Liolaemus boulengeri, Koslowsky, 1898

Abdala, Cristian Simón, 2007, Phylogeny of the boulengeri group (Iguania: Liolaemidae, Liolaemus) based on morphological and molecular characters, Zootaxa 1538 (1), pp. 1-84 : 58-62

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.1538.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:4D179388-962E-48EB-9B8C-8EDBDC8BFBF2

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/8C11FE5B-D219-FFDC-FF22-FB11FA3D5F7A

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Liolaemus boulengeri
status

 

Key for adult males of the boulengeri group

This key doesn’t included some members of the wiegmannii group ( L. arambarensis , L. azarai , L. cranwelli , L. lutzae , L. occipitalis , L. rabinoi and, L. riojanus ), and recently described species ( L. cinereus , L. enigmaticus and L.montanezi ).

1 Head as long as wide; tail of equal length or longer than SVL; outer ciliaries projecting; juxtaposed dorsal scales, without keels (the anomalous group)................................................ 2

- Head longer than wide, tail longer than SVL; outer ciliaires not projecting; juxtaposed or imbricate dorsal scales, with or without keels (the chacoensis group)......................................... 6

2 Adults never bigger than 80 mm; without light blue scales on the lateral sides of the body and tail; postscapular spot present or absent....................................................... 3

- Big sized adults, bigger than 80 mm; with light blue scales on the lateral sides of the body and tail; postscapular spot present, regularly diffuse.......................................... L. ditadai

3 Small paravertebrals spots, generally in point form.......................................... 4

- Paravertebrals spots extended to body’s midline............................................ 5

4 Postscapular spot marked, prominent; belly generally yellow; 4 or 5 scales contact the mental.. L. lentus

- Postscapular spot absent; belly white............................................ L. anomalus

5 Postscapular spot evident, prominent, when present; paravertebral spots in form of wide transverse bands; lower abdomen generally yellow; sometimes with longitudinal orange spots on lateral sides of the lower abdomen..................................................................... L. sp. 11

- Postscapular spot always absent; paravertebral spots in form of wide or thin transverse bands; lower abdomen generally gray or white; without longitudinal orange spots in lateral sides of the lower abdomen; small pink spots, spread between paravertebral spots and anterior and posterior limbs................................................................................... L. pseudoanomalus

6 Maxillary posterior tooth crowns straight-sided............................................. 7

- Maxillary posterior tooth crowns expanded—never straight.................................. 23

7 Two rows of lorilabials scales; six scales in contact with the mental............ the wiegmannii group

- One row of lorilabials scales; four scales in contact with the mental............................. 8

8 Dark line transverse to the eye absent; dorsal scales strongly keeled, imbricate; lower temporal scales keeled................................................................... L. chacoensis

- Dark line transverse to the eye present; dorsal scales with or without keels, imbricate or juxtaposed; lower temporal scales without keels........................................................... 9

9 Dorsal scales without keels, juxtaposed.................................................. 10

- Keeled, imbricate dorsal scales......................................................... 11

10 Scapular region with pre and postscapular spots, postscapular spot, larger, prominent; throat immaculate or with small dark spots....................................................... L. abaucan

- Scapular region with small prescapular spot, postscapular spot present or absent, when present, smaller or equal in size to the prescapular; throat always dark, black or dark brown............. L. uspallatensis

11 Antehumeral fold with many dark pigments forming a vertical arch anterior to the forelimb articulations .................................................................................. 12

- Antehumeral fold without dark pigments that form a vertical arch anterior to the forelimb articulations 15

12 Antehumeral vertical arch divided in two on the forelimb, formed by two black lines with white pigments between them.............................................................. L. olongasta

- Antehumeral vertical arch never divided on the forelimb..................................... 13

13 Scapular region with prescapular and postscapular spots, black, the postscapular always larger; black spot on the anterior surface of hind limbs, present or absent; black pigment in the center of the abdomen............................................................................... L. darwinii

- Scapular region without prescapular and postscapular spots; without black spot on the anterior surface of hind limbs; without black pigment in the center of the abdomen............................... 14

14 Dorsal background reddish-brown or light brown; scapular region with small prescapular spot; without yellow spot on lateral sides of neck; throat generally melanic or dark................... L. laurenti

- Dorsal background, gray; scapular region with small pre and postscapulars spots; with small yellow diffuse spot on neck lateral sides; immaculate throat, generally white................... L. grosseorum

15 With prominent prescapular spot; postscapular absent or small; light blue scales in body lateral sides and tail in great quantity................................................................. 16

- With small or absent prescapular spot; postscapular bigger or equal-sized than prescapular; light blue scales on lateral sides of body, few or absent.............................................. 18

