Anastatus (Anastatus) japonicus Ashmead,

Chen, Yong-Ming, Gibson, Gary A. P., Peng, Ling-Fei, Iqbal, Asim & Zang, Lian-Sheng, 2019, Anastatus Motschulsky (Hymenoptera, Eupelmidae): egg parasitoids of Caligula japonica Moore (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae) in China, ZooKeys 881, pp. 109-134: 125-126

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Anastatus (Anastatus) japonicus Ashmead


Anastatus (Anastatus) japonicus Ashmead  Fig. 5 A–HView Figure 5

Anastatus japonicus  Ashmead, 1904: 153; syntypes ( USNM), examined.

Anastatus bifasciatus disparis  Ruschka, 1921: 265. Synonymy by Bouček 1977: 124-124.

Anastatus disparis  ; Burgess 1929: 574, new status for Anastatus bifasciatus disparis  .

Anastatus japonicus  ; Yang et al. 2015: 163-164, fig. 84.


Female. Macropterous ( Fig. 5A, BView Figure 5); fore wing with broad hyaline cross band behind marginal vein with similarly curved basal and apical margins so band uniformly wide, and without isolated dark setae medially ( Fig. 5EView Figure 5). Mesosoma (excluding legs) with mesonotum, prosternum and usually acropleuron anteriorly dark, but at least about posterior two-thirds of acropleuron, pronotum except for dark spot anterior to each spiracle ( Fig. 5B, DView Figure 5), prepectus ( Fig. 5DView Figure 5), and tegula at least basally ( Fig. 5CView Figure 5) contrastingly paler; procoxa, except often in part laterally ( Fig. 5DView Figure 5), similarly pale as pronotum and acropleuron posteriorly; mesotarsus with all tarsomeres similarly pale yellowish to white or with basal two tarsomeres only inconspicuously darker infuscate in part ( Fig. 5BView Figure 5). Mesoscutum with posterior concave part comparatively broadly setose but white setae not attaining lateral margins ( Fig. 5CView Figure 5). Antenna with at least apical funicular slightly transverse and previous one or two funiculars subquadrate.

Male. Structure as well as color, setae and sculptural patterns ( Fig. 5FView Figure 5) similar to those described for A. gansuensis  except clava at least about as long as combined length of fl6-fl8 ( Fig. 5HView Figure 5), with fl8 and fl7 slightly transverse to quadrate and fl6 and fl5 slightly longer than wide ( Fig. 5HView Figure 5).


Anastatus japonicus  (Genbank accession no. MK604240) was reported previously from China (Beijing, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hong Kong, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong) by several authors ( Han et al. 1999; He 2001; He et al. 2001). We reared it in the field from the following localities: Gansu Province: Kang Co., Longnan City, collected 23.I.2018, Yong-Ming Chen (1♀, 1♂ AICF; 1♀, 1♂ BMNH; 21♀, 16♂ CNC; 5♀, 3♂ FAFU; 7♀,6♂ IZCAS; 1♀, 1♂ USNM). Jilin Province: Changchun City, Jilin Agricultural University, 20.VII.2017, Yong-Ming Chen (1♀, 1♂ AICF; 1♀, 1♂ BMNH; 33♀, 17♂ CNC; 1♀, 1♂ USNM).

Extralimital distribution listed for A. japonicus  by Noyes (2019) includes at least one country from all biogeographic regions except the Neotropical. It is widely distributed throughout the entire Palaearctic region where it is native.


Noyes (2019) lists A. japonicus  as a parasitoid of over 15 host species in two families of Hemiptera  ( Alydidae  , Pentatomidae  ) and five families of Lepidoptera  ( Lymantriinae  ( Erebidae  ), Lasiocampidae  , Notodontidae  , Papilionidae  , Saturniidae  ), sometimes as a hyperparasitoid through Braconidae  and Encyrtidae  primary parasitoids ( Peck 1963; Kochetova 1968). It was reared in China previously on A. pernyi  ( Wu et al. 2000) and it has been utilized for biocontrol of the litchi stink bug, T. papillosa  , being identified in the literature most commonly either as Anastatus  sp. ( Lu and Yang 1983; Lin and Lin 1998) or as A. japonicus  ( Xin and Li 1989, 1990; Tang et al. 1993; Xian et al. 2008; Li et al. 2017). Here we newly report it as an egg parasitoid of C. japonica  .


Females of A. japonicus  are most easily distinguished from two species with macropterous females reared from C. japonica  by the acropleuron being extensively paler, lighter brown to yellowish ( Fig. 5DView Figure 5), in contrast with its dark mesonotum ( Fig. 5CView Figure 5). Females of A. fulloi  and A. gansuensis  either have the acropleuron entirely dark ( Fig. 1DView Figure 1, 2FView Figure 2), similar in color to the mesonotum, or paler anteriorly only near the base of the prepectus ( Fig. 2FView Figure 2).

As noted under A. fulloi  , males of A. japonicus  and A. fulloi  are differentiated from those of A. gansuensis  and A. meilingensis  by a longer clava relative to the combined length of the apical funiculars. This is because in A. fulloi  ( Fig. 1HView Figure 1) and A. japonicus  ( Fig. 5HView Figure 5) the apical funiculars are somewhat shorter compared to those of A. gansuensis  ( Fig. 4HView Figure 4) and A. meilingensis  ( Fig. 6HView Figure 6). Currently, we cannot reliably differentiate A. japonicus  from A. fulloi  males.