 0.54–0.65, HTL 4.52–4.72, CI 0.67–0.69, SI 0.61–0.62, SI2 1.40–1.60.

Discussion

This is one of the largest Leptomyrmex species   , second in size only to its sister species, L. tibialis   . Tibial coloration (pale in L. nigriventris   ; dark in L. tibialis   ) distinguishes these taxa. Leptomyrmex nigriventris   and L. tibialis   co-occur in the region of Dorrigo, New South Wales. Large body size (HW 1.49–1.76 mm; WL 4.32–4.98 mm), a broad head (CI 0.66–0.75), 10+ standing hairs on the posterior face of the hind tibia, and a consistent color pattern (orange head and body with a black gaster) will separate this species from all others. No type specimen of L. nigriventris   was found; however, the details in the type description and illustration allow unambiguous identification of this species.

L. nigriventris   has been recorded in rainforest, wet sclerophyll and dry sclerophyll. Nests occur under rocks, at tree bases, and in soil.

Leptomyrmex pallens Emery   ( Figs 13a–c View FIGURES 12–16 , 24i View FIGURE24 )

Leptomyrmex pallens Emery, 1883: 147   .

Leptomyrmex pallens Emery   ; André 1887: 290. Description of male.

See also: Wheeler, 1915: 276; Wheeler, 1934: 108.

Type material examined L. pallens Emery.   Syntypes, 2 workers, New Caledonia: “ N. Caléd. ” (Gambey) [MSNG]

Other material examined

New Caledonia: "New Caledonia" (Sommer); 2km W Touho, <5 m (Ward, P.S.); 3km SW Touho, 400 m (Ward, P.S.); 6km SE Touaourou, <5 m (Ward, P.S.); 8km ESE Tieta, 100 m (Ward, P.S.); 9km SW Hienghène, 40 m (Ward, P.S.); Aoupinié For. Reserve, 460 m (Ward, P.S.); Aoupinié, 20km NE Poya, 600 m (Monteith, G. & Cook, D.); Baie d'Oupi, Ile des Pins, <5 m (Ward, P.S.); Bouloupari to Thie, km. 10, 270 m (Brown, W.L.); Canal [Kanala] (c.u.); Canala (Rageau, J.); Chapeau Gendarme, Yahoué (Wilson, E.O.); Ciu, nr Mt. Canala (Wilson, E.O.); Col d' Amieu (Queensland Museum); Col d'Amieu Forest Stn., 400 m (Monteith, G. & Cook, D.); Col d'Amieu, W. Slope, 470 m (Monteith, G.); Col d'Amoss, 300 m (Ward, P.S.); Col d'Amoss, nr. Ouégoa, 100 m (Monteith, G. & Cook, D.); Col de Petchecara, middle (G. Monteith); Col de Tongoue, 400–800 m (Krauss, N.L.H.); Coll d'Amoss, 3km WSW, 520 m (Monteith, G.); Farino (Queensland Museum); Fausse Yaté Riv., 10 m (Ward, P.S.); Foret Nord, site 2, 200 m (Burwell & Wright); Grottes de Koum, 40 m (Ward, P.S.); Houailou (Ford, W.H.); Ile des Pins, Kuto Pen (Brown, W.L.); Kuenthio River, 14km SW Thio, 40 m (Ward, P.S.); Kuto Pen., Ile des Pins (Brown, W.L.); Kuto Pen., Pic Nga, Ile des Pins (Brown, W.L.); Kuto Penin., Ile des Pins, 5 m (Ward, P.S.); La Crouen, 130 m (Brown, W.L.); Mandjélia, above Pouébo, 600–750 m (Monteith, G. & Cook, D.); Maquis nr. the Auberge, 450 m (Ward, P.S.); Mt. Koghis, 450 m (Ward, P.S.); Mt. Mou, 180–400 m (Wilson, E.O.); Mt. Panié, 100 m (Ward, P.S.); Mt. Panié, 390 m (Ward, P.S.); Mt. Panié, 450–950 m (Monteith, G. & Cook, D.); New Bourail (Cheeseman, L.E.); Oubatche (c.u.); Ouru, Ile des Pins, 5 m (Ward, P.S.); Pic Nga, Ile des Pins, W. base (Brown, W.L.); PTT, Hienghène, 20 m (Ward, P.S.); Puebo (coast), 1500 ft (Cheeseman, L.E.); Roches d'Ouaième, 750 m (Ward, P.S.); Sarraméa (Wilson, E.O.); Toili R., Col d'Amieu For. Stn, 350 m (Ward, P.S.); Vahoe, 1500 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Yahoué (c.u.); Yahoué, 1500 ft (Schoener, T.); Yambé (c.u.); Yaté (c.u.).

Worker measurements (n = 10)

HL 1.64–1.92, HW 0.92–1.11, MFC 0.19–0.25, IOD 0.54–0.63, SL 3.09–3.61, EL 0.30–0.38, WL 2.94– 3.58, PW 0.73–0.93, DPW 0.27–0.39, HTL 3.60–4.09, HTWmin 0.11–0.13, HTWmax 0.14–0.18, CI 0.43– 0.46, SI 3.11–3.51, OI 0.10–0.14, HTC 0.66–0.83.

Worker description

As in L. geniculatus   , but femora unicolorous. Entire body rufotestaceous, with black gaster. Head and sometimes pronotum slightly darker yellow than body, terminal abdominal segment pale, contrasting with black gaster.

Queen UNKNOWN.

Male measurements (n = 2)

HL 1.35, HW 1.00–1.03, SL 0.36–0.37, EL 0.54–0.56, HTL 3.89–4.04, CI 0.74–0.76, SI 0.35–0.37, SI2 0.71–0.76.

Discussion

L. pallens   can be distinguished from the other two New Caledonian Leptomyrmex   ( L. nigriceps   and L. geniculatus   ) by its coloration. The black gaster contrasts with an otherwise unicolored orange body. This species occurs throughout the main island and on Ile des Pins, and is the most commonly encountered of the three species that occur on New Caledonia.

L. pallens   has been recorded from rainforest. Nests occur in soil, under tree roots and under rocks.

Leptomyrmex puberulus Wheeler   ( Figs 14a–c View FIGURES 12–16 , 24j View FIGURE24 )

Leptomyrmex puberulus Wheeler, 1934: 112   , fig. 14.

Type material examined L. puberulus Wheeler.   Syntypes, 5 workers, Papua New Guinea: ‘ Morobe District’ (Stevens) [ MCZ]. Other material examined  

INDONESIA: Irian Jaya: Maffin Bay, Dutch NG (Ross, E.S.); PT Freeport Concession Siewa Camp, 200 ft (Snelling, R.R.). PAPUA NEW GUINEA: East Sepik: 2km E Maprik, 200 m (Ward, P.S.); Wamangu, 200–300 m (Janda, M. et al.). Gulf: S of Veiru (Morrison, J.). Madang: 24km N Madang, 80 m (Ward, P.S.); 9km NW Madang, 360 m (Ward, P.S.); Baitabag, 50 m (Janda, M. et al.); Ohu, 120 m (Hulcr, J. et al.); Wannang, 200 m (Hulcr, J. et al.). Morobe: Bubia, 13km NW Lae (Wilson, E.O.); Didiman Creek, Lae (Wilson, E.O.); Lae (Krauss, N.L.H.). West Sepik (Sandaun): Utai (Hulcr, J. et al.). Western Highlands: Wara Hill, Jimi Val., 500 m (Ward, P.S.).

Worker measurements (n = 10)

HL 1.63–1.83, HW 1.02–1.20, MFC 0.21–0.26, IOD 0.58–0.68, SL 3.08–3.75, EL 0.33–0.42, WL 2.99– 3.29, PW 0.84–0.95, DPW 0.30–0.37, HTL 3.33–3.86, HTWmin 0.10–0.16, HTWmax 0.14–0.18, CI 0.61– 0.66, SI 2.77–3.64, OI 0.12–0.16, HTC 0.63–0.96.

Worker description

Smaller species (HW 1.02–1.20 mm; WL 2.99–3.29 mm) with head less than twice as long as broad, excluding mandibles (CI 0.61–0.66). Head widest at eyes, sides of head slightly convex, genae feebly concave anteriorly. Behind the eyes, sides of head gently rounding to flat postocular margin. Masticatory margin of mandible with approximately 15 teeth and denticles. Anterior clypeal margin weakly convex. Eyes positioned at midline of head, small and nearly circular, convex and distinctly hairy, reaching margins of head. Antennal scapes long and slender.

Dorsal face of propodeum with transverse impression at anterior end. Dorsal face slightly longer than convex declivitous face. Dorsal and declivitous faces meeting at rounded angle. Petiole triangular in profile, with rounded dorsum bearing deep longitudinal impression; ventral surface flat. Gaster narrow. Legs long and slen- der, slightly compressed (HTC 0.63–0.96 mm).

Surface very finely and superficially shagreened, less shining. Pubescence grey, long and abundant on all parts of the body and appendages, especially on the head, pronotum and gaster. Erect hairs present on the clypeus, venter and gaster. Body ranging from pale yellow to dark yellowish-brown. Tarsi nearly white. Some individuals with gaster darker than the rest of the body.

Queen UNKNOWN.

Male measurements (n = 2)

HL 1.51, HW 0.76–0.77, SL 0.77–0.81, EL 0.46–0.50, HTL 4.48–4.55, CI 0.50–0.51, SI 1.01–1.05, SI2 0.49.

Discussion

L. puberulus   is distinctive among all the New Guinea species for having short standing hairs on the eyes. This species most closely resembles L. flavitarsus   , the other species in New Guinea with dense pubescence on the body. Generally, L. puberulus   is uniformly pale yellow, but some forms are darker yellow, approaching brown. L. flavitarsus   is very dark brown, approaching black. A stouter head and shorter appendages (HW 1.02–1.20 mm; SI 2.77–3.64; HTL 3.33–3.86) distinguishes L. puberulus   from the similarly pale L. fragilis   , which is more gracile, with longer appendages (HW 0.94–1.05 mm; SI 3.92–4.73; HTL 4.41–5.02).

L. puberulus   has been recorded in secondary and primary rainforest. Nests occur in soil and in logs.

Leptomyrmex rothneyi Forel   , stat. nov. ( Figs 15a–c View FIGURES 12–16 , 24k View FIGURE24 )

Leptomyrmex varians var. rothneyi Forel, 1902: 473   .

Leptomyrmex varians subsp. rothneyi Forel   ; Wheeler, 1934: 102.

Type material examined L.varians rothneyi Forel.   Syntypes, 4 workers, Australia, Queensland: ‘ Brisbane’ (Rothney) [ MHNG].

