Stegosoma vinculatum Loew, 1863

Thomas-Cabianca, Arianna, Villet, Martin H., Martinez-Sanchez, Anabel & Rojo, Santos, 2023, South African nose flies (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Rhiniinae): taxonomy, diversity, distribution and biology, Biodiversity Data Journal 11, pp. 72764-72764 : 72764

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Stegosoma vinculatum Loew, 1863


Stegosoma vinculatum Loew, 1863 View in CoL View at ENA

= Stegosoma vinculatum Loew, 1863: 15. Type locality: South Africa, Orange Free State [Free State], Bloemfontein.


Afrotropical: Benin, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa (Fig. 119 View Figure 119 ), Zambia and Zimbabwe.


Preferred environment: Acacia savannah and mixed bushveld-grass. In Namibia, degraded sand forest and cultivated plots; apparently restricted to the Arid and Mesic Savannah Biomes ( Kurahashi and Kirk-Spriggs 2006). Recorded elevations: 1000-1240 m a.s.l. Seasonality: present year-round except for coldest months, most abundant in March and December. In Namibia, most abundant in February and December ( Kurahashi and Kirk-Spriggs 2006). Behaviour and ecology: females and males were observed on flowering Gymnosporia linearis , on flowers of Gymnosporia heterophylla and on yellow flowers of Deverra aphylla (Cham. and Schlechtd.) DC. and Heteromorpha trifoliate (Wendl.) Eckl. and Zeyh. In Namibia, it was collected and observed on yellow flowers of Zygophyllum simples I. Cuthbertson (1933) observed that males are uncommon in Harare and Victoria District in Zimbabwe (as Salisbury) and occur in flowers of Gymnosporia sp. (as Gymosporia [sic]). Attracted to open termite nest, ex termite nest of Trinervitermes ( Isoptera ), pinned with termite. Additionally in South Africa, Zumpt (1958) recorded that one male was reared from the nest of Trinervitermes havilandi Fuller (= T. trinervoides ( Sjöstedt, 1911)) in Johannesburg. In Namibia, females were exclusively attracted to broken termite nests ( Trinervitermes : T. ? T. rapulum ( Sjöstedt), T. ? T. rhodesiensis ( Sjöstedt) and Trinervitermes sp. ( Kurahashi and Kirk-Spriggs 2006). In Gobabis District, Namibia, males were observed swarming before dawn, approximately one metre above the ground and around a Terminalia sericea Burch tree. In Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, Cuthbertson (1933) observed adults swarming from a termite nest. Females were found in the vicinity of termite nests that had been cut through by a plough. Additionally seen in aardvark ( Oryctoropus afer (Pallas, 1766)) burrows. Peris (1952a) reported the species in an ant hill in Ghana and in a pig hole (probably a warthog ( Phacochoerus africanus (Gmelin)) burrow) in Nigeria. Females were observed laying eggs in soil and detritus at the bottom of the burrows in termite nests made by aardvarks ( Cuthbertson 1933). In Namibia, it was reported to have nocturnal and semi-nocturnal habits ( Kurahashi and Kirk-Spriggs 2006). Life cycle and developmental stages: oviparous. Eggs, larvae and pupae described ( Cuthbertson 1933, Cuthbertson 1935). Cuthbertson (1933) also reported that " Larvae were very active, occurring among dead and dying worker termites, it suggesting larvae could be predators. Eggs are long and slender (2.25 mm.) and were fully incubated at the moment of deposition in the soil. Newly hatched larvae measure 2.5 mm, and are able to burrow quickly downwards into the soil and termite-debris, where they develop to the pupal stage in 4-5 days. The live cycle in Mbalabala was between 14-17 days in April, 1933 ". In laboratory conditions, larvae were reared by supplying worker termites daily, but Cuthbertson (1933) also noted that the precise nature of their food is unknown. The eggs, 1st and 3rd instar larvae and puparium were described and illustrated by Cuthbertson (1935). Collection methods: Malaise trap. In Namibia, with Malaise and pitfall traps and sweeping ( Kurahashi and Kirk-Spriggs 2006). Illustrations and photographs: male habitus as in Fig. 120 View Figure 120 . Male terminalia as in fig. 66 in Zumpt (1958).

Material examined: Suppl. materials 1, 2.














Stegosoma vinculatum Loew, 1863

Thomas-Cabianca, Arianna, Villet, Martin H., Martinez-Sanchez, Anabel & Rojo, Santos 2023

= Stegosoma vinculatum

Loew 1863