Cremastosperma brevipes (DC.) R.E.Fr.
treatment provided by
|Cremastosperma brevipes (DC.) R.E.Fr.|
Cremastosperma brevipes (DC.) R.E.Fr., Acta Horti Bergiani 12: 538. 1939.
Guatteria brevipes DC. in Dunal, Monogr. Annonac.: 126. 1817.
FRENCH GUIANA, without location Martin s.n. (lectotype: G! [designated in Pirie, Kankainen & Maas, 2005], isotypes: BM, K! (uncertain whether this specimens represents an isotype) [K000485530]).
Cremastosperma poiteaui (Diels) R.E.Fr., Acta Horti Bergiani 10: 328. 1931.
Guatteria poiteaui Diels, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 11: 74. 1931.
FRENCH GUIANA, without location, 1819-1821, Poiteau, A. s.n. (holotype: G! [G00237255 G00237256]; isotypes: B! [B 10 0242372], F! [F932330], S! [S-R-7016]).
Tree 4-20 m tall, 3-20 cm diam.; young twigs and petioles glabrous to sparsely covered with appressed white/yellowish hairs to 0.2 mm long. Leaves: petioles 4 –9(– 12) by 1.5-4 mm; lamina elliptic to obovate or narrowly so, 18-39 by 7-15 cm (index 2-3.5), chartaceous, brown/green with a reddish tinge on both sides (particularly on the veins on the underside), darker above, glabrous on both sides, base obtuse to rounded, rarely acute, apex acuminate (acumen 5-20 mm long), primary vein 1.5-3 mm wide at widest point, secondary veins 9-15, intersecondary veins 0-2, distance between from 5-10 mm at the base to 35 mm closer to the apex, angles with primary vein from 45-60° at the base to 55-70° closer to the apex, not branching, forming mostly distinct loops, smallest distance between loops and margin 1-3 mm, tertiary veins percurrent. Inflorescence of single flowers, solitary or clustered in groups of 2, on leafless twigs; peduncles 1-2 by 1-2 mm (in flower), 2-5 by ca. 2 mm (in fruit), sparsely to rather densely covered with appressed white/yellowish ca. 0.1 mm long hairs; pedicels 15-20 by 1-2 mm at the base (in flower), 18-23 by ca. 2 mm (in fruit), sparsely covered with appressed white/yellowish hairs ca. 0.1 mm long or glabrous; 2 lower bracts, deltate, basal to 0.2 mm long, apical 0.3-0.5 mm long, obtuse, mostly persistent, rather densely covered with appressed white/yellowish hairs ca. 0.1 mm long; upper bract mostly attached midway along pedicel, deltate to broadly ovate, 1-2 by ca. 1 mm, obtuse or emarginate, sparsely covered with appressed white/yellowish hairs ca. 0.1 mm long; closed flower buds depressed ovoid, opening in development; flowers green, sometimes tinged with red around margins of petals or creamy yellow in vivo, reddish or dark brown in sicco, sepals and petals glabrous; sepals connate for 0.5-1 mm, broadly ovate, recurved, rarely appressed, 3-4[-5] by 3.5-5 mm, obtuse, soon falling off; outer petals elliptic, 12-22 by 7-12 mm, rounded, inner petals narrowly obovate to narrowly elliptic, 10-24 by 4-7 mm, obtuse; androecium ca. 6 mm diam.; stamens 1.4-1.6 mm long, connective appendage 0.5-0.7 mm wide; gynoecium ca. 1 mm diam.; carpels ca. 25, ca. 2.5 mm long, glabrous. Monocarps 7-17, ellipsoid, slightly asymmetrical, 11-17 by 9-11 mm, green maturing to red, reddish-brown, dark purple or black in vivo, blackish or reddish-brown in sicco, with an excentric apicule; stipes green maturing to red in vivo, 7-14 by 1-1.5(3) mm; fruiting receptacle depressed ovoid, 4-8 mm diam., monocarps, stipes and receptacle glabrous. Seeds broadly ellipsoid to globose, yellowish or orange-brown, slightly pitted, ca. 8 by 7-8 mm, raphe raised within a sunken groove, somewhat irregular.
French Guiana, region of Saül and Nouragues.
Habitat and Ecology.
Primary moist forest. At elevations of 200-800 m. Flowering: February, March, May and October; fruiting: May - October, December and January.
French Guiana: Apélému (Wayapi; Grenand 1509, Jacqemin 2349), Maman yawé ( Créole; Moretti 12).
Cremastosperma brevipes is the only species of the genus found in the Guianas. The leaves, when dried, have a characteristic reddish tinge (particularly on the underside). This species is similar to C. venezuelanum , but differing in particular by the acuminate as opposed to acute or obtuse leaf apex of C. venezuelanum , smaller sepals and monocarps and shorter stipes. Its use as fish bait has been reported. As of many Annonaceae , the bark of C. brevipes has been described as aromatic: on collection of Riera 668, a peppery smell is reported.
Preliminary conservation status.
C. brevipes has been collected regularly, occurring over a fairly wide area, including the protected area of Les Nouragues. Least concern [LC] (Table 1).
Selected Specimens Examined
. FRENCH GUIANA Rivière Arataye, Saut Pararé, 4°02'N, 52°42'W, 3 Dec 1985, Barrier 5166 (CAY, L, P, U); Saül, Mont Galbao, 3°36'N, 53°16'W, 525-700 m a.s.l., 11 Sep 1994, Boom 10812 (CAY, NY, U); Mont Inéri, 4°22'N, 52°10'W, 10 m a.s.l., 9 Sep 1997, Cremers 15331 (U); Trésor Reserve, Creek 4, middle part, 4°35'N, 52°16'W, Ek et al. 1615 (U); Régina, Montagne Tortue, 4°18'N, 52°22'W, 200-450 m a.s.l., 17 Jun 1988, Feuillet et al. 10239 (U); Piste de Saint-Elie, 5°20'N, 53°00'W, 29 Nov 1987, De Granville 10176 (CAY, P, U, US); Approuague, 4°28'N, 52°02'W, 28 Jul 1997, Hequet 432 (P, U); Pedra Alice, River Oiapoque, 3°40'N, 52°01'W, 17 Sep 1960, Irwin et al. 47562 (NY, U); Route de Bélizon, Les Eaux Claires-Saül, 3°37'N, 53°12'W, 200 m a.s.l., 9 Feb 1993, Maas et al. 8064 (MO, U); Saül, Piste de Galbao, 4°36'89"N, 54°16'25"W, 28 Aug 2003, Munzinger & Heuret 1818 (P); Crique Cacao, 2°20'N, 53°12'W, 2 May 1987, Prévost & Sabatier 2284 (CAY, U); Montagne de Kaw, 4°33'N, 52°10'W, 21 Feb 1998, Prévost 3446 (NY, U); Les Nouragues, 4°03'N, 52°42'W, 8 Oct 1992, Riera 1564 (P); Les Nouragues, basin of River Approuague, 4°04'57"N, 52°40'39"W, 89-140 m a.s.l., Oct 2001, Scharf 76 (U).
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