Dryinus sinicus Olmi, 1987

Xu, Zaifu, Olmi, Massimo & He, Junhua, 2013, <strong> Dryinidae of the Oriental region (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) </ strong>, Zootaxa 3614 (1), pp. 1-460: 295-314

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3614.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:E75E5224-20F1-431C-A7CB-9EE0D3F25118

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/8860B757-8F68-FEF9-48A7-569BFA38FB69

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Dryinus sinicus Olmi, 1987
status

 

35. Dryinus sinicus Olmi, 1987  

( Plate 84B, D View PLATE 84 )

Dryinus sinicus Olmi 1987a: 425   ; He & Xu 2002: 265; Mita 2009b: 51 View Cited Treatment ; Xu et al. 2011g (Suppl.): 16; Xu et al. 2012a: 12 View Cited Treatment .

Description of Female. Fully winged; length 4.7–8.7 mm. Head black, except mandible, part of clypeus and part of gena testaceous; antenna of holotype black, except segments 1–2, distal apex of 6 and 7–10 testaceous; antenna of specimens from China, Wugong, and Japan, Haha-jima, testaceous, except segments 3–5 brown; mesosoma black (in specimen from Japan, Haha-jima, margins and posterior collar of pronotum testaceous); metasoma black (brown in specimen from Japan, Haha-jima Island); legs of holotype black, except protarsus and part of clubs of femora and trochanters testaceous; legs of specimen from Japan, Haha-jima, completely testaceous. Antenna clavate; antennal segments in following proportions: 16:7:62:29:22:14:11:10:8:12; rhinaria present in antennal segments 6–10. Head ( Plate 84B View PLATE 84 ) dull, slightly excavated, granulated, sculptured by some irregular longitudinal keels on face and vertex; frontal line of holotype incomplete, only present in posterior half of face; in specimens from Japan, Haha-jima, and China, Hainan, Bangxi, frontal line not present in anterior third of face; occipital carina complete, laterally not reaching eyes; holotype with POL = 3; OL = 2.5; OOL = 10; OPL = 2; TL = 3; in small specimens from Laos, 21°21'N 102°03'E (4.75 mm), and from China, Nanling National Nature Reserve (5.0 mm), OOL = 9, TL = 3. Pronotum shiny, strongly sculptured by longitudinal striae, with disc humped and posterior collar short; pronotal tubercle not reaching tegula. Scutum dull, granulated, with posterior third reticulate rugose. In specimen from China, Mt. Nankunshan, lateral regions of scutum reticulate rugose. In specimen from Japan, Hahajima, median surface of scutum shiny and very slightly granulated. Notauli incomplete, reaching about 0.8 length of scutum. Scutellum dull, granulated. Metanotum dull, reticulate rugose. Propodeum with dorsal surface reticulate rugose; posterior surface reticulate rugose, with two complete longitudinal keels; dorsal surface of propodeum little longer than posterior surface (16:13). Fore wing with two dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein longer than proximal part (23:15). Protarsal segments in following proportions: 35:5:12:33:48. Protarsal segment 3 produced into hook. Enlarged claw not spatulate ( Plate 84D View PLATE 84 ) with one strong subdistal tooth and one row of 16–19 lamellae. Segment 5 of protarsus ( Plate 84D View PLATE 84 ) with two rows of approximately 36 lamellae; distal apex with about 20 lamellae. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

Male. Unknown.

Material examined. Type: holotype ♀: CHINA   : Hainan, Tien Fong Mountains (= Mt. Jianfengling ), 16.V.1983, Z. Bouček leg. ( BMNH)   . Other material. CHINA: Fujian, Shaowu, Jiangshi Conservation Area , 28.V.2004, Changming Liu leg., 1♀ ( SCAU)   ; Fujian, Nanping, Jiangshi Provincial Nature Reserve , 15–28.VII.2004, Wu Shao leg., 1♀ ( SCAU)   ; Guangdong, Mt. Nankunshan , 2.VII.2005, Zaifu Xu leg., 1♀ ( ZJUC)   ; Nanling National Nature Reserve , 16.X.2007, Zaifu Xu leg., 1♀ ( SCAU)   ; Hainan, Baisha, Bangxi , 3.V.2008, Jingxian Liu leg., 1♀ ( SCAU)   ; Shaanxi, Wugong , 26.VI.1963, Junhua He leg., 2♀♀ ( ZJUC)   ; Yunnan, Jinghong, Naban River National Nature Reserve , 19–23.VII.2011, YPT, Nasen Wei et al. leg., 32♀♀ ( SCAU)   . INDONESIA: Sulawesi, Bantimurung , 05°01.041'S 119°40.622'E, 75 m, 31.VII–11.VIII.2005, Malaise trap, 1♀ ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   . JAPAN: Ogasawara Islands (= Bonin Islands), Haha-jima , Funaki-yama , 9.IX.2004, Fukutomi Hirokazu leg., 1♀ ( ELKU) ( Mita, 2009b)   . LAOS: Phongsaly Prov., environs of Ban Sano Mai , 21°21'N 102°03'E, 1150 m, 19–26.V.2004, Vit Kuban leg., 1♀ ( CNC) GoogleMaps   .

Hosts. Unknown.

Distribution. China (Hainan, Fujian, Guangdong, Shaanxi, Yunnan), Indonesia (Sulawesi), Japan (Ogasawara), Laos (Phongsaly).

36. Dryinus spathulatus Xu, Olmi & He, 2008  

( Plate 84E View PLATE 84 )

Dryinus spathulatus Xu, Olmi & He 2008: 9   .

Description of Female. Fully winged; length 5.9 mm. Head black, except mandible, clypeus, gena, anterior margin of face and anterior half of ventral surface ferruginous; face black, except ferruginous stripe along orbits; antenna testaceous, except segments 3–7 darkened; mesosoma black, except sides and posterior margin of pronotum ferruginous; petiole black; metasoma testaceous; legs testaceous-ferruginous. Antenna clavate; rhinaria present on segments 5–10; antennal segments in following proportions: 14:7:52:28:21:17:14:13:11:14. Head dull, flat, with dorsal surface granulated and sculptured by many irregular and longitudinal keels; frontal line complete; occipital carina complete, laterally not reaching eyes; POL = 3; OL = 1.5; OOL = 12; OPL = 1.5; TL = 2; greatest breadth of posterior ocelli longer than OPL (3:1.5). Pronotum dull, granulated, with many longitudinal striae on sides of disc and on posterior transverse furrow; pronotum with disc humped and posterior collar short; pronotal tubercle not reaching tegula. Scutum dull, granulated and reticulate rugose, with anterior margin shiny, smooth and unsculptured. Notauli complete, posteriorly separated. Scutellum and metanotum dull, granulated and rugose. Mesopleuron dull, reticulate rugose. Metapleuron dull, strongly transversely striate. Propodeum dull, completely reticulate rugose, with two longitudinal keels on posterior surface, with dorsal surface less than twice as long as posterior surface (30:25). Fore wing with two large dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein slightly longer than proximal part (17:15). Protarsal segments in following proportions: 29:3:6:19:30. Enlarged claw spatulate ( Plate 84E View PLATE 84 ) with one strong subdistal tooth and one row of 14 lamellae. Segment 5 of protarsus ( Plate 84E View PLATE 84 ) with two rows of about 41 lamellae extending continuously to distal apex. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

Male. Unknown.

Material examined. Type: holotype ♀: CHINA: Guangdong, Conghua City, Liuxihe National Forest Park, 29–31.VIII.2005, Zaifu Xu leg. ( ZJUC)   .

Hosts. Unknown.

Distribution. China (Guangdong).

37. Dryinus stantoni Ashmead, 1904  

( Plate 85A, B, D View PLATE 85 )

Dryinus stantoni Ashmead 1904: 134   ; Olmi 1984: 806; Guglielmino & Olmi 1997: 227; Olmi 1998f: 161; He & Xu 2002: 275;

Guglielmino & Olmi 2006: 50; Xu et al. 2011g (Suppl.): 16; Penati & Olmi 2012: 75. Prodryinus stantoni (Ashmead)   : Kieffer & Marshall 1906: 498; Kieffer 1914b: 53. Paradryinus javanus R. Perkins 1912: 11   (synonymized by Olmi 1984); type locality: Pekalongan (Java, Indonesia). Lestodryinus luzonicus Kieffer 1913a: 189   (synonymized by Olmi 1984); type locality: Mt. Makiling ( Philippines). Lestodryinus stantoni (Ashmead)   : Fouts 1922: 629. Neodryinus stantoni (Ashmead)   : Baltazar 1966: 204. Dryinus szepligettii Kieffer   partim: Ponomarenko   1981b: 879. Dryinus lycormae Yang 1994: 38   (synonymized by Olmi, 1998f); type locality: Beijing ( China); Olmi 1998f: 161. Dryinus gutianshanensis Xu & He 1994c: 266   (synonymized by Olmi 1998f); type locality: Mt. Gutianshan (Zhejiang, China);

Olmi 1998f: 161. Dryinus undatomarginis Xu & He 1998e: 309   ; type locality: Mt. Tianmushan (Zhejiang, China); syn. nov. Dryinus lii Xu & He 1998e: 310   (synonymized by He & Xu 2002); type locality: Hangzhou (Zhejiang, China). Dryinus wuyishanensis He & Xu 2002: 273   ; type locality: Mt. Wuyishan (Fujian, China); syn. nov.