Other material examined

AUSTRALIA: Queensland: 15km ESE Gympie, 100 m (Ward, P.S.); Beerwah (general) (Matthews, R.W.); Blackhall Ranges (Borch, C.M.); Brisbane (Hacker, H.); Brisbane (Taylor, F.H.); Caloundra (c.u.); Camp Mt., Brisbane, 900 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Camp Mt., Glasshouse Mts. & Ithaca, 500 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Cooloola, Burwilla (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Cooloola, Kabali E (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Dingo Ck., 1km E Traveston, 80 m (Taylor, R.W. & Kohout, R.J.); Enoggera (Wheeler); foot of Blackall Ra. 30km W Kilcoy (Lowery, B.B.); Gold Ck. Reservoir, 140 m (Burwell, C.J.); Gold Ck. Reservoir, 140 m (Queensland Museum Party); Ithaca Creek, Brisbane (Lowery, B.B.); Mapleton Falls NP, 3km W Mapleton, 450 m (Lucky, A.); Mt. Coot-tha, 200 m (Ward, P. S.); Mt. Coot-tha, 6km W Brisbane, 230 m (Lucky, A.); Mt. Coot-tha, Brisbane (general) (Lowery, B.B.); Noosa NP, coastal track nr. Tea Tree Bay, 70 m (Lucky, A.); Walkabout Creek, 8km W Brisbane, 163 m (Lucky, A.). Dubious locality records: Queensland: Cairns NQ (Bourne, E.N.); New South Wales: N. Sydney (Froggatt, W.W.).

Worker measurements (n = 9)

HL 2.32–2.45, HW 1.29–1.39, MFC 0.30–0.34, IOD 0.70–0.80, SL 4.05–4.36, EL 0.45–0.51, WL 4.30– 4.56, PW 1.13–1.19, DPW 0.46–0.51, HTL 5.23–5.67, HTWmin 0.15–0.18, HTWmax 0.21–0.24, CI 0.55– 0.57, SI 3.12–3.24, OI 0.13–0.14, HTC 0.64–0.86.

Worker description

As in L. rufipes: Medium   sized species head long and slender, excluding mandibles nearly twice as long as broad. Head widest just anterior to eye level. Sides of head subparallel, narrowing anteriorly, genae slightly concave. Head posterior to eyes narrowing abruptly to dorsoventrally flattened neck-like constriction, projecting posteriorly. Masticatory margin of mandible with 15 to 20 teeth and denticles interspersed. Anterior clypeal margin flat to weakly concave. Eyes positioned posterior to midline of head, relatively elongate, hairless, not surpassing margins of head. Antennae not compressed, scapes surpassing posterior margin of head by 2/3 their length.

Pronotum slender, elongate. Propodeum short, dorsal face slightly impressed tranversely at anterior end, declivitous face short and convex, angle very rounded. Petiole triangular in profile, anterior and posterior faces with median longitudinal impression, dorsum lacking an impression, posterior face longer than anterior face. Ventral surface of petiole nearly flat. Gaster elongate-elliptical. Legs very long and slender, not compressed.

Surface very finely shagreened and somewhat shining throughout. Mandibles with a coarse row of punctures along margin. Pubescence pale, sparse. Hairs minimal, confined to clypeus, venter and gaster. Body coloration dark, generally mottled brown and rufotestaceous, with antennae uniformly dark brown and antennae uniformly rufotestaceous. Femora solid dark brown, with proximal portion pale and coxae mottled dark and light. Tibiae and tarsi pale yellow. Pronotum dark brown, mottled, with the remainder of thorax rufotestaceous with variable brown mottling. Gaster solid black with terminal gastral segments yellow.

Queen UNKNOWN.

Male measurements (n = 4)

HL 1.76–1.91, HW 1.27–1.33, SL 0.44–0.51, EL 0.65–0.73, HTL 4.49–4.89, CI 0.69–0.72, SI 0.35–0.39, SI2 0.71–0.82.

Discussion

Leptomyrmex rothneyi   bears a distinctively narrowed, dorsoventrally flattened constriction at the posterior margin of the head. This necklike structure is also present, but less exaggerated, in the closely related species L. ruficeps   and L. rufipes   . Coloration can help to distinguish these three: L. rothneyi   has a black gaster, a pale orange mesosoma and a dark head which is a mottled brown rather than uniformly black, and often the pronotum and forecoxae are also dark and mottled. In contrast, L. ruficeps   is black with a red head, and L. rufipes   is pale with a black gaster. L. rothneyi   can be distinguished from other Leptomyrmex   based on head shape and geographic range; this species occurs only in the southeast corner of Queensland.

L. rothneyi   has been recorded in rainforest, open rainforest, wet sclerophyll, dry sclerophyll and coastal sclerophyll. Nests occur in soil and in or under logs.

Leptomyrmex ruficeps Emery   , stat. nov. ( Figs 16a–c View FIGURES 12–16 , 24l View FIGURE24 )

Leptomyrmex varians var. ruficeps Emery, 1895: 352   .

Leptomyrmex varians var. ruficeps Emery   ; Forel, 1915: 84. Description of male.

Leptomyrmex varians var. ruficeps Emery   ; Wheeler, 1915: 261. Description of larva.

Leptomyrmex varians subsp. ruficeps Emery   ; Wheeler 1934: 102.

Type material examined

L.varians ruficeps Emery.   Syntypes, 5 workers, Australia, Queensland: Mt. Bellendenker (Podenzana) [ MSNG]

Other material examined.

AUSTRALIA: Queensland: 2.7km W of Cape Tribulation (Site 5A) 400 m (Monteith, G.B.); 2km E Crawfords Lookout [Palmerston NP] (Taylor, R.W.); 2km SE Mt. Spurgeon via Mt. Carbine, 1100 m (Monteith & Thompson); 4.5km NNW Cape Tribulation, 10 m (Ward, P.S.); 4.5km NNW Cape Tribulation, 10 m (Wild, A.L.); 4mi W Babinda (Darlingtons); 6km SSE Atherton, 720 m (Ward, P.S.); Atherton (Darlingtons); Atherton (Taylor, R.W.); Babinda (Wilke, J.); Barrine NP, 760 m (Taylor, R.W.); Barron Falls N.P. (Hebert, P.); Bartle Frere Track, 17km W Malanda, 700 m (Monteith & Thompson); Bellenden Kerr (c.u.); Bellenden Kerr Range, Cable tower 3, 1054 m (Earthwatch/Queensland Museum); Bellenden Kerr Range, Cable tower 7, 500 m (Earthwatch/Queensland Museum); Black Mt. Rd., v. Kuranda (Darlingtons); Black Mtn, 17 km ESE Julatten, 800–1000 m (Monteith, Yeates and Cook); Boulders N.P., Babinda, 1000 ft (Taylor, R.W.); Cairns (Bourne, E.H.); Cairns (general) (Hill, G.F.); Cairns (Hill, G.F.); Cairns, dist. (Lea, A.M.); Cape Tribulation (general) (Waight, G.); Cape Tribulation, 10 m (Ward, P.S.); Clohesy R. (Greaves, T.); Clump Pt. NP (Lowery, B.B.); Cooktown (Staudinger); Cooloola Natl. Pk., rainforest (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Crawfords Lookout, Milaa to Innisfail, 1–3000 ft (Darlingtons); Crystal Cascades, nr Cairns, 200 ft (Taylor, R.W.); Crystal Cascades, v. Cairns (Darlingtons); Daintree NP, Mt. Sorrow, 200 m (Lucky, A.); Danbulla [Forestry Reserve] (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Davies Ck. Rd., Atherton Tableland (Darlingtons); Emerald Ck, Lamb Range, 950 m (Monteith, Yeates and Thompson); Evelyn Tableland (Greaves, T.); Gadgarra (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Gold Hill, McDowall Range, 550 m (Taylor, R.W. & Weir, T.A.); Henrietta Crk., Palmerston N.P., 350 m (Ward, P.S.); Herberton Ra, Atherton Tableland, 4000 ft (Taylor, R.W.); Hinchinbrook Is., Gayundah Ck., 10 m (Monteith, Thompson & Cook); Hinchinbrook Is., Gayundah Ck., 10 m (Thompson, G.); Innisfail nr. Josephine Falls (Lowery, B.B.); Josephine Falls NP (Lowery, B.B.); Josephine Falls, Bellenden Kerr N.P., 180 m (Ward, P.S.); Kirrama Forest (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Kirrama Ra. (Kennedy, E. & Taylor, R.W.); Kirrama Ra. (Mt. Hosie summit), 930 m (Monteith, Thompson & Hamlet); Kirrama Ra. Douglas Ck. Rd., 850 m (Monteith, Thompson & Hamlet); Kirrama Ra. Douglas Ck. Rd, 800 m (Monteith, Thompson & Hamlet); Kirrama Rge, v. Cardwell, 2–3000ft (Darlingtons); Kuranda (Brown, W.L.); Kuranda (Dodd, F.F.); Kuranda (Filewood, P.); Kuranda (general) (Matthews, R.W.); Kuranda (Greaves, T.); Kuranda (Holldobler, B.); Kuranda (Wheeler); Kuranda, 1000ft (Taylor, R.W.); Kuranda, 3000 ft (Wheeler); Lake Barrine (Greaves, T.); Lake Barrine (Lowery, B.B.); Lake Eacham Nat. Pk., 750 m (Ward, P.S.); Lake Eacham NP, 800 m (Taylor, R.W.); Lake Eacham, 760 m (Taylor, R.W.); Lake Eacham, Atherton Tableland (Darlingtons); Lake Plaad, Cairns (Lowery, B.B.); Lake Tinaroo (Lowery, B.B.); Longlands Gap, Atherton Tablelands, 3000 ft (Darlingtons); Malanda (Hill, G.F.); Malanda Falls Environmental Park (Cutter, A.D.); McNamee Ck., 15km SW Innisfail, 320 m (Taylor, R.W.); Mt Windsor Tableland, 1000 m (R.W. Taylor and T.A, Weir); Mt Windsor Tableland, 950 m (Taylor, R.W.); Mt. Alexander, NW of Daintree (Darlingtons); Mt. Lewis, 960 m (Taylor, R.W. & Weir, T.A.); Mt. Lewis nr Julatten, 3000ft (Taylor, R.W.); Mt. Lewis Rd., Julatten (Walford-Huggins, A.); Mt. Lewis, 7km NW Julatten, 700 m (Lucky, A.); Mt. Lewis, 7km NW Julatten, 850 m (Lucky, A.); Mt. Lewis, 7km NW Julatten, 950 m (Lucky, A.); Mt. Mackay nr Tully, 80 m (Taylor, R.W.); Mt. Tiptree nr. Mareeba, 760 m (Taylor, R.W. & Feehan, J.); Mt. Windsor Tablelands, 950 m (Taylor, R.W.); Mts. nr Mossman (Darlingtons); Mulgrave Forestry Rd., 100 m (Ward, P.S.); N. Mission Beach, nr Tully (Taylor, R.W.); North Bell Peak, 20km S Cairns [Bell Peak North], 1000 m (Monteith,G.B. & Cook, D..); nr Kuranda, 430 m (Taylor, R.W. & Feehan, J.); nr. Babinda, Boulders N.P. (Taylor, R.W. & Feehan, J.); nr. Curtain Fig Tree via Yungaburra (Kojima, J.); nr. Mareeba, Mt. Tiptree (Taylor, R.W. & Feehan, J.); Nth Bell Peak, 20km S Cairns, 900–1000 m (Monteith and Cook); Palmerston NP, 1km SE Crawfords Lookout, 300 m (Taylor, R.W.); Palmerston NP, 1000ft (Taylor, R.W.); Palmerston NP, Cooligan Crk, 170 m (Taylor, R.W.); Ravenshoe, Atherton Tab., 3000 ft (Darlingtons); Saddle Mtn., 3km N Kuranda (Katz, D.); Scraggy Pt., Hinchinbrook I., 5 m (Ward, P.S.); Smithfield Conservation Park, 70 m (Lucky, A.); Spears Ck. (Davies & Raven); The Boulders, 4km W Babinda, 70 m (Lucky, A.); The Boulders, Babinda (Lowery, B.B.); The Boulders, Bellenden Kerr N. P. (Sugden, E.A.); Thornton Ra., 150–180 m (Taylor, R.W. & Feehan, J.); Upper Mulgrave Rd., Kearneys Falls, 100 m (Monteith & Thompson); Urchie Ck., nr Innisfail [Utchee] (Greaves, T.); W McNamee Creek, 400 m (Taylor, R.W. & Feehan, J.); W of Ravenshoe, 3000 m (Darlingtons); W. McNamee Crk, 400 m (Taylor, R.W. and Feehan, J.); Waugh [Waugh Pocket] (Taylor, R.W.).