16 Postscapular spot present, conspicuous.................................................. 17

- Postscapular spot absent or very small, in point form; without spots in the posterior postscapular region; lateral sides of body gray or light brown; dorsolateral region white or light gray........... L. quilmes

17 Postscapular spot prominent, always larger than the prescapular spot, without spots in the postscapular posterior region; dorsolateral region white; in reproductive period, throat yellow or reddish; paravertebral spots very close one to one another, separated by a very thin vertebral region........... L. koslowskyi

- Postscapular spot equal size than prescapular spot; with spots in the postscapular posterior region; lateral sides of body an intense orange or reddish; dorsolateral region yellow............... L crepuscularis

18 With defined lateral spots, generally of the same size as the scapular region spots................. 19 - Without lateral spots or with lateral spots indistinct margins, with irregular shape................. 20

19 Head and neck darker than the rest of the body; paravertebrals spots with irregular shape; lateral sides of body yellow or reddish........................................................ L. ornatus

- Head and neck less dark than the rest of the body; paravertebrals spots subquadrangular; dorsal ground yellow or orange; lateral sides of body yellow or orange............................. L. espinozai

20 Dorsal pattern formed by spots with irregular shape, irregularly spread on the dorsum; throat dark or melanic; SVL over 70 mm ............................................................ 21

- Dorsal pattern formed by spots with a regular distribution; throat never dark or melanic; SVL always smaller than 70 mm ................................................................. 22

21 Head light gray dorsally, never melanic or dark; dorsal background light or dark gray never light blue.............................................................................. L. albiceps

- Head black or dark brown dorsally; dorsal background blue-gray or light blue........... L. irregularis

22 Wide dorsolateral stripes; paravertebral spots absent or present with subquadrangular shape; wide vertebral region................................................................... L. lavillai

- Wide or thin dorsolaterals stripes; paravertebral spots always present, with subquadrangular or lineal form, crossing the dorsolateral stripes; thin vertebral region.......................... L calchaqui

23 Dark line transverse to the eye present; paravertebrals spots large, quadrangular; lower abdomen white with small dark pointed spots spread irregularly........................................ L. sp. 3

- Dark line transverse to the eye, absent................................................... 24

24 Antehumeral arch distinct, wide, melanic, expanded ventrally; SVL longer than 80 mm ............ 25

- Without antehumeral arch; SVL longer or smaller than 80 mm ................................ 36

25 Head melanic on the sides or dorsally.................................................... 26

- Head non melanic on the sides or dorsally................................................ 27

26 Head generally melanic on the sides; dorsal background iridescent green or greenish yellow; tail bluegreen; paravertebral spots melanic, with a lineal form transverse to the body, wider in the body center; totally melanic ventrally...................................................... L. melanops

- Head melanic on the sides and dorsally; dorsal background light yellow or orange; black paravertebral spots, wide, with a lineal form transverse to the body; totally melanic ventrally........... L. canqueli

27 Scapular region with pre and postscapular spots............................................ 28

- Scapular region without scapular spots.................................................. 31

28 Six scales in contact with the mental, dorsal ground brown or gray; gular band complete; lower abdomen white or yellow..................................................................... 29

- Four or six scales in contact with the mental; dorsal ground light blue, olive green or light brown; throat melanic; lower abdomen melanic, yellow, light blue or gray.................................. 30

29 Paravertebral spots indistinct; dorsal ground dark brown; head without black scales dorsally... L. sp. 10

- Paravertebral spots indistinct; dorsal ground light brown or gray; head with some black scales.................................................................................... L. cuyanus

30 Four scales in contact with the mental; dorsal ground gray or brown; scapular spots slender; lower abdomen, hindlimbs and cloaca melanic.............................................. L. morenoi

- Four to six scales in contact with the mental; dorsal ground light blue or olive green; scapular spots marked; lower abdomen yellow, light blue or gray.................................. L. mapuche

31 Paravertebrals spots in form of a line transverse to body’s axis, joined to the lateral spots, forming continuous bands................................................................... L. sp. 8

- Paravertebral spots with point form or line transverse to body’s axis, but not joined to the lateral spots or in the form of a line longitudinal to body’s axis............................................ 32

32 Paravertebral spots with point form, circular or transverse line to body’s axis but not joined to the lateral spots............................................................................. 33 - Paravertebral spots in form of a line longitudinal to body’s axis............................... 34

33 Dorsal stripe located between the dorsolateral region, dark brown; sides of the body dark green; paravertebral spots yellow or white, surrounded by black; ventrally melanic........................ L. sp. 9

- Dorsal stripe, located between the dorsolateral regions, with same color as body lateral sides, generally yellow, green or reddish; paravertebral spots yellow or green; ventrally melanic....... L. xanthoviridis