Description of Female. Fully winged; length 3.1–6.3 mm. Head black, except malar space, mandible and clypeus yellow; antenna testaceous, sometimes brownish, rarely with last segment whitish (in specimen from Thailand, 17°28.826'N 101°21.330'E, antenna brown, except segments 1–2 and 7–10 testaceous-whitish); mesosoma black, except lateral margins and posterior collar of pronotum reddish; occasionally posterior collar of pronotum black (in specimen from China, Liuxihe National Forest Park, pronotum brown, except posterior collar and lateral regions testaceous); metasoma brown-reddish; legs testaceous. Antenna clavate; antennal segments in following proportions: 10:5:26:12:9:8:7:7:5.5:9. Head ( Plate 85A View PLATE 85 ) flat, dull, granulated; face with few longitudinal keels; frontal line complete; occipital carina complete; POL = 4; OL = 2; OOL = 9; OPL = 1 (posterior ocelli very close the occipital carina, but not touching it); TL = 4; greatest breadth of posterior ocelli shorter than TL (3:4). Pronotum ( Plate 85B View PLATE 85 ) dull, hairy, granulated, with more or less numerous striae around and on disc; pronotum crossed by two transverse impressions, anterior impression slight and posterior one strong; pronotal tubercle not reaching tegula. Scutum dull, hairy, granulated, occasionally with posterior region reticulate rugose. Notauli usually incomplete, reaching about 0.5–0.7 length of scutum; in specimen from Thailand, 10 Km SW Chiang Mai, notauli complete and posteriorly separated. Scutellum and metanotum as sculptured as scutum. Propodeum rugose, without longitudinal keels on posterior surface. Fore wing with three dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein much longer than proximal part. Protarsal segment 1 slightly longer than segment 4. Enlarged claw ( Plate 85D View PLATE 85 ) with one strong subdistal tooth and one row of 11 lamellae. Segment 5 of protarsus ( Plate 85D View PLATE 85 ) with two rows of about 27 lamellae; distal apex with about 14 lamellae. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

Description of Male. Fully winged; length 6.0– 7.5 mm. Head black, except mandible testaceous; antenna brown, except segment 1–2 testaceous; mesosoma black; metasoma black-brownish; legs yellow-brownish, except coxae brown-dark. Antenna filiform. Head dull, granulated; occipital carina complete; temple absent; POL = 6; OOL= 5.5; TL (visible inclining head) = 2.5; greatest breadth of the posterior ocelli shorter than POL (2.5:6). Scutum dull, granulated and rugose. Notauli complete, posteriorly separated; minimum distance between notauli longer than greatest breadth of posterior ocelli (7:2.5). Propodeum reticulate rugose. Fore wing hyaline, without dark transverse bands. Genitalia in fig. 4 in Yang, 1994. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