Worker measurements (n = 10)

HL 2.15–2.41, HW 1.16–1.47, MFC 0.24–0.29, IOD 0.64–0.74, SL 3.70–4.38, EL 0.38–0.51, WL 3.98– 4.28, PW 1.02–1.12, DPW 0.41–0.48, HTL 4.90–5.60, HTWmin 0.13–0.17, HTWmax 0.18–0.24, CI 0.53– 0.61, SI 2.83–3.64, OI 0.10–0.12, HTC 0.64–0.81.

Worker description

As in L. rufipes: medium   sized species with head long and slender, excluding mandibles nearly twice as long as broad. Head widest at eye level, sides of head subparallel, narrowing anteriorly, genae slightly concave. Beyond eyes narrowing abruptly to dorsoventrally flattened and posteriorly projecting neck-like constriction at posterior margin. Masticatory margin of mandible with 15 to 20 teeth and denticles interspersed. Anterior clypeal margin flat to weakly concave. Eyes positioned approximately at midline of head, eyes small, convex, hairless, not reaching lateral margins. Antennae long and slender, not compressed, scapes surpassing posterior margin of head by 2/3 their length.

Pronotum slender, elongate. Propodeum short, dorsal face of propodeum with transverse impression at anterior end, declivitous face short and convex, propodeal angle very rounded. Petiole triangular in profile, posterior face with median longitudinal impression, dorsum rounded, posterior face longer than anterior face. Ventral surface of petiole nearly flat. Gaster elongate-elliptical. Legs very long and slender, not compressed.

Surface very finely shagreened and somewhat shining throughout. Mandibles with a coarse row of punctures along margin. Pubescence pale, sparse. Hairs minimal, confined to clypeus, venter and gaster. Body black with red head and antennae. Tarsi and tibiae yellow, gaster entirely black with anal orifice pale yellow.

Queen UNKNOWN.

Male measurements (n = 4)

HL 1.86–1.94, HW 1.30–1.35, SL 0.51–0.57, EL 0.68–0.70, HTL 4.68–4.89, CI 0.67–0.71, SI 0.39–0.42, SI2 0.85–0.89.

Discussion

This species is restricted to the Australian Wet Tropics, where it can be easily distinguished from its sympatric congeners ( L. rufipes   , L. unicolor   and L. mjobergi   ) by the neck-like constriction of the posterior margin of the head, and its distinctive coloration: black body with red head and antennae. This species is more slender than L. unicolor   and larger than L. mjobergi   . With the exception of coloration, this species closely resembles its sister species, L. rufipes   , which is red with a black gaster.

L. ruficeps   has been recorded mostly in rainforest, with one record from Eucalyptus   open forest. Nests occur in cavities in live trees, on the ground at tree bases, in or under logs, and under rocks.

Leptomyrmex rufipes Emery   , stat. nov. ( Figs 17a–c View FIGURES 17–22 , 23d View FIGURES 23 , 24m View FIGURE24 )

Leptomyrmex varians var. rufipes Emery 1895: 352   .

Leptomyrmex varians subsp. rufipes Wheeler 1934: 104   .

Leptomyrmex varians subsp. quadricolor Wheeler, 1934: 104   . Syn. nov.

Type material examined

L. rufipes Emery.   Neotype worker, designated here, Australia: Queensland: Brisbane, Mt. Coot-tha (Lucky, A.) [ ANIC, CASENT0127326 ]

L. varians subsp. quadricolor Wheeler.   Syntypes, 18 workers, Australia: Queensland: Cape York, MacIlwraith [as ‘McIlthwaite’] Range , Lankelly Creek (Darlington, P.J.) [MCZ; BMNH].

Type material not located

L. varians subsp. rufipes Emery.   Syntype (s), worker(s), Australia: Queensland: “Laidely, Brisbane” (Podenzana). Not in MSNG or MHNG.

Other material examined

AUSTRALIA: New South Wales: 2km WNW New Brighton, 10 m (Ward, P.S.); 5km E Woodenbong (Greenslade, P.J.M.); 7km NE Woodenbong, 520 m (Ward, P.S.); Brunswick Heads, 50 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Foot of Blue Knob Mt., Nightcap Ra., 300 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Legume (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Mt. Nullum, Murwillumbah, 100 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Murwillumbah area (Lowery, B.B.). Queensland: 11km SSE Miriam Vale, 120 m (Ward, P.S.); 12 Mile Scrub, Gap Ck. (Davies & Raven); 15km ESE Gympie, 100 m (Ward, P.S.); 16km W Calen (Sandery, K.J.); 2.5km E Rossville, 180 m (Ward, P.S.); 20km N Yeppoon (Bugeja, J.); 27km NNE Coen, 530 m (Ward, P.S.); 27km NNE Coen, 530 m (Wild, A.L.); 3–4 mi SE Paluma, 650–800 m (Wilson, E.O.); 3km S Eungella, 780 m (Taylor, R.W.); 3mi E Mt. Fox (Dowse, J.E.); 4km SW Cairns (Cavanaugh, J.); 50mi. W Mackay, Eungella NP, 3000 ft (Lowery, B.B.); 6km S Eungella, 700 m (Ward, P.S.); 6km SSW North Tamborine, 500 m (Ward, P.S.); 7km NNW North Tamborine, 490 m (Ward, P.S.); 8km N Finch Hatton, 200 m (Ward, P.S.); 8km NE Landsborough, 10 m (Ward, P.S.); 8km SW Kuttabul, 120 m (Ward, P.S.); Barron Gorge (Bugeja, J.); Beandesert Road, Brisbane (Greaves, T.); Beaudesert (Greaves, T.); Beaudesert (Parlett, S.); Benarkin (Darlingtons); Blackall Ra. (Borch, C.H.); Boombana, 24km WNW Brisbane, D'Aguilar NP, 470 m (Lucky, A.); Brisbane (c.u.); Brisbane (general) (F.S.L.); Brisbane (Taylor, F.H.); Brisbane (Wheeler); Brisbane Mt. Coot-tha, 230 m (Lucky, A.); Broken R., 6 km S Eungella, 700 m (Brown, W.L. & Brown, D.E.); Broken R., Eungella NP, 700 m (Taylor, R.W. & Weir, T.A.); Bruce Hwy, 2km S Glasshouse (Brown, W.L. & Brown, D.E.); Buhot Creek, Burbank, 21km SE Brisbane, 70 m (Lucky, A.); Buhot Crk, Burbank, 50 m (Burwell, C.J.); Burleigh Heads (Ledward, C.P.); Byfield S.F., 60 m (Ward, P.S.); Callide Ck. Mine, Biloela (Smith, A.); Cania Gorge National Park (Gush, T.); Carnarvon Gorge, 400 m (Ward, P.S.); Cedar Ck. N.P. (Taylor, R.W.); Cooligan Crk., Palmerston NP, 170 m (Taylor, R.W.); Cooloola (general) (Room, P.M.); Cooloola [Natl. Pk.], Melita (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Cooloola Natl. Park, N. end, 140 m (Ward, P.S.); Cooloola Natl. Pk., Burwilla (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Cooloola Natl. Pk., Corrida (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Cooloola Natl. Pk., Mutyi (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Cooloola Natl. Pk., Plowman (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Cooloola Natl. Pk., rainforest (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Cooloola Natl. Pk., Warrawonga (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Cooloola, Chalamban [Chalambar] (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Cooloola, Kabali E (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Crediton Ck., Eungella NP, 750 m (Taylor, R.W. & Weir, T.A.); Crystal Cascades, 80 m (Lucky, A.); Crystal Crk. NP, N of Townsville, 330 m (Lowery, B.B.); Daisy Hill SF, 24km SE Brisbane (Lowery, B.B.); Danbulla (Greaves, T.); Darra (Wheeler); Dawson Ra., Blackdown Tableland (Kohout, R.S.); Dingo Ck., 1km E Traveston, 80 m (Taylor, R.W. & Kohout, R.S.); Doongul State Forest (Gay, F.J.); Elliot Range, v. Townsville, 3000 ft (Darlingtons); Eungella Nat. Pk. (Hölldobler, B.); Eungella National Park (Bush, G.); Eungella NP, 50 mi W Kackay, 2000 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Eungella Range, W of Mackay, 2–3000 ft (Darlingtons); foothills of Eungella NP, 50mi W Mackay, 400 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Gap Ck., 5km ESE Mt. Finnegan (Feehan, J.E.); 'Gwinganna', 6km SW by S Talebudgera (Rentz, D., Lee, W. & Upton, M.); Henrietta Crk., Palmerston NP, 350m (Ward, P.S.); Hinchinbrook Is., Gayundah Ck., 10 m (Monteith, Thompson & Cook); Ithica [sic] Ck, Brisbane (Lowery, B.B.); ellenden Ker NP, 180m (Ward, P.S.); Forest (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Kirrama Rge, v. Cardwell, 2– 3000 ft (Darlingtons); Landsborough (Lowery, B.B.); Lankelly Creek, McIlwraith Range, C. York (Darlington); Mackay (Turner); Main Range NP, Bellbird Lookout nr Cunninghams Gap, 8km E Maryvale, 480 m (Lucky, A.); Mapleton Falls (Taylor, R.W.); Mapleton Falls NP, 3km W Mapleton, 450 m (Lucky, A.); McIlwraith Ra. (Filewood, P.); Mt. Coot-tha, 160 m (Ward, P.S.); Mt. Coot-tha, 200 m (Ward, P.S.); Mt. Coot-tha, 6km W Brisbane, 230 m (Lucky, A.); Mt. Coot-tha, Brisbane (general) (Lowery, B.B.); Mt. Coot-tha, Brisbane (Taylor, R.W.); Mt. Gibraltar, Shoalwater Bay (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Mt. Nebo (Warwick, E.); Mt. Spec NP, 200 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Mt. Spec Plateau, c. 40mi N Townsville, 2–3000 ft (Darlingtons); Mt. Tambourine (Lea, A.M.); Mt. Webb NP (Feehan, J.E.); N of Yepoon (Darlingtons); N. Tamborine (Upton, M.S.); Noosa NP, Coastal Track nr. Tea Tree Bay, 70 m (Lucky, A.); Obi Obi Ck, Blackall Ra., 500 m (Taylor, R.W.); Palm Park, 3.5 mi. ESE Byfield (Campbell, T.G. & Jealous, R.); Palmerston N.P.(Lowery, B.B.); Palmerston NP, Cooligan Ck., 170 m (Taylor, R.W.); Paluma (general) (Gray, M.); Ransome Reserve, 10 m (Queensland. Museum Party); Rocky R., Cape York (Darlingtons); Russel R. at Bellenden Kerr Landing, 5 m (Earthwatch/ Queensland Museum); Seaview Ra. (Mt. Fox Rd.), 600 m (Hamlet, S.); Scraggy Pt., Hinchinbrook I., 5m (Ward, P.S.); Shipton's Flat (S of Cooktown) (Darlingtons); South Johnston (Conleth, S.); Stanthorpe (Sutton, E.); State Forest 958 Bauple (House, A.P.N. & Vanderwoude, C.); Stradbroke Island [North Stradbroke Island] (Hacker, H.); Tamborine Mt. (Brown, W.L.); Toowoomba (Barnard, W.B.); Toowoomba (general) (Barnard, W.B.); Toowoomba (Greaves, T.); Upper Lankelly Ck., Coen District (Monteith, G.B.); Ugly Gully, 11km SW Brisbane (Katz, D.); W. McNamee Ck, 400 m (Taylor, R.W. & Feehan, J.); Walkabout Creek, 8km W Brisbane, 163 m (Lucky, A.); Wallaman Falls Rd, 600 m (Monteith, Thompson & Hamlet); Wallaman Falls Road, 600 m (Hamlet, S.); Wallum, Cooloola (Room, P.M.); Warwick, Emu Ck. (Greenslade, P.J.M.).