34 Four scales in contact with the mental; head intense gray or red; dorsal background red or blue-gray; paravertebral spots red; dorsolateral stripes red; ventrally melanics..................... L. fitzingerii

- Four to six scales in contact with the mental; head with blue-gray or gray; dorsal background blued gray, reddish yellow or reddish gray; paravertebral spots red or black, absent in some cases; dorsolateral stripes absent or present.................................................................... 35

35 Dark or black spot on the occipital region, transverse to head’s axis; dorsal background blue gray; back and sides of neck light yellow; vertebral region yellow; dorsolateral spots present, usually red... L. sp. 6

- Without dark or black spot on the occipital region; dorsal background reddish yellow or ash red; back and sides of neck the same color as the body dorsum; vertebral region dark gray or with the same color as body’s dorsum; without dorsolateral stripes........................................... L. sp. 7

36 SVL greather than 70 mm; neck equal or wider than the head width............................ 37

- SVL smaller than 70 mm; neck less than the head width..................................... 40

37 Paravertebral spots in form of line transverse to body’s axis; throat or lower abdomen never reddish; without gular melanism.................................................................. 38

- Paravertebral spots quadrangular; throat or lower abdomen reddish; gular melanism evident or few melanic spots...................................................................... L. josei

38 Scapular region with pre and postscapular spots; four to six scales in contact with the mental. L. goetschi

- Scapular region without scapular spots; four scales in contact with the mental.................... 39

39 Paravertebral spots joined to the lateral spots similar to the “Batman” logo; dorsal background light brown; lower abdomen gray with a yellow shade; sides of lower abdomen light yellow....... L. sagei

- Paravertebral spots joined or not to the lateral spots, never forming the “Batman” logo; dorsal background dark gray or reddish brown; lower abdomen light gray; sides of lower abdomen light gray...... L. rothi

40 Scapular region with pre- and postscapular spots........................................... 41

- Scapular region without pre- and postscapular spots........................................ 46

41 Gular melanism evident, extended from the chin to chest; lower abdomen yellow, orange or red..... 42

- Gular melanism in form of incomplete band, not extended from the chin to chest; lower abdomen white or light gray................................................................... L. martorii

42 Paravertebral spots in form of bars transverse to body’s axis; dorsal background olive green, yellow or black; sides of body yellow or olive green; tail yellow ventrally, but with more intense color than in the region between the cloaca and tail.................................................. L. loboi

- Paravertebral spots always quadrangular; dorsal background light gray or light brown; sides of body yellow or reddish; tail with the same color as the region between the cloaca and tail ventrally......... 43

43 Lower abdomen intense red; evident dorsolateral white stripes; postscapular and prescapular spots or equal size................................................................ L. boulengeri

- Lower abdomen yellow or reddish; evident dorsolateral yellow stripes or absent; postscapular spot of equal size or larger than the prescapular spot.............................................. 44

44 Lower abdomen yellow or reddish; dorsolateral stripes absent; with light blue, yellow and orange scales on sides of body............................................................... L. tehuelche

- Lower abdomen yellow; dorsolateral stripes present; without light blue, yellow and orange scales on sides of body........................................................................... 45

45 Vertebral region wide (region between the left and right paravertebrales spots); area between the mental scale, chinshields and throat with several melanic spots, or melanic; sides of body intense yellow; tail light yellow, dorsally............................................................. L. sp. 2

- Vertebral region thin or absent (region between the left and right paravertebrales spots); area between the mental scale, chinshields and throat with few or without melanic spots; sides of body light yellow or gray; tail light brown or gray, dorsally................................................... L. telsen

46 Gular melanism present............................................................... 47

- Gular melanism absent............................................................... 48

47 Paravertebral spots indistinct, diffuse; dorsal background ash gray or greenish yellow; throat with gular melanism extended from the chin to the chest; lower abdomen yellow.................. L. inacayali

- Paravertebral spots distinct, dorsal background light brown or "chocolate"; throat with gular melanism not extended from the chin to the chest; lower abdomen of pale blue or blue gray............. L. senguer

48 Paravertebral spots half-moon shaped, posteriorly opened; dorsal background light gray or orange; throat and lower abdomen with some dark little spots; lower abdomen white or gray; without light blue scales on back and sides of body.................................................... L. donosobarrosi

- Paravertebral spots circular or quadrangular shaped; dorsal background light brown or reddish; throat and lower abdomen immaculate; lower abdomen white; with some light blue scales on back and sides of body.............................................................................. L. sp. 1

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Reptilia

Order

Squamata

Family

Liolaemidae

Genus

Liolaemus