Material examined. Type: ♀ holotype of D. stantoni   : PHILIPPINES: Luzon Island, Manila ( USNM); ♀ lectotype of P. javanus   (designated by Olmi, 1982): INDONESIA: Java, Pekalongan, F. Muir, reared from Thanatodictya   nymph ( BPBM); ♀ holotype of L. luzonicus   : PHILIPPINES: Luzon Island, Mt. Makiling ( USNM); ♀ holotype of D. gutianshanensis   : CHINA: Zhejiang, Kaihua County, Mt. Gutianshan, 29°03'N 118°02'E, 450 m, 21.VII.1992, Hong Wu leg. ( ZJUC); ♀ holotype of D. lii   : CHINA: Zhejiang, Hangzhou City, 30°02'N 120°01'E, 5.VI.1992, Xuexin Chen leg. ( ZJUC); ♀ holotype of D. undatomarginis   : CHINA: Zhejiang, Mt. Tianmushan, 30°02'N 119°07'E, 10–12.IX.1983, Xingsheng Wang leg. ( ZJUC); ♀ holotype of D. wuyishanensis   : CHINA: Fujian, Mt. Wuyishan, 15.IX.1989, Jiashe Wang leg. ( ZJUC). Paralectotype of P. javanus   : 1♀, same locality label as lectotype ( BPBM). The type specimens of Dryinus lycormae Yang   (holotype ♀, ♂ allotype, 18♀♀ paratypes and 14♂ paratypes) were originally deposited in CAU. They were not examined, because apparently lost. They were labelled as follows: Beijing, Chi-kun Yang reared from Lycorma delicatula   , 10.V.1975, holotype ♀; 4.V.1975, ♂ allotype; 1973–1980, paratypes. Other material. CAMBODIA: Koh Kong Prov., 20 Km SE Koh Kong, 11°34'N 103°07'E, 50–300 m, V.2005, Jendek & Sausa leg., 1♀ ( OLL). CHINA: Fukien (= Fujian), Shaowu, Mt. Wuyishan, Tachulan, 14.XII.1947, T.C. Maa leg., 1♀ ( TARI); Fujian, Mt. Wuyishan, 22–25.VIII.2007, Jie Zeng leg., 1♀ ( SCAU); Guangdong, Mt. Nankunshan, 8.VI.2002, Zaifu Xu leg., 1♀; 2.VII–3.IX.2005, Zaifu Xu leg., 2♀♀ ( ZJUC); same locality label, 4–6.VI.2011, Zaifu Xu leg., 1♀ ( SCAU); same locality label, 17–18.VIII.2011, Zaifu Xu leg., 1♀ ( SCAU); Guangdong, Shixing County, Chebaling National Nature Reserve, 19.IV.2002, Zaifu Xu leg., 1♀ ( ZJUC); same locality label, 21–31.VIII.2003, Jujian Chen leg., 3♀♀ ( ZJUC); Guangdong, Yunan County, Mt. Tongledashan, 12–13.VIII.2003, Zaifu Xu leg., 1♀ ( ZJUC); Guangdong, Nanling National Nature Reserve, 10.VII.2005, Zaifu Xu leg., 1♀ ( ZJUC); Guangdong, Nanling National Nature Reserve, Protection Station, 16–17.V.2011, YPT, Zaifu Xu leg., 1♀ ( SCAU); Guangdong, Nanling National Nature Reserve, Arboretum, 10–12.IX.2011, YPT, Zaifu Xu leg., 1♀ ( SCAU); Guangdong, Conghua City, Liuxihe National Forest Park, 29–31.VIII.2005, Zaifu Xu leg., 1♀ ( ZJUC); Hainan, Mt. Wuzhishan, 16–18.V.2007, Bin Xiao leg., 1♀ ( SCAU); Henan, Runan County, Sanmenzha, 1983, reared by Jingfang Dong from Lycorma delicatula   , many ♀♀ and ♂ ( ZJUC); Hong Kong, Taipokau ( BPBM); Hubei, Lichuan District, East Ridge, Suisapa, 1200–1500 m ( CAS); Hunan, Shimen, Mt. Hupinghsan, Shimanzigou, 9.VII.2009, Li Ma leg., 1♀; Taiwan, Nantou, Meifeng, 2150 m, 24–26.VI.1981, K.S. Lin & W.S. Tang leg., 1♀ ( TARI); Taiwan, Nantou, Wushe, 1150 m, 21–23.VI.1983, K.S. Lin & S.C. Lin leg., 1♀ ( TARI); same locality label, 25–28.VI.1985, K.S. Lin leg., 2♀♀ ( TARI); Taiwan, Nantou, Tungpu, 1200 m, 20–24.VI.1983 ( TARI); Taiwan, Nantou, Lushan, 1000 m, 27–31.V.1980 ( TARI); Taiwan, Pingtung, Shantimen, 28.III–1.IV.1981 ( TARI); Taiwan, Taichung, Wanfeng Hill, X.1984, K.S. Lin & K.C. Chou leg., 1♀ ( TARI); Taiwan, Taitung, Chengkung, 16–17.IX.1982, K.C. Chou & C.N. Lin leg., 1♀ ( TARI); Taiwan, Taitung, Tawu, 12–14.II.1981, L.Y. Chou & T. Lin leg., 1♀ ( TARI); Taiwan, Taoyuan, Paling, 800 m, 3–5.V.1983, K.C. Chou & C.C. Pan leg., 1♀ ( TARI); Taiwan, Klapan ( BPBM); Taiwan, Arisan, 10.X.1912, I. Nitobe leg., 3♀♀ ( TARI); Zhejiang, Mt. Tianmushan, 21–25.VII.2011, Huayan Chen & Chengyuan Jin leg., 5♀♀ ( SCAU); Zhejiang, Taishun County, Wuyanling Provincial Nature Reserve, 7.VII–5.VIII.2005, Jingxian Liu and Jie Zeng leg., 1♀ ( ZJUC). INDIA: Karnataka, Udupi District, Bhatkal, 27.V.2006, Z. Kejval leg., 1♀ ( OLL); Rajasthan, 15 Km N Udaipur, 24°45'N 73°43'E, 700 m, VII.2006, Z. Kejval leg., 1♀ ( OLL); Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore ( BMNH); Tamil Nadu, 3 Km E Manjaler Dam, 15–18.X.1979, J.S. Noyes leg., 1♀ ( BMNH); Uttar Pradesh, Dehra Dun, 19.X.1979, Z. Bouček leg., 1♀ ( BMNH). INDONESIA: Borneo, Sidas, 8.VI.1960 ( OLL); Maluku Islands, Halmahera Island, Jailolo District, Kampung Pasir Putih, 00°53'N 127°41'E ( USNM); Maluku Islands, Halmahera (=Halmaheira) Island, 1♀ ( MCSNG); Sulawesi, Bantimurung, 05°01.041'S 119°40.622'E, 75 m, 30.VII–11.VIII.2005, Malaise trap, 1♀ ( MNHN). LAOS: Vientiane Prov., Ban Van Eue ( BPBM); Vientiane Prov., Gi Sion village, De Tha Ngone ( BPBM); Vientiane Prov., Ban Van Heue, Phou-kow-kuei ( BPBM); Xaignabouli (=Sayaboury) Prov., Sayaboury ( BPBM). MALAYSIA: Malaya, Pahang District, King George V National Park, Kuala Tahang ( BPBM); Malaya, Negeri Sembilan, Pasoh Forest Reserve ( AEIC); Malaya, Negeri Sambilan, Port Dickson, IX.1944, 1♀ ( BMNH); Malaya, Selangor, Ulu Gombak Field Studies Centre of the University of Malaya ( DETAM); Malaya, Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, University of Malaya, Rimba Ilma, 100 m, 14.VI.1990, forest trail, J. Heraty leg., 1♀ ( DEUCR); Malaya, Jahar, 15 Km NE Labis, near Pekan Aver Panas, 25–27.IV.1997 ( OLL); Malaya, Pahang, Tanah Rata, Gunung Jasar, Cameron Highlands, 19–25.VI.1995 ( OLL); Sabah, Sipitang, Mendolong ( ZIL); Sabah, Kalabakan, Forest Camp ( BPBM); Sabah, Sandakan ( AMNH); Sabah, Singkor ( BPBM); Sarawak, Ngungun, Ngemah ( PMA); Sarawak, Gunung Mulu, II.1978, subcanopy, D. Halloway leg., 1♀ ( BMNH); same locality label, 17.IX–23.X.1977, D. Hollis leg., 1♀ ( BMNH); same locality label, 1♀ ( AMNH). NEPAL: near Birganj, Lothar, 450', 1–12.IX.1967 ( CNC). PHILIPPINES: Basilan Island ( USNM); Biliran Island ( USNM); Luzon Island, Manila, 1♀ ( MCZ); Luzon Island, La Trinidad ( BPBM); Luzon Island, Mt. Polis ( MNCNM); Luzon Island, Imugan, Nueva Vizcaya   (BPBM); Luzon Island, Mt. Makiling, 1♀ ( NHMLA); Luzon Island, Laguna Prov., Los Baños ( NHMLA, AMNH); Luzon Island, Laguna Prov., 4 Km E Los Baños, 14°10'N 121°15'E ( GCC); Luzon Island, Rizal Mts., Montalban, Wa–wa Dam ( BPBM); Luzon Island, Mt. Banahao ( NHMLA); Mindanao Island, Zamboanga ( BPBM, USNM); Mindanao Island, Butuan ( USNM); Mindanao Island, Dapitan ( USNM); Palawan Island, Mantalingajan, Pinigisan ( ZMK); Palawan Island, Mantalingajan, Tagembung ( ZMK). SINGAPORE ( USNM). SRI LANKA: Central Prov., Kandy District, Anniewatte, 07°18'N 80°38'E, 1–8.V.1997, K.V. Krombein, B.B. Norden, A.W. Norden & J.W. Norden leg., 2♀♀ ( USNM); Central Prov., Kandy District, Kandy ( BMNH); Central Prov., Matale District, Sigiriya, 07°57'N 80°46'E, 21.III.1999, C.J. Burwell leg. ( QMC); Central Prov., Kandy District, IX.1909, O.S.W. leg., 1♀ ( BMNH); Eastern Prov., Ampara District, Lahugala, 15.VI.1976, K. Krombein leg., 1♀ ( USNM); Sabaragamuwa Prov., Rathnapura District, Gilimale Induruwa Jungle, 8.III.1979, Karunaratne leg., 1♀ ( USNM); Southern Prov., Galle District, Kanneliya Jungle ( USNM). THAILAND: Chantaburi Prov., Soi Dao, Forest Insect  Centre, 13°0'8.6''N 102°17'6.6''E, 197 m, I–II.2005, 1♀ ( DEUK); Chiang Mai Prov., Chiangdao ( BPBM, AMNH); Chiang Mai Prov., 10 Km SW Chiang Mai, Doi Inthanon National Park, 1915 m ( PMA); Chiang Mai Prov., Maerim, 1–3.III.1996, 19–20.II.1997, 5–6.IV.1997, 17.I.2000, 22–26.I.2000, 8–10.II.2003, R.A. Beaver leg. ( NHMLA, AMNH, RABC); Loei Prov., Phu Ruea National Park, office, 17°28.826'N 101°21.330'E, 860 m, Pan traps, 9–10.VII.2006, Patikhom Tamtip leg., 1♀ ( QSBG); Mae Hong Son Prov., Soppong, 19°27'N 98°20'E, 1500 m, 7–12.V.1996 ( OLL); Nakhon Nayok Prov., Ban Na (=Banna) ( BPBM). VIET NAM: Dak Lak Prov., M'Drak ( BPBM); Gia Lai Prov., Pleiku ( BPBM). Palaearctic: CHINA: Beijing ( Yang, 1994).

Hosts. Dictyopharidae   and Fulgoridae   ( Guglielmino & Olmi, 1997, 2006): in Indonesia (Java): Thanatodictya sp.   ( Dictyopharidae   ) (R. Perkins, 1912: as P. javanus   ); in China (Beijing, Henan): Lycorma delicatula (White)   ( Fulgoridae   ) ( Yang, 1994: as D. lycormae   ).

Natural enemies. In Java ( Indonesia) this species may be parasitized by Cheiloneurus javanus R. Perkins, 1912   ( Encyrtidae   ) (R. Perkins, 1912).

Distribution. China (Zhejiang, Fujian, Beijing, Guangdong, Hainan, Hong Kong, Hunan, Taiwan), Philippines (Luzon, Basilan, Biliran, Mindanao, Palawan), Indonesia (Java, Borneo, Maluku, Sulawesi), Cambodia (Koh Kong), India (Karnataka, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh), Laos (Vientiane, Sayaboury), Malaysia (Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak), Nepal (Lothar), Sri Lanka (Kandy, Matale, Ampara, Rathnapura, Galle), Thailand (Chantaburi, Chiang Mai, Loei, Mae Hong Son, Nakhon Nayok), Viet Nam (Dak Lak, Gia Lai).

Remarks. Dryinus undatomarginis Xu & He   and D. wuyishanensis He & Xu   were synonymized with D. stantoni   following the study of the types of both species and comparison with the type and other female specimens of D. stantoni   . No significative differences were observed.

38. Dryinus trifasciatus Kieffer, 1906  

( Plate 85C, E View PLATE 85 )

Dryinus trifasciatus Kieffer 1906b: 335   ; Olmi 1984: 807; Xu et al. 2011g (Suppl.): 17.