Worker measurements (n = 11)

HL 1.94 –2.43, HW 1.08–1.39, MFC 0.24–0.34, IOD 0.59–0.78, SL 3.62–4.35, EL 0.40–0.46, WL 3.61– 4.52, PW 0.96–1.26, DPW 0.37–0.51, HTL 4.52–5.67, HTWmin 0.14–0.19, HTWmax 0.16–0.25, CI 0.54– 0.64, SI 2.75–3.35, OI 0.11–0.13, HTC 0.61–0.88.

Worker description

Medium sized species (HL 1.94 –2.43, HW 1.08–1.39) with head long and slender, excluding mandibles head less than twice as long as broad (CI 0.54–0.64). Head widest at eye level, sides of head subparallel, narrowing anteriorly, genae slightly concave. Posterior to eyes, head narrowing abruptly to dorsoventrally flattened neck-like constriction. Masticatory margin of mandible with 15 to 20 teeth and denticles interspersed. Anterior clypeal margin flat to weakly concave. Eyes positioned approximately at midline of head, eyes small, convex, hairless, not reaching lateral margins. Antennae long and slender, not compressed, scapes surpassing posterior margin of head by 2/3 their length.

Pronotum slender, elongate. Propodeum short, dorsal face of propodeum flat or with transverse impression at anterior end, declivitous face short and convex, propodeal angle very rounded. Petiole triangular in profile, posterior face with slight median longitudinal impression, dorsum rounded, posterior face longer than anterior face. Ventral surface of petiole nearly flat. Gaster elongate-elliptical. Legs very long and slender, not compressed.

Surface very finely shagreened and somewhat shining throughout. Mandibles with a coarse row of punctures along margin. Pubescence pale, sparse. Hairs minimal, confined to clypeus, venter and gaster, 0–5 brown bristles on hind tibiae. Body rufotestaceous with black gaster. Head and antennae rufotestaceous. Femora pale at base and sometimes throughout, but often the distal 1/4 to 3/4 of the femur is black. Tibiae and tarsi yellow, gaster black with the anterior portion of first segment and anal orifice pale yellow.

Queen description

Head broader than in worker. Three ocelli deeply set into head in triangular formation, the anteriormost one largest, the posterior two smaller. Pronotum, mesonotum and propodeum more voluminous than in worker. Dorsal face of propodeum convex, lacking transverse impression. Petiole broader than high, with flat dorsal face. Gaster globose, larger than in worker. Scapes, femora and tibiae robust.

Queen coloration similar to that of worker, but with only the first one or two segments of the gaster black, and the remainder rufotestaceous.

Male measurements (n = 11)

HL 1.57–1.92, HW 1.14–1.37, SL 0.38–0.50, EL 0.59–0.71, HTL 4.61–4.95, CI 0.68–0.77, SI 0.33–0.37, SI2 0.65–0.78.

Discussion

This species occupies the widest geographic range of all the Leptomyrmex species   , extending from the base of the Cape York Peninsula in north Queensland to the northern border of New South Wales. Workers are slender and long-limbed. The black gaster and (usually) dark distal portions of the femora contrast with the otherwise pale orange head, mesosoma and appendages. In body size and coloration, this species resembles L. cnemidatus   and L. varians   . The pale tibiae of L. rufipes   easily distinguish it from the others, which have dark tibiae. The necklike constriction at the posterior margin of the head is also distinctive - this margin is broadly rounded in L. cnemidatus   . In L. varians   the head narrows beyond the eyes, but does not project into a dorsoventrally compressed ‘neck’. Head shape is sufficient to distinguish L. rufipes   from all congeners with the exception of its sister species, L. ruficeps   and L. rothneyi   . These species can be separated from L. rufipes   based on color patterns and geographic range: L. ruficeps   is black with a red head and restricted to the Wet Tropics and L. rothneyi   is a mottled, dark species confined to the southeast corner of Queensland.

One rufipes   -like worker from Callide Ck. Mine, Biloela ( TERC) is exceptional in that the gaster is also pale orange, giving the specimen a unicolorous appearance. This might represent a distinct species but in the absence of any additional material we provisionally treat it as conspecific with L. rufipes   .

Emery (1895) described L. rufipes   from Laidley [as “Laidely”], Brisbane, but we have been unable to locate any type specimens. In the MSNG, which contains type material of all other Leptomyrmex   described by Emery, there are three workers labeled “Kamerunga/ Queensland ” and “ L. varians var. rufipes   ” in Emery’s handwriting but these do not agree with the original description nor with the stated type locality. Emery’s (1895) description of L. rufipes   —with its reference to the posteriorly elongate head, rufotestaceous mesosoma and legs, and distally infuscated femora—eliminates all but one species of Leptomyrmex   occurring in the vicinity of Laidley, Brisbane, and we have a designated a neotype belonging to that species, from a location close to Laidley.

L. rufipes   has been recorded in rainforest, mesophyll vine forest, Eucalyptus   open forest, and wet and dry sclerophyll. Nests occur in cavities in live trees, on the ground at tree bases, in large open mounds, in or under logs, and under rocks.

Leptomyrmex rufithorax Forel   , stat. nov. ( Figs 18a–c View FIGURES 17–22 , 23e View FIGURES 23 , 24n View FIGURE24 )

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus var. rufithorax Forel 1915: 83   .

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus subsp. rufithorax Forel   ; Wheeler 1934: 91. Description of male.

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus subsp. basirufus Wheeler, 1934: 90   . Syn. nov.

Type material examined

L. erythrocephalus rufithorax Forel.   Syntypes, 3 workers, Australia, Queensland: Blackall Range (Mjöberg, E.) [ MHNG; ANIC32-001986 ].

L. erythrocephalus basirufus Wheeler.   Syntypes, 2 workers, Australia, Queensland: Buderim (Hacker, H.) [MCZ].

Other material examined

AUSTRALIA: Queensland: 15km ESE Gympie, 100 m (Ward, P.S.); 8km NE Landsborough, 10 m (Ward, P.S.); Buderim (Hacker, H.); Bundaberg (Lea, A.M.); Cania Gorge National Park (Gush,T.); Cooloola (general) (Room, P.M.); Cooloola [Natl. Pk.], Melita (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Cooloola Natl. Park, N. end, 140 m (Ward, P.S.); Cooloola Natl. Pk., Burwilla (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Cooloola Natl. Pk., Como Forestry HQ (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Cooloola Natl. Pk., Mutyi (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Cooloola Natl. Pk., Plowman (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Cooloola Natl. Pk., rainforest (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Cooloola Natl. Pk., Warrawonga (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Cooloola, Chalamban [Chalambar] (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Cooloola, Kabali E (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Coomingla SF, 12mi. NW Monto [Coominglah State Forest] (Lowery, B.B.); Coomingla St.For., N of Monto (Brown, W.L. & Brown, D.E.); Dingo Ck., 1km E Traveston, 80 m (Taylor, R.W. & Kohout, R.); Doongul State Forest (Gay, F.J.); Eumundi, 80 m (c.u.); Expedition Ra, Blackdown Tableland (Kohout, R.); Frazer Island (Dick, M. & Hunt, P.); Horseshoe Lookout, Blackdown Tableland, ESE Blackwater (Balderson & Vickery); Mapleton Falls (Taylor, R.W.); Mapleton Falls NP, 3km W Mapleton, 450 m (Lucky, A.); Monto

(Darlingtons); Montville, Blackall Rge. (Brown, W.L.); Mt. Tambourine (Lea, A.M.); Noosa NP, coastal track nr. Tea Tree Bay, 70 m (Lucky, A.); SW Biggenden (Darlingtons); Womalah State Forest (Gush, T.). Dubious locality record: Queensland: 8km W Bambaroo, Jourama Nat. Pk. (Meyer, R.P.).