Description of Female. Fully winged; length 2.8–4.4 mm. Head black, except mandible and clypeus reddish; occasionally part of gena testaceous; antenna testaceous; mesosoma black, except lateral margins and posterior collar of pronotum reddish; metasoma brown; legs testaceous, occasionally with club of profemur and metacoxa partly or totally brown. Antenna clavate; antennal segments of specimen from China, Huangmaojian, in following proportions: 7:5:18:6:6:5.5:5:4.5:4.5:7. Head ( Plate 85C View PLATE 85 ) flat, shiny, smooth, weakly granulated; sides of face converging; frontal line complete; occipital carina complete; posterior ocelli touching or almost touching occipital carina; POL = 2; OL = 2; OOL = 6; OPL = 0.5 or 0; TL = 4; greatest breadth of posterior ocelli about as long as POL. Pronotum shiny, smooth, crossed by posterior transverse impression, with anterior collar smooth, unsculptured; disc weakly granulated or almost unsculptured; pronotal tubercle not reaching tegula. Scutum dull, granulated, occasionally more or less reticulate rugose near lateral and posterior margins; occasionally with lateral regions and posterior third completely reticulate rugose. Notauli more or less distinct, incomplete, reaching about 0.5–0.8 length of scutum. Scutellum and metanotum as sculptured as scutum. Propodeum reticulate rugose, with dorsal surface about as long as posterior surface, without longitudinal keels on posterior surface. Fore wing with three dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein longer than proximal part. Protarsal segment 1 slightly longer than segment 4. Enlarged claw not spatulate ( Plate 85E View PLATE 85 ), with one strong subdistal tooth and one row of about six–seven lamellae. Segment 5 of protarsus ( Plate 85E View PLATE 85 ) with two rows of about 37 lamellae extending continuously to distal apex. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

Male. Unknown.

Material examined. Types: ♀ lectotype (designated by Móczár, 1965): INDIA: Maharashtra, Matheran, 800 m, Biró leg. ( NMNH)   . Paralectotype: same locality label as lectotype   , 1♀ ( NMNH). Other material. CHINA: Hainan, Mt. Yinggeling , 16.XI.2008, Jiangli Tan leg.   , 1♀ ( SCAU); Yunnan, Gejiu, Manhao, Lushuihe , 23.VII.2003, Zaifu Xu leg.   , 1♀ ( ZJUC); Taiwan, Nantou, Lienhuachih , 650 m, IX.1984, K.S. Lin & K.C. Chou leg.   , 1♀ ( TARI); Taiwan, Nantou, Tungpu , 1200 m, XI.1985, K.S. Lin leg.   , 1♀ ( TARI); Taiwan, Pingtung, Kenting Park , 22.III.1980, K.S. Lin leg.   , 1♀ ( TARI); S. Taiwan, Hangchung , 25.I.1958, T. Maa leg.   , 1♀ ( TARI); Zhejiang, Mt. Fengyangshan, Huangmaojian , 2.VIII.2008, Jingxian Liu leg.   , 1♀ ( SCAU). INDIA: Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri Hills, Cheramgode ( AEIC). LAOS: Salavan (=Wapikhamthong) Prov. : Vapy (=Wapi) ( AMNH); MALAYSIA: Sabah, Kalabakan , Forest Camp ( BPBM). NEPAL: Mugling , 900 – 1500', I–II.1982, L. Jessop leg.   , 2♀♀ ( BMNH); Central Nepal, Kakani, 2070 m, 1–23.VIII.1983 ( CNC). PHILIPPINES: Palawan Island , Mantalingajan , Pinigisan ( ZMK). SRI LANKA: Mount Lavinia , 06°50'N 79°52'E, 14.III.1999, C.J. Burwell leg. ( QMC) GoogleMaps   . THAILAND: Chiang Mai Prov., Maerim , 9–12.IV.1999, 1–2.III.2000, R.A. Beaver leg. ( RABC, AMNH)   ; Mae Hong Son Prov., Soppong , 19°27'N 98°20'E, 1500 m, 7–12.V.1996 ( OLL) GoogleMaps   .

Hosts. Unknown.

Distribution. China (Hainan, Yunnan, Taiwan, Zhejiang), India (Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu), Laos (Salavan), Malaysia (Sabah), Nepal (Mugling, Kakani), Philippines (Palawan), Sri Lanka (Mount Lavinia), Thailand (Chiang Mai, Mae Hong Son).

Group 2

One species is known in the Oriental region.

1. Dryinus anotaulicus Xu, Olmi, Guglielmino & Chen, 2011  

( Plate 85F View PLATE 85 )

Dryinus anotaulicus Xu, Olmi, Guglielmino & Chen 2011f: 849   .

Description of Female. Fully winged; length 3.4 mm. Head black, except mandible, clypeus and gena testaceous; antenna testaceous; mesosoma black, except lateral margins and posterior collar of pronotum testaceous; metasoma brown; legs testaceous, except metacoxa basally black and club of metafemur partly brown. Antenna clavate; antennal segments in following proportions: 8:6:22:8:7:7:6:6:5:8. Head almost flat, dull, granulated, without longitudinal keels or striae on face, except complete frontal line; occipital carina complete, laterally not reaching eyes; temple distinct; posterior ocelli almost touching occipital carina; POL = 3; OL = 4; OOL = 8; OPL = 0.5; TL = 5; greatest breadth of posterior ocelli shorter than TL (2:5). Pronotum shiny, crossed by one only strong posterior transverse furrow (anterior transverse impression absent); anterior collar and lateral regions unsculptured; disc weakly humped, granulated; posterior collar short, sculptured by longitudinal striae; pronotal tubercle not reaching tegula. Scutum, scutellum and metanotum granulated, not rugose. Notauli absent. Propodeum reticulate–rugose, without longitudinal and transverse keels; dorsal surface longer than posterior surface (22:16). Fore wing with three dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein longer than proximal part (17:7). Hindwing hyaline. Protarsal segments in following proportions: 17:3:6:16:25. Enlarged claw not spatulate ( Plate 85F View PLATE 85 ), with one large subapical tooth and one row of six lamellae + one bristle. Segment 5 of protarsus ( Plate 85F View PLATE 85 ) with two rows of 17 lamellae; distal apex with at least 20 lamellae. Tibial spurs 1/1/1.

Male. Unknown.

Material examined. Type: holotype ♀: CHINA: Hainan, Baisha, Jiujialing , 17–20.VII.2010, Huayan Chen leg. ( SCAU)   .

Hosts. Unknown.

Distribution. China (Hainan).

Group 3

Six species are known in the Oriental region.

Key to the females

1. Notauli present and incomplete.......................................................................... 2

- Notauli absent........................................................................................ 3

2. Occipital carina complete; segment 5 of protarsus with three–four rows of lamellae extending without interruption to distal apex ( Plate 86B View PLATE 86 ); enlarged claw with only one medial lamella, ( Plate 86B View PLATE 86 )......................... D. asiaticus (Olmi)  

- Occipital carina incomplete; segment 5 of protarsus with two rows of lamellae, interrupted near distal apex ( Plate 86E View PLATE 86 ); enlarged claw with many medial lamellae ( Plate 86E View PLATE 86 )........................................ D. gibbosoides Olmi  

3. Fore wing hyaline, without dark transverse bands............................................. D. orientalis (Olmi)  

- Fore wing with one–two dark transverse bands.............................................................. 4

4. Head weakly reticulate rugose, with areolae small; scutellum granulated, with weak areolae near lateral margins................................................................................................ D. peterseni (Olmi)  

- Head strongly reticulate rugose, with areolae wide; occasionally only face reticulate rugose, then vertex with strong longitudinal keels; scutellum completely strongly reticulate rugose..................................................... 5

5. Posterior ocelli touching occipital carina; enlarged claw without lamellae ( Plate 88A View PLATE 88 )..................... D. viet (Olmi)  

- Posterior ocelli not touching occipital carina; enlarged claw with distal lamellae ( Plate 86C View PLATE 86 )........... D. barbarus (Olmi)  

Remarks. Fossil species of Dryinus   group 3 were described by Olmi & Guglielmino (2011).

1. Dryinus asiaticus ( Olmi, 1984)   , comb. nov.

( Plate 86B View PLATE 86 )

Alphadryinus asiaticus Olmi 1984: 982   .

Description of Female. Fully winged; length 3.7–5.6 mm. Head black, except mandible and clypeus yellow; paratype with malar space reddish; antenna brown, except segments 1–2 yellow; mesosoma black, except lateral margins, anterior margin and posterior collar of pronotum reddish; metasoma brown; legs testaceous, except coxae and clubs of femora brown; paratype with tibiae brown. Antenna clavate, shorter than body; antennal segment 3 longer than segment 4. Head dull, granulated, with one–four longitudinal keels on sides of ocellar triangle, directed from occipital carina to clypeus; paratype also with short irregular keels on face; occipital carina complete. Pronotum shiny, weakly granulated, with numerous longitudinal keels around disc; pronotum crossed by two transverse impressions, anterior impression weak and posterior one strong; disc humped; anterior collar hardly distinct; posterior collar clearly distinct. Scutum dull, granulated, with lateral regions reticulate rugose. Notauli incomplete, extending to beyond 0.5 length of scutum. Scutellum and metanotum granulated. Propodeum reticulate rugose, with 2 longitudinal keels on the posterior surface. Fore wing with three dark transverse bands (two basal bands joined); distal part of stigmal vein much longer than proximal part. Protarsal segment 1 slightly longer than segment 4. Enlarged claw ( Plate 86B View PLATE 86 ) much longer than arolium, without subapical tooth, with one proximal big peg-like hair, without lamellae. Segment 5 of protarsus ( Plate 86B View PLATE 86 ) with inner margin straight, without a distal prominence, with three–four rows of at least 45 lamellae extending continuously to distal apex. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

Male. Unknown.

Material examined. Types: holotype ♀: MALAYSIA: Sabah, Tawau, Kalabakan ( BPBM)   . Paratype: VIET NAM: Lâm Dông Prov., Mt. Lang Bian , 1♀ ( AMNH)   .

Hosts. Unknown.

Distribution. Malaysia (Sabah), Viet Nam (Lâm Dông).

2. Dryinus barbarus ( Olmi, 1984)   , comb. nov.

( Plate 86A, C View PLATE 86 )

Mesodryinus barbarus Olmi 1984: 1018   .

Description of Female. Fully winged; length 4.6–8.7 mm. Head black, except mandible brown and partly testaceous; occasionally anterior margin of clypeus testaceous; antenna brown, except segments 1–2 and occasionally also part of 3 testaceous (in specimen from China, Mt. Wuyishan, antenna testaceous, except segments 6–10 slightly darkened); mesosoma and metasoma black, except margins of pronotum testaceous; legs testaceous, occasionally with metacoxa, meso- and metaclub of femur, meso- and metatibia partly brown. Antenna filiform; antennal segments in following proportions: 18:6:55:30:22:14:12:10:10:12. Head shiny, strongly reticulate rugose mainly on face; vertex with numerous strong longitudinal keels; frontal line complete; occipital carina complete; posterior ocelli not touching occipital carina; POL = 4; OL = 4; OOL = 11; in small specimen (4.60 mm) from China, Mt. Wuyishan, POL = 2; OL = 4; OOL = 11. Pronotum ( Plate 86A View PLATE 86 ) shiny, smooth, weakly granulated or unsculptured, with some areolae near posterior margin; disc humped; pronotal tubercle not reaching tegula. Scutum reticulate rugose, with surface near anterior margin smooth and unsculptured. Notauli absent. Scutellum and metanotum completely reticulate rugose. Propodeum reticulate rugose; posterior surface with two longitudinal keels. Fore wing with one dark transverse band; distal part of stigmal vein about as long as proximal part. Protarsal segments in following proportions: 18:3:6:13:26. Enlarged claw spatulate ( Plate 86C View PLATE 86 ), without subapical tooth, with some bristles and three–four distal lamellae. Segment 5 of protarsus ( Plate 86C View PLATE 86 ) with inner margin straight, without distal prominence, with two rows of about 32–38 lamellae extending continuously to distal apex. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

Male. Unknown.

Material examined. Types: holotype ♀: LAOS: Salavan (= Wapikhamthong ) Prov., Wapi (= Vapy) ( BPBM)   . Paratypes: LAOS: Vientiane Prov., Ban Van Eue, 2♀♀ ( BPBM, AMNH)   . Other material. CHINA: Fujian, Mt. Wuyishan , 14.XII.1989, Junhua He leg., 1♀ ( ZJUC)   .

Hosts. Unknown.

Distribution. China (Fujian), Laos (Salavan, Vientiane).

3. Dryinus gibbosoides Olmi, 1984  

( Plate 86E View PLATE 86 )

nec Tridryinus gibbosus Olmi 1984: 969   .

Alphadryinus gibbosus Olmi 1984: 985   , preoccupied.

Dryinus gibbosoides Olmi 1993b: 63   , new name.

Description of Female. Fully winged; length 4.0–5.0 mm. Head black, except mandible, clypeus and anterior region of face (more along orbits) reddish; antenna reddish; mesosoma black, except lateral margins, anterior margin and posterior collar of pronotum reddish; metasoma brown-reddish; legs testaceous, except clubs of femora and metacoxa brown. Antenna clavate. Head swollen, shiny, weakly punctate; occipital carina incomplete; posterior ocelli not touching occipital carina; POL = OPL. Pronotum shiny, smooth, unsculptured; pronotum crossed by two transverse impressions, anterior impression slight and posterior one strong; pronotal tubercle not reaching tegula. Scutum, scutellum and metanotum shiny, smooth, unsculptured. Notauli incomplete, reaching about 0.5 length of scutum, composed of series of punctures. Propodeum reticulate rugose. Fore wing hyaline, without dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein much longer than proximal part. Protarsal segment 1 slightly longer than segment 4. Enlarged claw spatulate ( Plate 86E View PLATE 86 ), without subapical tooth, with one row of eight lamellae. Segment 5 of protarsus ( Plate 86E View PLATE 86 ) with distal prominence and two rows of 13 lamellae; distal apex with about 17 lamellae. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

Male. Unknown.

Material examined. Type: holotype ♀: PHILIPPINES: Luzon Island, Los Baños ( AMNH)   . Other material. PHILIPPINES: Luzon Island , Manila ( BCUCB)   .

Hosts. Unknown.

Distribution. Philippines (Luzon).

4. Dryinus orientalis ( Olmi, 1984)  

( Plates 86D View PLATE 86 , 87A View PLATE 87 )

Mesodryinus orientalis Olmi 1984: 1012  

Dryinus orientalis (Olmi)   : He & Xu 2002: 253: Mita & Okajima, 2012: 154.

Description of Female. Fully winged; length 5.6–6.2 mm. Head black, except mandible and part of clypeus testaceous; antenna brown, except segments 1–2 testaceous; mesosoma and metasoma black; legs testaceous, except metacoxa proximally black. Antenna clavate; antennal segments in following proportions: 14:9:39:19:15:11:9:8.5:8:10. Head shiny, strongly reticulate rugose, with areolae wide; frontal line complete; occipital carina complete; occiput smooth, shiny, unsculptured; posterior ocelli touching the occipital carina; temple absent; POL = 7; OL = 4; OOL = 10. Pronotum ( Plate 86D View PLATE 86 ) almost flat, shiny, smooth, with weak transverse keels around disc; pronotal tubercle not reaching tegula. Scutum reticulate rugose, except median region completely or partly granulated. Notauli absent. Scutellum reticulate rugose, except median region granulated. Metanotum reticulate rugose. Propodeum reticulate rugose; posterior surface with two longitudinal keels and transversely striate. Fore wing hyaline, without dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein much longer than proximal part (18:13). Protarsal segments in following proportions: 11:2:4.5:11:19. Segment 3 of protarsus produced into hook. Enlarged claw spatulate ( Plate 87A View PLATE 87 ), without one single subapical tooth, with six small distal teeth and three–four distal lamellae. Segment 5 of protarsus ( Plate 87A View PLATE 87 ) with inner margin straight, without distal prominence, with two rows of about 38 lamellae extending continuously to distal apex. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

Male. Unknown.

Material examined. Type: holotype ♀: CHINA: Guangdong, Le-chang (= Loh-chang) District ( BPBM)   . Other material. CHINA: Taiwan, Pingtung, Ouluanpi , 24.III.1982, T. Lin & S.C. Lin leg., 2♀♀ ( TARI, AMNH)   ; LAOS: Khammouan, 4 Km E Thakhek , 17°26'N 104°52'E, 169 m, M. Watanabe & J. Kantoh leg., 1♀ ( ELTU) GoogleMaps   (Mita & Okajima, 2012).

Hosts. Unknown.

Distribution. China ( Taiwan, Guangdong), Laos (Khammouan).

5. Dryinus peterseni ( Olmi, 1984)  

( Plate 87B, C View PLATE 87 )

Mesodryinus peterseni Olmi 1984: 1015   .