Worker measurements (n = 10)

HL 2.17–2.36, HW 1.34–1.56, MFC 0.28–0.37, IOD 0.81–0.92, SL 3.73–4.07, EL 0.38–0.46, WL 4.04– 4.35, PW 1.12–1.34, DPW 0.41–0.51, HTL 4.67–5.13, HTWmin 0.14–0.21, HTWmax 0.26–0.30, CI 0.61– 0.66, SI 2.60–2.86, OI 0.09–0.11, HTC 0.47–0.77.

Worker description

Larger species (HL 2.17–2.36, HW 1.34–1.56) with broad head (CI 0.61–0.66). Head widest at eyes, sides of head convex around eyes, genae concave, posterior to eyes rounding to slightly narrowed flat postocular margin. Posterior portion of head lacking neck-like constriction. Masticatory margin of mandible with approximately 15 teeth and denticles interspersed. Anterior clypeal margin medially concave. Eyes positioned toward posterior part of head. Eyes small, round, hairless, not surpassing lateral margins of head. Antennal scapes not compressed, extending beyond the posterior margin less than 2/3 of their length.

Pronotum short. Declivity of propodeum about half the length of the dorsal face, dorsal face with transverse impression at anterior end, propodeal angle very rounded. Petiolar node triangular in profile, summit convex and rounded, with slight longitudinal impression on dorsum, anterior and posterior faces, anterior face slightly shorter than posterior face, ventral surface of petiole concave. Gaster elliptical-elongate. Legs somewhat compressed.

Body surface slightly shining, finely shagreened. Mandibles with a row of coarse punctures along margin. Pubescence fine. Greyish pilosity minimal, confined to clypeus, venter and gaster. Body and head rufotestaceous, with legs and gaster black. Head and antennae deep reddish orange, femora and tibiae dark brown, joints and tarsi yellow. Gaster black, but first segment rufotestaceous with dark outer margin.

Queen description

Head broader than in worker. Three ocelli deeply set into head in triangular formation, the anteriormost one largest, the posterior two smaller. Pronotum, mesonotum and propodeum voluminous, convex. Dorsal face of propodeum high, convex. Petiole broader than high, with distinct medial impression. Gaster globose, larger than in worker. Scapes, femora and tibiae broad, robust. Surface of body appearing dusty, not shining. Queen coloration as in workers.

Male measurements (n = 3)

HL 1.70–1.80, HW 1.26–1.33, SL 0.38–0.44, EL 0.62–0.63, HTL 4.26–4.50, CI 0.73–0.76, SI 0.29–0.33, SI2 0.66–0.76.

Discussion

Workers of L. rufithorax   are large with a broad head that is round to flat at the postocular margin, and lacking a necklike constriction. The coloration of this species is distinctive: the head, mesosoma and first gastral tergite (3 rd abdominal segment) are red, the distal 2/3 of the gaster and the legs, including the coxae, are black. This species occurs in central- and south-east Queensland, where its dark coxae in combination with pale mesosoma distinguish it from sympatric congeners. L. rufithorax   may resemble some dark forms of L. erythrocephalus   (in northern New South Wales), but in these forms the gaster is uniformly black and the femora are often pale basally. In L. rufithorax   workers the femora and tibiae are entirely black, with joints and tarsi showing the only hint of orange.

L. rufithorax   has been recorded in rainforest, wet sclerophyll and dry sclerophyll. Nests occur in soil, in and under logs, and under rocks.

Leptomyrmex tibialis Emery   , stat. nov. ( Figs 19a–c View FIGURES 17–22 , 23f View FIGURES 23 , 24o View FIGURE24 )

Leptomyrmex nigriventris var. tibialis Emery, 1895: 351   .

Leptomyrmex nigriventris var. tibialis Emery   ; Wheeler, 1934: 96. Description of queen and male.

Leptomyrmex nigriventris subsp. tibialis Emery   ; Wheeler, 1934: 96.

Leptomyrmex nigriventris subsp. hackeri Wheeler 1934: 99   . Syn. nov.

Type material examined

L. nigriventris tibialis Emery.   Syntypes, 2 workers, Australia, Queensland: Laidley [as “Laidely”] (Podenzana) [ MSNG]. One syntype here designated lectotype ( CASENT0127374 ).

L. nigriventris hackeri Wheeler.   Syntypes, 2 workers, Australia, Queensland: Stradbroke Island (Hacker, H.) [MCZ].

Other material examined

AUSTRALIA: New South Wales: 15km W Urbenville (Greenslade, P.J.M.); 1 mi. N Eungella, Murwillumbah, 500 ft (Lowery, B.B.); 25km NW Kyogle (Greenslade, P.J.M.); 7km NE Woodenbong, 520 m (Ward, P.S.); Acacia Plateau (McAreavey, J.); Acacia Plateau (Armstrong, J.); Acacia Plateau (Bugeja, J.); Boonoo SF (Bugeja, J.); Brooklana (Froggatt, W.W.); Brunswick Heads, 50 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Bruxner Pk, Coffs Harbour, 70 m (Taylor, R.W.); Cambridge Plateau (Bugeja, J.); Coffs Harbour dist., Pine Creek State Forest (Taylor, R.W.); Cyder Mountain (Hangay,G.); Dorrigo (Heron, W.); Dorrigo (Froggatt, W.W.); Dorrigo (Heron, W.); Dorrigo, 3000 ft (c.u.); Dorrigo Natl Park, 600 m (Ward, P.S.); Dorrigo NP, 4km SSE Dorrigo, 610 m (Lucky, A.); Dorrigo NP, E. end Blackbutt track, 710 m (Newton, A. & Thayer, M.); Forest Tops, Border Ranges NP, 850 m (Edwards, E.D.); Lismore (c.u.); Moobal SF, 500 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Mt. Warning (Williams, G. & Williams, T.); Murwillumbah area (Lowery, B.B.); N.E. Nat. Park [New England NP] (Harrington, S.); National Park Dorrigo, nr. Picnic Ground [Dorrigo National Park] (Giles, E.T.); New England Natl. Pk., 900 m (Olson, D.M.); Pine Creek State Forest, Coffs Harbour Dist. (Taylor, R.W.); Sheepstation Crk, Wiangaree S.F., 600 m (Newton, A. & Thayer, M.); The Dorrigo (Darlington); The Dorrigo, 3000 ft (Harvard Exp. Darlington); Yabba State Forest (Greenslade, P.J.M.). Queensland: 15 km ESE Gympie, 100 m (Ward, P.S.); 6km SSW North Tamborine, 500 m (Ward, P.S.); 7km NNW North Tamborine, 490 m (Ward, P.S.); 8km ESE North Tamborine, 500 m (Ward, P.S.); Binna Burra, 2800–3000 ft (Taylor, R.W.); Binna Burra, Lamington NP (Kohout, R.); Boombana NP, 440 m (Burwell, C.J.); Boombana NP, 440 m (Queensland Museum Party); Boombana NP, Brisbane, 1000 ft (Taylor, R.W.); Boombana, 24km WNW Brisbane, D'Aguilar NP, 420 m (Lucky, A.); Coomera R., Lamington N.P., 1200ft (Liepa, Z.); Cunninghams Gap (Greenslade, P.J.M.); Cunninghams Gap (Darlingtons); Cunningham's Gap, Mt. Cordeaux, 3000 ft (Taylor, R.W.); 'Gwinganna', 6km SW by S Talebudgera (Rentz, D., Lee, W. & Upton, M.); Gwongorella N.P. (Hebert, P.); Lamington [National Park] (Barnard, W.B.); Lamington Plateau, 800 m (Ward, P.S.); Lyon's Crossing, Nerang R., nr Numinbah (Campbell, T.G.); Maiala NP (Taylor, R.W.); Mary Cairn–Cross Pk, nr Maleny, 400 m (Ward, P.S.); Mt Glorious, 630 m (Taylor, R.W. & Kohout, R.); Mt Nebo (Taylor, R.W.); Mt. Glorious (general) (Hiller, A.); Mt. Nebo, Brisbane, 2000ft (Lowery, B.B.); Mt. Nebo, Mt. Tamborine & Mt. Coot-tha, 2000 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Mt. Tamborine (general) (Lowery, B.B.); Mt. Tambourine (Lea, A.M.); "National Park", 2500–4000ft (Hacker, H.); nr Kenilworth, 150 m (Taylor, R.W. & Kohout, R.); Obi Obi Crk. (Taylor, R.W.); Obi Obi R., Blackall Ra. (Brown, W.L.); O'Reilley's, Lamington NP, 920 m (Taylor, R.W. & Kohout, R.); Ravensbourne NP, 33km W Esk, 760 m (Lucky, A.); Ravensbourne NP, N of Toowoomba (Lowery, B.B.); SE Queensland (Lowery, B.B.); Stanthorpe (Sutton, E.); SW of Biggenden (Darlingtons); Tamborine Mts (Froggatt, W.W.); Tomewin (Lowery, B.B.); Toowoomba (Greaves, T.); Toowoomba (general) (Barnard, W.B.); v. Woodenbong (Darlingtons); Warrie N.P. (Hebert, P.). Dubious locality record: New South Wales: Myall Lakes (Greenslade, P.J.M.).

Worker measurements (n = 10)

HL 2.31–2.63, HW 1.68–1.96, MFC 0.37–0.47, IOD 0.98–1.16, SL 3.77–4.30, EL 0.43–0.52, WL 4.51– 5.13, PW 1.46–1.64, DPW 0.53–0.68, HTL 4.96–5.89, HTWmin 0.12–0.21, HTWmax 0.35–0.43, CI 0.71– 0.79, SI 2.02–2.26, OI 0.09–0.11, HTC 0.34–0.49.

Worker description

As in L. nigriventris   , but generally larger (HW 1.68–1.96; WL 4.51–5.13 vs. L. nigriventris HW   1.49– 1.76; WL 4.32–4.98), with head broader (CI 0.71–0.79 vs. CI 0.66–0.75). Tibiae are dark (vs. rufotestaceous) and more distinctly compressed (HTC 0.34–0.49 vs HTC 0.52–0.66).

Queen description

Head broader than in worker. Three ocelli deeply set into head in triangular formation, the anteriormost one largest, the posterior two smaller. Pronotum, mesonotum and propodeum voluminous, convex. The anterior portion of the mesonotum elevated, the posterior portion with a narrow impression before rising to the metanotal suture. Dorsal face of propodeum slightly concave. Petiole broader and higher than long, with a longitudinally grooved summit. Gaster nearly as high as long, somewhat laterally compressed, larger than in worker. Scapes, femora and tibiae broad, robust.

Surface of body subopaque, shagreened. Queen coloration similar to that of worker; distal portions of femora deep black.