Dryinus peterseni (Olmi)   : He & Xu 2002: 255. Description of Female. Fully winged; length 3.4–4.4 mm. Head black, except mandible yellow or brown; antenna brown, except segments 1–2 and occasionally also partly 3 yellow; mesosoma black; metasoma brown; legs testaceous, except coxae and clubs of femora brown. Antenna clavate. Head dull, granulated, with numerous weak striae on face; occipital carina incomplete, only present behind ocellar triangle; posterior ocelli touching occipital carina. Pronotum ( Plate 87B View PLATE 87 ) dull, granulated, with numerous weak keels around disc; disc humped; posterior collar very short; anterior collar distinct; pronotal tubercle not reaching tegula. Scutum shiny, reticulate rugose, except anterior half of median region granulated. Notauli absent; two keels on place of notauli (incomplete in type series, complete and long in specimens from China, Taiwan, Wanfeng Hill). Scutellum dull, granulated. Metanotum reticulate rugose. Propodeum with dorsal surface reticulate rugose; posterior surface transversely striate and with two longitudinal keels; median area of posterior surface shiny. Fore wing with two dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein much longer than proximal part (15:8). Protarsal segment 1 slightly longer than segment 4 (12:10). Enlarged claw spatulate ( Plate 87C View PLATE 87 ), without one single subapical tooth, with 12 small distal teeth and nine distal lamellae. Segment 5 of protarsus ( Plate 87C View PLATE 87 ) with inner margin straight, without distal prominence, with two rows of about 24 lamellae extending continuously to distal apex. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

Male. Unknown.

Material examined. Types: holotype ♀: PHILIPPINES: Sulu Archipelago, Tawi Tawi Prov., Tarawakan , N of Batu Batu ( ZMK)   . Paratype: CHINA   : Hong Kong, Taipokau , 1♀ ( BPBM)   . Other material. CHINA: Taiwan, Taichung, Wanfeng Hill , VIII.1984, IX.1984, K.S. Lin & K.C. Chou leg., 2♀♀ ( TARI, AMNH)   .

Hosts. Unknown.

Distribution. China ( Hong Kong, Taiwan), Philippines (Sulu Archipelago).

6. Dryinus viet ( Olmi, 1984)  

( Plate 88A View PLATE 88 )

Mesodryinus viet Olmi 1984: 1016   .

Dryinus viet (Olmi)   : Xu et al. 2011g (Suppl.): 17.

Description of Female. Fully winged; length 4.7–6.0 mm. Head black, except mandible testaceous; antenna brown, except segments 1–3 and 10 testaceous; mesosoma and metasoma black; legs testaceous, except coxae, clubs of femora and tibiae partly brown. Antenna weakly clavate; antennal segments in following proportions: 13:7:25:12:11:9:8:7:7:9. Head shiny, completely reticulate rugose; face without two lateral longitudinal keels around orbits and directed towards antennal toruli; frontal line complete; occipital carina complete; posterior ocelli touching occipital carina; temple absent; POL = 4; OL = 3; OOL = 10. In specimen from Thailand, 17°30'N 101°21'E, vertex sculptured by many irregular longitudinal keels. Pronotum dull, granulated, with numerous weak irregular keels or areolae on sides of disc; pronotum crossed by strong transverse impression; posterior surface humped; pronotal tubercle not reaching tegula. Scutum reticulate rugose, with surface near anterior margin smooth and unsculptured. Notauli absent. Scutellum and metanotum completely reticulate rugose. Propodeum reticulate rugose; posterior surface with two longitudinal keels. Fore wing with one dark transverse band; distal part of stigmal vein longer than proximal part (17:11). Protarsal segments in following proportions: 15:3:6:9:19. Segment 3 of protarsus produced into hook. Enlarged claw spatulate ( Plate 88A View PLATE 88 ), without one single subapical tooth, with three small distal teeth and seven–eight distal bristles. Segment 5 of protarsus ( Plate 88A View PLATE 88 ) with inner margin straight, without distal prominence, with some rows of about 42 lamellae extending continuously to distal apex. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

Male. Unknown.

Material examined. Type: holotype ♀: VIET NAM: Khánh Hòa Prov., N of Nha Trang, Dai Lãnh ( BPBM)   . Other material. CHINA: Hainan, Tien Fong Mts. (= Mt. Jianfengling ), 15.V.1983, Z. Bouček leg.   , 1♀ ( BMNH). THAILAND: Loei Prov., Phu Rua National Park , 17°30'N 101°21'E, 1100 m, 9.IV.1999, M. Riha leg. GoogleMaps   , 1♀ ( OLL)   .

Hosts. Unknown.

Distribution. China (Hainan), Viet Nam (Khánh Hòa), Thailand (Loei).

Species incertae sedis

Two species are known on the basis of male specimens.

1. Dryinus maculipennis He & Xu, 2002  

( Plate 88E, F View PLATE 88 )

Dryinus maculipennis He & Xu 2002: 282   .

Description of Male. Fully winged; length 4.3 mm. Head black, except mandible testaceous; antenna testaceous; mesosoma and metasoma black; legs yellow. Antenna filiform; antennal segments in following proportions: 3.5:2.5:10.3:7.0:6.3:6.0:6.0:5.3:4.3:6.0. Head dull, granulated and irregularly rugose; occipital carina complete, laterally not reaching eyes; frontal line very slender, complete; POL = 4; OL = 1.5; OOL= 5; OPL = 0.5; TL = 1.5; greatest breadth of posterior ocelli longer than OPL (4:0.5). Scutum dull, as sculptured as head. Notauli complete, posteriorly separated; minimum distance between notauli longer than POL (6:4). Scutellum shiny, with anterior third granulated and rest of surface unsculptured. Metanotum unsculptured, with anterior third reticulate rugose. Propodeum reticulate rugose, without transverse or longitudinal keels. Fore wing hyaline, with distal half darkened ( Plate 88E View PLATE 88 ); distal part of stigmal vein longer than proximal part (15:13); marginal cell open. Genitalia in plate 88F. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

Female. Unknown.

Material examined. Type: holotype ♂: CHINA: Fujian, Mt. Meihuashan , 22.VII.1988, Junhua He leg. ( ZJUC)   .

Hosts. Unknown.

Distribution. China (Fujian).

2. Dryinus olmii Xu & He, 1994  

( Plate 88G View PLATE 88 )

Dryinus olmii Xu & He 1994b: 132   ; He & Xu 2002: 283.

Description of Male. Fully winged; length 2.3 mm. Head black, except mandible testaceous; antenna brown; mesosoma black; metasoma brown; foreleg and midleg testaceous, except coxae brown; hindleg testaceous, except coxa black-brown, trochanter yellow and tibia brown. Antenna filiform; antennal segments in following proportiosn: 2.2:2:4.2:3:3:3:3:2.5:2.5:3.2; antennal segment 3 about four times as long as broad (4.2:1). Head dull, granulated, with four short lines on each side of anterior ocellus; clypeus with one short median longitudinal keel; frontal line complete; occipital carina incomplete, absent behind eyes; POL = 2.5; OL = 1; OOL = 2; OPL = 0.2; greatest breadth of anterior ocellus as long as OL. Scutum dull, granulated. Metanotum dull, granulated. Notauli complete, posteriorly separated (0.6 length of scutum in original description). Scutellum shiny, weakly granulated. Metanotum shiny, smooth, unsculptured. Propodeum dull, reticulate rugose, without longitudinal and transverse keels. Fore wing hyaline, without dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein longer than proximal part (5:3). Genitalia in plate 88G.

Female. Unknown.

Material examined. Type: holotype ♂: CHINA: Zhejiang, Kaihua, Mt. Gutianshan , 20.VII.1992, Hong Wu leg. ( ZJUC)   .

Hosts. Unknown.

Distribution. China (Zhejiang).

12. Genus Pseudodryinus Olmi, 1991  

Pseudodryinus Olmi 1991: 365   ; Olmi 1993b: 62; He & Xu 2002: 285; Mita 2009b: 52 View Cited Treatment ; Kim et al., 2011: 167.

Type species. Pseudodryinus townesi ( Olmi, 1984)   , by original designation.

Diagnosis. Female ( Plate 89A, B View PLATE 89 ): fully winged ( Plate 89A, B View PLATE 89 ); palpal formula 3/2, 4/2, 4/3, 5/2, or 5/3; antenna with many long hairs on segments 6–10 ( Plate 89A, B View PLATE 89 ); fore wing with three cells enclosed by pigmented veins (costal, median and submedian) ( Plate 89A, B View PLATE 89 ); protarsus chelate ( Plate 89A, B View PLATE 89 ); chela with rudimentary claw ( Plate 90D View PLATE 90 ); segment 5 of protarsus less than twice as broad as enlarged claw ( Plate 90D View PLATE 90 ); enlarged claw with one subapical tooth ( Plate 90D View PLATE 90 )); tibial spurs 1/1/2. Male ( Plate 91A, B View PLATE 91 ): fully winged ( Plate 91A, B View PLATE 91 ); palpal formula 6/3; occipital carina complete; mandible with four irregular teeth ( Plate 90A, E View PLATE 90 ); notauli joint or separated at posterior margin of scutum; if separated, minimum distance between notauli much shorter than greatest breadth of posterior ocelli; fore wing with three cells enclosed by pigmented veins (costal, median and submedian) ( Plate 91A, B View PLATE 91 ); fore wing with metacarpus as long as, or longer than pterostigma ( Plate 91A, B View PLATE 91 ); tibial spurs 1/1/2.

Distribution. Palaearctic, Afrotropical, Oriental and Australian regions.

Hosts. Unknown.

World species. Ten species are known, four in the Oriental region.

Key to the species

Females (unknown those of P. thai   and P. piceus   )

1. Head testaceous, except ocellar region darkened................................................. P. sinensis Olmi  

- Head black, except mandible, clypeus, gena, ventral side and anterior region of face testaceous........... P. beckeri Olmi  

Males (unknown that of P. beckeri   )

1. Notauli complete, posteriorly joint........................................................................ 2

- Notauli complete, posteriorly separated.................................................................... 3

2. Scutum strongly punctate, granulated among punctures........................................... P. sinensis Olmi  

- Scutum strongly punctate, unsculptured among punctures............................................ P.thai Olmi  

3. Scutum granulated and punctate............................................................. P. sinensis Olmi  

- Scutum punctate, not granulated, with anterior half very strongly punctate............................. P. piceus Olmi  

1. Pseudodryinus beckeri Olmi, 1991  

( Plate 90A, B, C, D View PLATE 90 )

Pseudodryinus beckeri Olmi 1991: 369   .

Description of Female. Fully winged; length 4.5–5.0 mm. Head black, except mandible, clypeus, gena, ventral side and anterior region of face (more along orbits) testaceous; antenna brown, except segments 1–2 testaceous; propleuron black-brown; pronotum black-brown, except posterior margin, pronotal tubercle and medial area of disc testaceous; scutum black, except lateral areas brown-reddish; rest of mesosoma black, with reddish nuances on mesopleuron and occasionally also on ventral side (in specimen from Brunei, 04°34'N 115°07'E, scutellum browntestaceous); metasoma testaceous, except dorsal region brown; legs testaceous. Antenna filiform, very slender; antennal segments in following proportions: 9:5:56:47:25:14:9:8:8:10; rhinaria present in antennal segments 5–10; antennal segments 6–10 with distal part slender and proximal part broader. Head flat, shiny, unsculptured; occiput excavated; frontal line complete; occipital carina complete; POL = 4; OL = 2.5; OOL = 7; OPL = 1; TL = 5; mandible ( Plate 90A View PLATE 90 ) with 4 teeth progressing larger from anterior one to posterior. Palpal formula 4/3 ( Plate 90B, C View PLATE 90 ). Pronotum excavated, shiny, smooth, unsculptured, crossed by strong transverse furrow; pronotal tubercle reaching tegula. Scutum, scutellum and metanotum shiny, smooth, finely punctate, unsculptured among punctures. Notauli complete, posteriorly separated; minimum distance between notauli shorter than greatest breadth of posterior ocelli. Propodeum with strong transverse keel between dorsal and posterior surface; dorsal surface sculptured by two longitudinal median keels (region between above two keels sculptured by transverse keels) and with lateral areas rugose, sculptured by irregular keels; posterior surface with two longitudinal keels and median and lateral areas reticulate rugose. Fore wing hyaline, without dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein much longer than proximal part (36:8). Protarsal segments in following proportions: 18:3.5:8:35:46. Segments of foreleg in following proportions: 61 (coxa): 59 (trochanter): 55 (femur): 51 (tibia). Enlarged claw ( Plate 90D View PLATE 90 ) with one large subdistal tooth and one row of 13–15 lamellae (few lamellae are situated between subapical tooth and distal apex). Segment 5 of protarsus ( Plate 90D View PLATE 90 ) with one row of 13 lamellae (in specimen from Brunei, 04°34'N 115°07'E, two rows of 3+13 lamellae); distal apex with about 16 lamellae. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

Male. Unknown.

Material examined. Type: holotype ♀: MALAYSIA: Malaya, Negeri Sembilan, Pasoh Forest Reserve , 23.XI.1978, P. & M. Becker leg. ( AEIC)   . Other material. BRUNEI: Temburong District, Batu Apoi Forest Reserve, Kuala Belalong Field Studies Centre , 04°34'N 115°07'E, 24.II.1992, Malaise trap, N. Mawdsley leg., 1♀ ( BMNH) GoogleMaps   .

Hosts. Unknown.

Distribution. Malaysia (Malaya), Brunei (Temburong).

2. Pseudodryinus piceus Olmi, 2011  

( Plate 90F View PLATE 90 )

Pseudodryinus piceus Olmi 2011: 60   .

Description of Male. Fully winged; length 1.9–2.4 mm. Head black, except mandible testaceous; clypeus, gena and small area around antennal toruli testaceous-brown; antenna testaceous-darkened; mesosoma black; metasoma brown; legs yellow. Antenna filiform; antennal segments in following proportions: 6:5:11:9:8:8:7:7:6.5:10. Head dull, irregularly rugose; frontal line complete, continuing also on clypeus; POL = 5; OL = 2; OOL = 5.5; OPL = 1; TL = 3; greatest breadth of posterior ocelli longer than OPL (3:1); occipital carina complete; mandible with four teeth progressing larger from anterior one to posterior. Palpal formula 6/3. Scutum dull, punctate, unsculptured among punctures, more strongly punctate on anterior half. Notauli complete, posteriorly separated; minimum distance between notauli shorter than greatest breadth of posterior ocelli (1:3). Scutellum shiny, punctate, unsculptured among punctures. Metanotum shiny, smooth, unsculptured. Mesopleura shiny, smooth, punctate, unsculptured among punctures. Propodeum dull, with large areolae; dorsal surface rugose and sculptured by two median longitudinal keels (region between above two keels rugose); posterior surface granulated and rugose. Fore wing hyaline, without dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein longer than proximal part (20:11). Genitalia in plate 90F. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

Female. Unknown.

Material examined. Types: holotype ♂: INDONESIA: Sulawesi, Karaenta , 05°02.324'S 119°44.302'E, primary seasonal forest, 300 m, 30.VII–11.VIII.2005, Malaise trap ( MNHN) GoogleMaps   . Paratypes: same locality label as GoogleMaps   holotype, 2♂ ( MNHN, AMNH)   .

Hosts. Unknown.

Distribution. Indonesia (Sulawesi).

3. Pseudodryinus sinensis Olmi, 1993  

( Plate 90G, H View PLATE 90 )

Pseudodryinus sinensis Olmi 1993b: 68   ; He & Xu 2002: 286.

Description of Female. Fully winged; length 4.1–4.2 mm. Head testaceous, except ocellar region darkened; antenna brown, except segments 1–2 testaceous and distal extremities of segments 5–10 testaceous-brown; thorax testaceous; propodeum testaceous, except posterior surface and median longitudinal streak on dorsal surface brown; metasoma brown; legs testaceous. In specimen from Singapore, mesosoma brown, except median area of pronotum, scutellum and lateral areas of scutum testaceous. Antenna filiform, very slender; antennal segments in following proportions: 9:5:56:44:25:15:10:6:8:8.5; rhinaria present in antennal segments 5–10; antennal segments 6–10 with distal part slender and proximal part broader. Head flat, shiny, unsculptured; occiput excavated; frontal line complete; occipital carina complete; POL = 4; OL = 2; OOL = 7; OPL = 1; TL = 5; greatest breadth of posterior ocelli longer than OPL (4:1). Palpal formula 5/3. Pronotum excavated, shiny, smooth, unsculptured, crossed by strong transverse furrow; pronotal tubercle reaching tegula. Scutum, scutellum and metanotum shiny, smooth, unsculptured. Notauli complete, posteriorly separated; minimum distance between notauli shorter than greatest breadth of posterior ocelli (1.5:4). Propodeum with strong transverse keel between dorsal and posterior surface; dorsal surface sculptured by two longitudinal subparallel median keels (region between above two keels rugose, dull, anteriorly sculptured by transverse keels); lateral areas of dorsal surface shiny, smooth, unsculptured; posterior surface with two longitudinal keels, median area sculptured by transverse keels and lateral areas reticulate rugose, with large areolae. Fore wing hyaline, without dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein much longer than proximal part (41:16). Protarsal segments in following proportions: 14:3:8:29:40. Segments of foreleg in following proportions: 53 (coxa): 53 (trochanter): 50 (femur): 51 (tibia). Enlarged claw ( Plate 90H View PLATE 90 ) with one large subdistal tooth and one row of 11 lamellae (few lamellae located between subapical tooth and distal apex). Segment 5 of protarsus ( Plate 90H View PLATE 90 ) with two rows of eight–ten lamellae; distal apex with about 12–14 lamellae. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