Male measurements (n = 4)

HL 1.77–1.98, HW 1.39–1.61, SL 0.72–0.78, EL 0.68–0.79, HTL 4.74–5.14, CI 0.74–0.82, SI 0.47–0.54, SI2 1.26–1.46.

Discussion

The largest of the Leptomyrmex species   , L. tibialis   can be identified by its large body size (HW 1.68–1.96; WL 4.51–5.13), broad head (CI 0.71–0.79), the 10+ standing hairs on the posterior face of the hind tibia, and its distinctive coloration. The majority of the body is rufotestaceous, with only the gaster, tibiae and distal portions of femora black. This species can be distinguished from its sister species by tibial coloration (pale in L. nigriventris   ; dark in L. tibialis   ) and by more pronounced tibial compression in L. tibialis   (HTC 0.34–0.49 vs. HTC 0.52–0.66 in L. nigriventris   ). These two species co-occur in the region of Dorrigo, New South Wales.

In the original description of L. tibialis Emery (1895)   stated that it was “recolté dans le nord du Queensland par M. Podenzana” but this is an evident error since this species does not occur in north Queensland. Moreover, the apparent syntype series in MSNG is from Laidley, in southern Queensland. The series comprises two workers of what is here interpreted as L. tibialis   (agreeing with the original description, particularly with regard to tibial compression) and three workers of L. cnemidatus   . To fix the identity of this species we have designated one of the non- cnemidatus   workers as the lectotype.

L. tibialis   has been recorded in rainforest, wet sclerophyll and dry sclerophyll. Nests occur in cavities in live or dead trees, and in soil at tree bases.

Leptomyrmex unicolor Emery   ( Figs 20a–c View FIGURES 17–22 , 24p View FIGURE24 )

Leptomyrmex unicolor Emery, 1895: 352   , fig. 3.

Leptomyrmex unicolor Emery   ; Wheeler & Wheeler, 1951: 180. Description of larva.

See also: Wheeler 1915: 261; Wheeler 1934: 108.

Type material examined L. unicolor Emery.   Syntypes, 4 workers, Australia, Queensland: Cairns (Podenzana) [ MSNG]

Other material examined.

AUSTRALIA: Queensland: 1.5km NW Cape Tribulation (site 1) (Monteith, G.B.); 2.0km WNW Cape Tribulation (site 2), 50 m (Monteith, G.B.); 2.5km W Cape Tribulation (site 5), 180 m (Monteith, G.B., Yeates & Thompson); 2.7km W Cape Tribulation (site 5A), 400 m (Monteith, G.B.); 2.7km W Cape Tribulation (site 5A), 400 m (Monteith, G.B., Yeates & Thompson); 3.0km W Cape Tribulation (site 6), 500 m (Monteith, G.B.); 3.0km W Cape Tribulation (site 6), 500 m (Monteith, Yeates & Thompson); 3.5km W Cape Tribulation, 600 m (Ward, P.S.); 3.5km W Cape Tribulation, 600 m (Wild, A.L.); 3.5km W Cape Tribulation (site 7), 680 m (Monteith, G.B.); 3.5km W Cape Tribulation (site 7), 680 m (Monteith, Yeates & Thompson); 3.0mi. W of Mossman (Common, I.F.B. & Upton, M.S.); 7km SSW Cape Tribulation, 10 m (Ward, P.S.); 8km SSW Cape Tribulation, 30 m (Ward, P.S.); Barron Falls N.P. (Hebert, P.); Barron Falls N.P., 350 m (Ward, P.S.); Black Mt. Rd., Kuranda, 1200 ft (Taylor, R.W.); Black Mt. Rd., v. Kuranda (Darlingtons); Cairns (Bourne, E.H.); Cairns (general) (c.u.); Cairns Dist. (Dodd, F.D.); Cape Tribulation (Furth, D.G.); Cooper Creek, nr. Daintree (Taylor, R.W. & Feehan, J.E.); Daintree NP, Mt. Sorrow, 700 m (Lucky, A.); Daintree NP, Mt. Sorrow, 450 m (Lucky, A.); Daintree NP, Mt. Sorrow, 350 m (Lucky, A.); Emmagen Creek, 5.0 km N Cape Tribulation (Monteith, Yeates & Thompson); Gap Ck., 5km ESE Mt. Finnegan (Naumann, I.D.); Gap Ck., 5km ESE Mt. Finnegan (Feehan, J.E.); Henrietta Ck., Palmerston NP [Wooroonooran NP], 350 m (Ward, P.S.); Kuranda (Filewood, P.); Kuranda (Greaves, T.); Kuranda (Bourne, E.H.); Kuranda, 1000 ft (Taylor, R.W.); Kuranda (Wheeler, W.M.); Kuranda (Brown, W.L.); Kuranda (Dodd); Kuranda (Darlingtons); Kuranda (Hölldobler, B.); Kuranda (general) (Lowery, B.B.); Malanda (Bourne, E.H.); Moses Creek, 4km NE Mt. Finnigan (Cardale, J.); Mossman Bluff Track, 5–10km W Mossman, 360 m (Monteith, Thompson & ANZSES); Mossman Bluff Track, 5–10km W Mossman, 480 m (Monteith, Thompson & ANZSES); Mossman Bluff Track, 5– 10km W Mossman, 600 m (Monteith, Thompson & ANZSES); Mossman Gorge (Lowery, B.B.); Mossman Gorge, 3 mi. E Mossman [prob. W] 200 ft (Taylor, R.W.); Mt. Alexander, NW of Daintree (Darlingtons); Mt. Lewis, 7km NW Julatten, 900 m (Lucky, A.); Mt. Webb NP (Feehan, J.E.); Mt. Windsor Tableland, 950 m (Taylor, R.W.); Mts. nr Mossman (Darlingtons); nr. Kuranda, 430 m (Taylor, R.W. & Feehan, J.E.); Shipton's Flat (Feehan, J.E.); Shipton's Flat, S of Cooktown (Darlingtons); Spear Creek (Davies & Raven); Stony Creek (Feehan, J.E.); Stony Creek, nr. Shipton's Flat (Feehan, J.E.); Thornton Range, 150–180 m (Taylor, R.W. & Feehan, J.E.). Dubious locality records: Queensland: Blackall Ranges [Range] (Feehan, J.E.); Victoria: Heathcote Junction (Dixon, J.E.).

Worker measurements (n = 10)

HL 1.79–1.99, HW 1.37–1.51, MFC 0.25–0.31, IOD 0.67–0.77, SL 3.54–3.91, EL 0.39–0.44, WL 3.27– 3.73, PW 1.05–1.21, DPW 0.34–0.40, HTL 3.99–4.84, HTWmin 0.12–0.17, HTWmax 0.23–0.27, CI 0.72– 0.80, SI 2.58–2.74, OI 0.08–0.10, HTC 0.45–0.70.

Worker description

Large species (HL 1.79–1.99; HW 1.37–1.51) with broad head (, CI 0.72–0.80), excluding mandibles head width 3/4 of length. Head widest at eye level, sides of head broadly convex with concave genae. Postocular margin broadly rounded. Masticatory margin of mandible with approximately 7 large teeth interspersed with 10 denticles. Anterior clypeal margin concave. Eyes positioned posterior to midline of head, small, not surpassing margin of head. Pilosity on eyes distinct. Antennal scapes somewhat flattened, extending beyond posterior margin nearly 3/5 of their length.

Pronotum rather short, less than 1.5 times as long as broad. Dorsal face and declivity of propodeum subequal in length, dorsal face convex in profile, angle broadly rounded. Petiole narrow, with low rounded node, posterior and anterior slopes subequal, ventral surface of petiole feebly convex. Gaster slender, more than three times as long as broad. Legs slender, tibiae very slightly flattened.

Surface subopaque, finely and densely shagreened. Mandibles smooth and shining along apical borders and at tips, with a few coarse punctures. Pilosity mostly on clypeus, mandibles and venter, prominent black hairs on coxae, abundant minute oblique black hairs on scapes and legs. Eyes distinctly hairy. Body, femora and tibiae black, with bluish-green reflections. Mandibles and labium brownish yellow, antennal scapes black, with apical 1/4th brown. Metatarsi white, remaining tarsal joints, tibial spurs and funiculi yellowed.

Queen UNKNOWN.

Male measurements (n = 2)

HL 1.67–1.68, HW 1.03–1.09, SL 0.41–0.43, EL 0.69–0.71, HTL 3.98–4.07, CI 0.62–0.65, SI 0.39–0.40, SI2 1.07–1.08.

Discussion

This species is restricted to the Australian Wet Tropics, where it can be easily distinguished from its sympatric congeners ( L. rufipes   , L. ruficeps   and L. mjobergi   ) by its large body and broad head, which are covered with dense pubescence. The eyes are distinctly hairy, and the coloration is uniformly black, with contrasting white tarsi.

L. unicolor   has been recorded in rainforest and wet sclerophyll. Nests occur in soil, in or under logs, and in leaf litter at base of live trees.

Leptomyrmex varians Emery   ( Figs 21a–c View FIGURES 17–22 , 24q View FIGURE24 )

Leptomyrmex varians Emery, 1895: 352   , fig. 3.

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus var. decipiens Wheeler, 1915: 268   . Syn. nov.

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus subsp. decipiens Wheeler   ; Wheeler, 1934: 90. Description of male.

Leptomyrmex varians st. angusticeps Santschi, 1929: 93   , fig. 3. Syn. nov.

Type material examined

L. varians Emery.   Syntypes, 2 workers, Australia: Queensland: Rockhampton (probably E. Dämel) [ MSNG]. One syntype here designated lectotype ( CASENT0127378 ).

L. erythrocephalus decipiens Wheeler.   Syntypes, 6 workers, Australia: Queensland: Gin Gin (Froggatt, W.W.) [MCZ].

L. varians angusticeps Santschi.   Syntypes, 3 workers, Australia: Queensland: Byfield (Barrett, C.) [NHMB]. [Note that Santschi (1929) described workers; the male symbol at the beginning of the description is apparently a typographical error].

Other material examined

AUSTRALIA: Queensland: 10 km N Taroom (Lowery, B.B.); 14 km WSW Yeppoon, 40 m (Ward, P.S.); 18 km SW Walkerston (Lowery, B.B.); 20 km N Yeppoon (Bugeja, J.); 25 mi. NNW Taroom (Dowse, J.E.); 30 mi. W Emerald (Lowery, B.B.); 34 mi. NE Clermont (Lowery, B.B.); 5 km NE Mt. Morgans, 300 m (Taylor, R.H. & Weir, T.A.); 50 mi W Rockhampton (Darlingtons); 6 mi. N Taroom (Dowse, J.E.); 8 km SW Kuttabul, 120 m (Ward, P.S.); 80–100 mi S Sarina (Darlingtons)   ; Anakie, 30 mi W Emerald (Lowery, B.B.); Biloela (c.u.); Bundaberg (Cudmore, F.A.); c. 20–50mi NW Gayndah (Darlingtons); c. 40 mi S Mackay (Darlingtons); c. 55mi N Marlborough (Darlington); Calliope (Harrington, S.A.); Canns Camp Ck., White Mountains NP (Andersen, A.); Carnarvon Gorge (c.u.); Carnarvon Gorge, 400 m (Ward, P.S.); Clermont (c.u.); Dawes, 20 mi SE Biloela (Lowery, B.B.); Dawson R. (c.u.); Expedition Ra, Blackdown Tableland (Kohout, R.); Gayndah (c.u.); Gin Gin (Beauglehole); Gympie (c.u.); Isla Gorge N. P. 50km N Taroom (Lowery, B.B.); Miles (Lowery, B.B.); Nanago (c.u.); Nanago (Lowery, B.B.); nr. Marlborough (Rakemann, D.); nr. Nebo, 50 mi SW Mackay (Lowery, B.B.); Palm Park, 3.5 mi ESE Byfield (Campbell, T.G. & Jealous, R.); Sarina (Beauglehole)   ; St. Lawrence (c.u.); St. Lawrence (Cudmore, F.A.); Taroom (Lowery, B.B.); Wandoan (Lowery, B.B.); Woodgate N.P., 5 m (Ward, P.S.); Yeppoon (Carter, H.J.); Yeppoon (Lowery, B.B.). Dubious locality record: New South Wales: 1 mi. N Eungella, Murwillumbah, 600ft (Lowery, B.B.).

Worker measurements (n = 9)

HL 1.92–2.18, HW 1.04–1.19, MFC 0.22–0.28, IOD 0.61–0.70, SL 3.89–4.28, EL 0.36–0.43, WL 3.78– 4.29, PW 1.01–1.18, DPW 0.37–0.52, HTL 4.77–5.53, HTWmin 0.13–0.16, HTWmax 0.20–0.31, CI 0.53– 0.59, SI 3.31–3.82, OI 0.10–0.15, HTC 0.44–0.64.

Worker description

Medium sized species (HL 1.92–2.18; HW 1.04–1.19) with a distinctly narrow head (CI 0.53–0.59) excluding mandibles, nearly twice as long as broad. Head widest at eyes, sides of head nearly straight and parallel, posterior to eyes narrowing with straight sides toward posterior margin, forming a slightly constricted ‘neck’. Masticatory margin of mandible with approximately 25 small teeth mostly of uniform size, with larger teeth confined to anterior half. Anterior clypeal margin weakly convex. Eyes positioned approximately at midline of head, small, convex, hairless, surpassing margins of head. Antennal scapes very slender and terete, extending beyond posterior margin by nearly 2/3 of their length.

Pronotum slightly more than 1.5 times as long as broad. Declivity of propodeum very convex, about half the length of the dorsal face, which is flat to weakly concave in profile. Petiolar node triangular in profile with faint longitudinal impression on dorsal face of petiole. Posterior face of petiole longer than anterior face, angle rounded, ventral surface concave. Gaster narrow, elliptical. Legs very slender, tibiae mildly compressed.

Surface subopaque, very finely shagreened. Mandibles with a row of coarse punctures along apical border. Pubescence whitish, extremely short and fine hairs on mandibles and clypeus feebly developed. Long, coarse black hairs on venter sparse. Generally, head, thorax and antennae rufotestaceous, with antennal scapes and tips of mandibles dark brown, and with legs, including coxae, black. Tarsi yellow. Gaster, pronotum and sometimes a spot on the mesonotum black. Some series, however, are brownish-black, with a slight bluish sheen, and only the antennae, tarsi and anterior third of head are lighter (e.g. specimens from Isla Gorge NP, 50km N Taroom and White Mountains NP).

Queen UNKNOWN

Male measurements (n = 4)

HL 1.53–1.58, HW 1.12–1.16, SL 0.34–0.37, EL 0.55–0.61, HTL 4.22–4.71, CI 0.72–0.75, SI 0.30–0.32, SI2 1.01–1.11.

Discussion

L. varians   is a distinctly slender and elongate species that occurs in southeastern to central Queensland, from approximately Brisbane to Mackay, in a broad arc that sweeps inland. This species tolerates drier habitat than most other species in the genus. Coloration is usually pale orange with contrasting black legs, including coxae but excluding tarsi, and dark brown antennal scapes and tips. This species may be confused with two other pale-bodied congeners with which it is sympatric in southeast Queensland, L. cnemidatus   and L. rufipes   . Distinguishing L. varians   from these species are the entirely dark coxae, femora and tibiae; in L. cnemidatus   the coxae and proximal portion of femora are pale and in L. rufipes   the tibiae are pale. Furthermore, the narrowed, but not constricted or projecting posterior margin of the head in L. varians   is unlike that in L. cnemidatus   (broadly rounded) or L. rufipes   (constricted and projecting).

L. varians   has been recorded in dry sclerophyll and Eucalyptus   , Casuarina, Melaleuca   and Callitris   open forests. Nests occur as large or small craters in soil, in the open, or at the base of live trees.

Leptomyrmex wiburdi Wheeler   ( Figs 22a–c View FIGURES 17–22 , 23g View FIGURES 23 , 24r View FIGURE24 )

Leptomyrmex wiburdi Wheeler, 1915: 272   , fig. 7.

Leptomyrmex wiburdi var. pictus Wheeler, 1915: 273   . Syn. nov.

Leptomyrmex wiburdi subsp. pictus Wheeler   ; Wheeler, 1934: 101.

Leptomyrmex wiburdi Wheeler   ; Wheeler, 1934: 99. Description of male.

Leptomyrmex pictus Wheeler   ; Wheeler & Wheeler, 1966: 728. Description of larva.

Type material examined

L. wiburdi Wheeler.   Syntypes, 14 workers, Australia: New South Wales: Jenolan Caves (Wiburd, J.C.) [ LACM, MCZ].

L. wiburdi pictus Wheeler.   Syntypes, 5 workers, Australia: New South Wales: Bulli Pass (Wheeler, W.M.) and Katoomba (Wheeler, W.M.) [MCZ].

Other material examined

AUSTRALIA: New South Wales: 12km W Wombeyan Caves, 3100 ft (Lowery, B.B.); 15km W Wombeyan Caves, 3000 ft (Lowery, B.B.); 1km NNW Mt. Keira, 380 m (Ward, P.S.); 2 mi E Berry, 100ft (Lowery, B.B.); 2km N Mt. Keira, 360 m (Ward, P.S.); 2km N Mt. Keira, on Mt. Keira Rd 0.7km S of jct. with Mt. Ousley Rd., 360 m (Shattuck, S.O.); 3km SSW Blackheath, 800 m (Ward, P.S.); 3km W of Mt. Keira (Gush, T.); 4 km W Durras (Lowery, B.B.); 4km N Moruya (Lowery, B.B.); 4km NE Bulahdelah, 100 m (Ward, P.S.); 5km SSW Blackheath, 680 m (Ward, P.S.); 9km NE Bateman's Bay, 20 m (Ward, P.S.); 9km NE Batemans Bay, West Side Hwy 1, ca. 0.5km N Durras Rd., 20 m (Shattuck, S.O.); Bouddi NP, Maitland Bay (Lowery, B.B.); Bulli (Hill, G.F.); Cambewarra Mountain, 2000 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Chain Bay (Imai, H.T.); Clarence (Gush, T.); Colo Vale, nr. Mittagong (Gush, T.); Currowan SF, W of Nelligen (Lowery, B.B.); Dorrigo (Darlington); Dorrigo (Heron, W.); Dorrigo NP, 600 m (Ward, P.S.); Dorrigo NP (Nauman, I. & Cardale, J.); Dorrigo NP 4km SSE Dorrigo, 610 m (Lucky, A.); Doyles River State Forest, 620 m (Ward, P.S.); Durras (Shattuck, S.O.); Durras Lakes, Batemans Bay (Greaves, T.); Eastern Foothills, Clyde Mt (Riek, E.F.); Eastern slopes, Clyde Mt (Lowery, B.B.); Echo Pt. Katoomba, 700 m (Ward, P.S.); Echo Pt. Katoomba, 940 m (Ward, P.S.); Flat Rock State Forest (Gush, T.); Forest Path, Royal National Park, 35km SW Sydney, 123 m (Lucky, A.); Kangaroo Valley (Riek, E.F.); Katoomba (Wheeler, W.M.); Kioloa Rest Area, Boyne S.F., 30 m (Ward, P.S.); Kurrajong (Taylor, F.H.); Lake Durras, 10 mi N Bateman's Bay (Lowery, B.B.); Merrica hut, Nadgee Reserve (Sugden, E.A.); Misty Mountain (Billen, J.); Mittagong, 2400 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Mossvale Rd., Cambewarra Range, 1km NE Beaumont, 178 m (Lucky, A.); Mt. Cambewarra, nr Nowra (Lowery, B.B.); Mt. Keira, 460 m (Ward, P.S.); Mt. Keira, 300 m (Ward, P.S.); Mt. Keira nr. Wollongong, 300 m (Ward, P.S.); Mt. Ousley nr. Wollongong, 350 m (Ward, P.S.); Mt. Tomah, 900 m (Ward, P.S.); Mt. Tomah, 900 m (Shattuck, S.O.); Mt. Wilson, 980 m (Ward, P.S.); Mt. Wilson, 3500 ft (Darlington); Mt. Wilson nr. Cathedral of Ferns, 980 m (Shattuck, S.O.); Ourimba State Forest, Wyong, 300ft (Lowery, B.B.); Perry's Lookdown to Blue Gum Forest, nr Blackheath (Lowery, B.B.); Rosedale beach (Lowery, B.B.); Rosedale, nr Bateman's bay (Lowery,

B.B.); Royal N.P., nr Garie Beach (Lowery, B.B.); Royal NP, Garie Beach, 150 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Saddleback Mountain, Kiama, 1000 ft (Lowery, B.B.); Wentworth Falls, 2800 ft (Wheeler, W.M.); Wentworth Falls NP, 2km SW Wentworth Falls, 850 m (Lucky, A.). Dubious locality records: Queensland: Cardstone (Carne & Britton); Forest Rd., nr. Ingham (Straatman, R.); Victoria: Millgrove (c.u.).

Worker measurements (n = 12)

HL 1.65–1.94, HW 1.15–1.33, MFC 0.27–0.36, IOD 0.70–0.86, SL 2.74–3.3, EL 0.36–0.45, WL 3.06– 3.65, PW 0.94–1.15, DPW 0.30–0.43, HTL 3.32–3.88, HTWmin 0.13–0.17, HTWmax 0.22–0.26, CI 0.66– 0.70, SI 2.29–2.64, OI 0.09–0.12, HTC 0.56–0.69.