Description of Male. Fully winged; length 1.9–2.8 mm. Head brown, except mandible and part of clypeus testaceous; antenna testaceous; mesosoma brown; metasoma brown-testaceous; legs yellow, except tarsi darkened. Antenna filiform; antennal segments in following proportions: 4.5:5:10:9:8:8:7.5:7:7:10. Head dull, irregularly rugose; frontal line complete; POL = 3.5; OL = 1.5; OOL = 5.5; OPL = 0.5; TL = 4; greatest breadth of posterior ocelli longer than OPL (4:0.5); occipital carina complete; mandible with four teeth progressing larger from anterior one to posterior. Palpal formula 6/3. Scutum dull, granulated and strongly punctate. Notauli complete, posteriorly separated; minimum distance between notauli shorter than greatest breadth of posterior ocelli (1:4). In specimen from China, Mt. Diaoluoshan, notauli complete and posteriorly joint. Scutellum shiny, strongly punctate, unsculptured among punctures. Metanotum shiny, smooth, unsculptured. Mesopleura shiny, smooth, unsculptured. Propodeum dull, with dorsal surface rugose and sculptured by two median longitudinal keels (region between above two keels sculptured by transverse keels); posterior surface granulated and rugose. Fore wing hyaline, without dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein longer than proximal part (23:10). Genitalia in plate 90G. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

Material examined. Types: holotype ♀: CHINA: Taiwan, Tungpu, 1200 m, 20–24.VI.1983, K.C. Chou & C.Y. Wong leg. ( TARI)   . Paratypes: same locality label as   holotype, 1♀ ( AMNH)   and 3♂ (two in TARI, one in AMNH); same locality label as   holotype, VII.1984, VIII.1984, K.S. Lin & K.C. Chou leg., 2♂ ( TARI, AMNH)   .

Other material. CHINA: Hainan, Mt. Diaoluoshan , 28.V–1.VI.2007, Jie Zeng leg.   , 1♂ ( SCAU)   . SINGAPORE: Nee Soon swamp forest, 01°23'9.15''N 103°48'39.85''E, 37 m, 14.X.2005, Malaise trap, PGR leg., 1♀ ( MOLC) GoogleMaps   .

Hosts. Unknown.

Distribution. China ( Taiwan, Hainan), Singapore (Nee Soon swamp).

4. Pseudodryinus thai Olmi, 2008  

( Plates 90E, I View PLATE 90 , 91A, B View PLATE 91 )

Pseudodryinus thai Olmi 2008c: 233   .

Description of male ( Plate 91A, B View PLATE 91 ): fully winged; length 2.4 mm. Head black, except mandible and clypeus testaceous; antenna testaceous; mesosoma black; metasoma brown; legs testaceous-yellow. Antenna filiform; antennal segments in following proportions: 5:5:9:8:7:7:7:7:6.5:9.5. Head dull, convex, almost completely reticulate rugose; areas between posterior ocelli and eyes smooth, shiny, punctate, unsculptured among punctures; antennal scrobes smooth, shiny, unsculptured; frontal line complete; POL = 5; OL = 2; OOL = 5; OPL = 1; TL = 4; greatest breadth of posterior ocelli longer than OPL (3:1); occipital carina complete; temple very prominent; occiput very excavated, shiny, smooth, unsculptured. Mandible with four irregular teeth ( Plate 90E View PLATE 90 ). Palpal formula 6/3. Pronotum very short, rugose. Scutum shiny, strongly punctate, unsculptured among punctures. Notauli complete, posteriorly joint. Scutellum shiny, finely punctate, unsculptured among punctures. Metanotum shiny, smooth, unsculptured. Mesopleuron shiny, smooth, punctate, unsculptured among punctures. Metapleuron shiny, smooth, unsculptured. Propodeum dull, reticulate rugose, with strong irregular transverse keel between dorsal and posterior surface; dorsal surface reticulate rugose, with large areolae; posterior surface with two complete longitudinal keels and median and lateral areas reticulate rugose. Fore wing hyaline, without dark transverse bands; distal part of stigmal vein longer than proximal part (18:10); metacarpus longer than pterostigma. Paramere ( Plate 90I View PLATE 90 ) with inner transverse lobe. Tibial spurs 1/1/2.

Female. Unknown.

Material examined. Type: holotype ♂: THAILAND: Chaiyaphum Prov., Pa Hin Ngam National Park, creek at Tung Dok Grajeaw , 15°38.391'N 101°23.609'E, 750 m, Malaise trap, 12–18.VII.2006, K. Sa-nog & B. Adnafai leg. ( QSBG) GoogleMaps   .

Hosts. Unknown.

Distribution. Thailand (Chaiyaphum).

13. Genus Hybristodryinus Engel, 2005  

Hybristodryinus Engel, 2005: 486   .

Type species. Hybristodryinus resinicolus Engel 2005   , by monotypy and original designation.

Diagnosis. Female ( Plate 88B–D View PLATE 88 ); fully winged ( Plate 88B View PLATE 88 ); occipital carina complete; mandible and palpal formula not visible; antenna without tufts of long hairs; antennal rhinaria not visible; fore wing with three cells enclosed by pigmented veins (costal, median and submedian) ( Plate 88B View PLATE 88 ); chela with rudimentary claw ( Plate 88C–D View PLATE 88 ); segment 5 of protarsus less than twice as broad as enlarged claw ( Plate 88C–D View PLATE 88 ); enlarged claw shorter than protibia; tibial spurs 1/1/1. Male; unknown.

Distribution. Oriental region.

Hosts. Unknown.

World species. One species is known.

Remarks. The holotype of H. resinicolus   is in very bad conditions (Engel, pers. comm.) so that it is impossible to see characters useful to better the diagnosis and include the genus in the key to the genera of Oriental Dryininae   .

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

BPBM

Bishop Museum

TARI

Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

AEIC

American Entomological Institute

ZIL

Academy of Sciences, Zoological Institute

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

PMA

Provincial Museum of Alberta

MCZ

Museum of Comparative Zoology

ZMK

Zoologisches Museum der Universitaet Kiel

NMNH

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Dryinidae

Genus

Dryinus

Loc

Dryinus sinicus Olmi, 1987

Xu, Zaifu, Olmi, Massimo & He, Junhua 2013
2013
Loc

Dryinus anotaulicus

Xu, Z. & Olmi, M. & Guglielmino, A. & Chen, H. 2011: 849
2011
Loc

Dryinus spathulatus

Xu, Z. & Olmi, M. & He, J. 2008: 9
2008
Loc

Pseudodryinus thai

Olmi, M. 2008: 233
2008
Loc

Hybristodryinus

Engel, M. S. 2005: 486
2005
Loc

Dryinus orientalis (Olmi)

He, J. & Xu, Z. 2002: 253
2002
Loc

Dryinus maculipennis

He, J. & Xu, Z. 2002: 282
2002
Loc

Dryinus olmii

He, J. & Xu, Z. 2002: 283
Xu, Z. & He, J. 1994: 132
1994
Loc

Dryinus gibbosoides

Olmi, M. 1993: 63
1993
Loc

Pseudodryinus sinensis

He, J. & Xu, Z. 2002: 286
Olmi, M. 1993: 68
1993
Loc

Pseudodryinus

Kim, C. J. & Choi, G. W. & Lee, J. W. 2011: 167
Mita, T. 2009: 52
He, J. & Xu, Z. 2002: 285
Olmi, M. 1993: 62
Olmi, M. 1991: 365
1991
Loc

Pseudodryinus beckeri

Olmi, M. 1991: 369
1991
Loc

Dryinus sinicus

Xu, Z. & Olmi, M. & Guglielmino, A. & Chen, H. 2012: 12
Mita, T. 2009: 51
He, J. & Xu, Z. 2002: 265
Olmi, M. 1987: 425
1987
Loc

Alphadryinus asiaticus

Olmi, M. 1984: 982
1984
Loc

Mesodryinus barbarus

Olmi, M. 1984: 1018
1984
Loc

Tridryinus gibbosus

Olmi, M. 1984: 969
1984
Loc

Alphadryinus gibbosus

Olmi, M. 1984: 985
1984
Loc

Mesodryinus orientalis

Olmi, M. 1984: 1012
1984
Loc

Mesodryinus peterseni

Olmi, M. 1984: 1015
1984
Loc

Mesodryinus viet

Olmi, M. 1984: 1016
1984
Loc

Dryinus trifasciatus

Olmi, M. 1984: 807
Kieffer, J. J. 1906: 335
1906
Loc

Dryinus stantoni

He, J. & Xu, Z. 2002: 275
Olmi, M. 1998: 161
Guglielmino, A. & Olmi, M. 1997: 227
Olmi, M. 1984: 806
Ashmead, W. H. 1904: 134
1904