Worker description

Relatively small species (HL 1.65–1.94; HW 1.15–1.33) with broad head (CI 0.66–0.70), excluding mandibles head width more than 3/5 of length. Head widest posterior to eyes, sides of head straight, narrowing anteriorly, genae slightly concave. Beyond eyes head broadly and distinctly rounding into posterior margin. Masticatory margin of mandible with approximately 20 teeth and denticles interspersed. Anterior clypeal margin medially concave. Eyes positioned posteriorly to midline of head, relatively large, hairless, not surpassing margins of head. Antennal scapes relatively short, not compressed, surpassing posterior margin of the head by less than 2/3 their length.

Pronotum stout, very convex. Dorsal face of propodeum more than twice as long as declivity, angle joining the two very broadly rounded. Propodeum with distinct transverse impression at anterior end. Petiole triangular in profile, dorsum with medial longitudinal impression, anterior face not much longer than posterior face, ventral suface of petiole distinctly projecting. Gaster elliptical. Legs relatively short, tibiae distinctly compressed.

Surface subopaque, very finely and densely shagreened. Mandibles slightly shining, coarsely punctate along apical border. Pubescence extremely fine, giving the body a pruinose appearance. Hairs few, confined to clypeus, mandibles and venter.

Coloration extremely variable; ranging from erythrocephalus   -like to rufipes   -like coloration, with many intermediate states apparently co-occurring. A common color pattern presents a rufotestaceous head obfuscated toward the postocular margin, mottled dark brown to black mesosoma and legs with joints and sutures pale, black gaster, and mandibles, antennae and tarsi rufotestaceous.

Queen description

Head broader than in worker. Three ocelli deeply set into head in triangular formation, the anteriormost one largest, the posterior two smaller. Pronotum, mesonotum and propodeum voluminous, convex. The anterior portion of the mesonotum with a slight medial bump. Dorsal face of propodeum raised, convex. Petiole broader than high. Gaster globose, larger than in worker. Scapes, femora and tibiae broad, robust. Surface of body appearing dusty, shagreened.

Male measurements (n = 4)

HL 1.39–1.48, HW 1.09–1.15, SL 0.48–0.54, EL 0.54–0.61, HTL 3.14–3.42, CI 0.76–0.81, SI 0.42–0.49, SI2 1.10–1.33.

Discussion

This species can be distinguished by its broad head, which is widest posterior of the eyes, short scapes and generally small size. L. wiburdi   can be easily mistaken for L. cnemidatus   or L. erythrocephalus   , as the general body shape and round postocular portion of the head are similar amongst these three species which co-occur in New South Wales. There is no ‘typical’ color pattern that characterizes L. wiburdi   workers, rather they take on a variety of color patterns, including the typical patterns seen in L. cnemidatus   and L. erythrocephalus   ; workers with different color forms have even been observed in a single nest. Many individuals possess mottled brown-black coloration on the head and mesosoma, which is not seen in either L. cnemidatus   or L. erythrocephalus   . L. wiburdi   workers evidently mimic workers of co-occurring species of Leptomyrmex   .

L. wiburdi   has been recorded in rainforest, wet sclerophyll and dry sclerophyll. Nests occur in soil, in standing or fallen trees or snags, in stumps, and under rocks.

Leptomyrmex neotropicus Baroni Urbani  

Leptomyrmex neotropicus Baroni Urbani, 1980: 4   , fig. 1–5.

Camponotus neotropicus Wilson, 1985: 34   . Combination in Camponotus  

Leptomyrmex neotropicus Baroni Urbani & Wilson 1987: 2   . Combination in Leptomyrmex  

Type material not examined

L. neotropicus Baroni Urbani.   Holotype [Do-996-K-1] and paratypes, totaling 10 workers from a single block of Dominican amber [ SMNS].

Other material examined

Dominican Amber: 2 workers [ PSWC, MCZ]   .

These amber specimens resemble Leptomyrmex   in the following characters: hypostomal notch present and u-shaped, scapes exceeding the postocular margin by approximately half their length, many teeth and denticles, integument thin and lacking sculpture, limbs long and slender, body overall gracile, elongate. These characters suggest an affinity with the extant Leptomyrmex species   , but given the disjunct distribution of the fossils and the living species it is likely that L. neotropicus   belongs to a stem lineage of this genus, a fact which should be taken into account when using the fossils for age calibrations in phylogenetic studies. The sister group of Leptomyrmex   is a clade comprised of the two Neotropical genera, Forelius   and Dorymyrmex   , and it has been suggested that L. neotropicus   might represent a stem species in the latter clade ( Ward et al. 2010).

MCZ

Museum of Comparative Zoology

ANIC

Australian National Insect Collection

MSNG

Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova 'Giacomo Doria'

MHNG

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

LACM

Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County

SMNS

Staatliches Museum fuer Naturkund Stuttgart

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Formicidae

Genus

Leptomyrmex

Loc

Leptomyrmex species

Lucky, Andrea & Ward, Philip S. 2010
2010
Loc

Leptomyrmex flavitarsus (F. Smith)

Shattuck, S. O. 1992: 114
1992
Loc

Leptomyrmex neotropicus

Baroni Urbani, C. & Wilson, E. O. 1987: 2
1987
Loc

Camponotus neotropicus

Wilson, E. O. 1985: 34
1985
Loc

Leptomyrmex neotropicus Baroni Urbani, 1980: 4

Baroni Urbani, C. 1980: 4
1980
Loc

Leptomyrmex pictus

Wheeler, G. C. & Wheeler, J. 1966: 728
1966
Loc

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus (Fabricius)

Wheeler, G. C. & Wheeler, J. 1951: 179
1951
Loc

Leptomyrmex unicolor

Wheeler, G. C. & Wheeler, J. 1951: 180
1951
Loc

Leptomyrmex fragilis var. wheeleri

Donisthorpe, H. 1948: 600
1948
Loc

Leptomyrmex contractus

Donisthorpe, H. 1947: 586
1947
Loc

Leptomyrmex fragilis var. maculatus

Stitz, H. 1938: 108
1938
Loc

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus subsp. venustus

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 87
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus subsp. brunneiceps

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 88
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus subsp. cnemidatus

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 92
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex darlingtoni

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 104
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex darlingtoni subsp. fascigaster

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 107
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex darlingtoni subsp. jucundus

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 107
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus subsp. clarki

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 117
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus subsp. mandibularis

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 87
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus subsp. unctus

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 87
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex fragilis subsp. femoratus

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 113
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex gracillimus

Baroni Urbani, C. & Wilson, E. O. 1987: 2
Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 115
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex pallens subsp. geniculatus

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 109
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex fragilis subsp. melanoticus

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 113
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex lugubris

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 110
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex pallens subsp. nigriceps

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 109
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex nigriventris (Guérin-Méneville)

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 95
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex puberulus

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 112
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex varians subsp. rothneyi

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 102
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex varians subsp. ruficeps

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 102
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex varians subsp. rufipes

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 104
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex varians subsp. quadricolor

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 104
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus subsp. rufithorax

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 91
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus subsp. basirufus

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 90
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex nigriventris var. tibialis

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 96
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex nigriventris subsp. tibialis

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 96
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex nigriventris subsp. hackeri

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 99
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus subsp. decipiens

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 90
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex wiburdi subsp. pictus

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 101
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex wiburdi

Wheeler, W. M. 1934: 99
1934
Loc

Leptomyrmex fragilis var. femorata

Santschi, F. 1932: 17
1932
Loc

Leptomyrmex varians st. angusticeps

Santschi, F. 1929: 93
1929
Loc

Leptomyrmex niger

Karavaiev, V. 1926: 430
1926
Loc

Camponotus flavitarsus (F. Smith)

Emery, C. 1925: 90
1925
Loc

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus var. cnemidatus

Wheeler, W. M. 1915: 268
1915
Loc

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus var. mandibularis

Wheeler, W. M. 1915: 268
1915
Loc

Leptomyrmex mjobergi

Forel, A. 1915: 84
1915
Loc

Leptomyrmex nigriventris (Guérin-Méneville)

Wheeler, W. M. 1915: 261
1915
Loc

Leptomyrmex varians var. ruficeps

Forel, A. 1915: 84
1915
Loc

Leptomyrmex varians var. ruficeps

Wheeler, W. M. 1915: 261
1915
Loc

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus var. rufithorax

Forel, A. 1915: 83
1915
Loc

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus var. decipiens

Wheeler, W. M. 1915: 268
1915
Loc

Leptomyrmex wiburdi

Wheeler, W. M. 1915: 272
1915
Loc

Leptomyrmex wiburdi var. pictus

Wheeler, W. M. 1915: 273
1915
Loc

Leptomyrmex pallens var. geniculatus

Emery, C. 1914: 418
1914
Loc

Leptomyrmex pallens var. nigriceps

Emery, C. 1914: 418
1914
Loc

Leptomyrmex fragilis (F. Smith)

Stitz, H. 1912: 507
1912
Loc

Leptomyrmex froggatti

Forel, A. 1910: 57
1910
Loc

Leptomyrmex varians var. rothneyi

Forel, A. 1902: 473
1902
Loc

Leptomyrmex niger

Emery, C. 1900: 333
1900
Loc

Formica fragilis

Emery, C. 1897: 571
1897
Loc

Leptomyrmex varians var. ruficeps

Emery, C. 1895: 352
1895
Loc

Leptomyrmex varians var. rufipes

Emery, C. 1895: 352
1895
Loc

Leptomyrmex nigriventris var. tibialis

Emery, C. 1895: 351
1895
Loc

Leptomyrmex unicolor

Emery, C. 1895: 352
1895
Loc

Leptomyrmex varians

Emery, C. 1895: 352
1895
Loc

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus var. nigriventris (Guérin-Méneville)

Emery, C. 1895: 351
Emery, C. 1887: 252
1887
Loc

Leptomyrmex pallens

Emery, C. 1883: 147
1883
Loc

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus (Fabricius)

Mayr, G. 1876: 77
1876
Loc

Leptomyrmex erythrocephalus (Fabricius)

Mayr, G. 1862: 696
1862
Loc

Leptomyrmex nigriventris (Guérin-Méneville)

Mayr, G. 1862: 696
1862
Loc

Formica flavitarsus F. Smith, 1859: 136

Smith, F. 1859: 136
1859
Loc

Formica fragilis F. Smith, 1859: 136

Smith, F. 1859: 136
1859
Loc

Formica nigriventris Guérin-Meneville, 1838: 203

Guerin-Meneville, F. E. 1838: 203
1838
Loc

Formica erythrocephala

Fabricius, J. C. 1775: 391
1775