Bothriurus delmari, Santos-Da-Silva, Andria De Paula, Carvalho, Leonardo Sousa & Brescovit, Antonio Domingos, 2017
Santos-Da-Silva, Andria De Paula, Carvalho, Leonardo Sousa & Brescovit, Antonio Domingos, 2017, Two new species of Bothriurus Peters, 1861 (Scorpiones, Bothriuridae) from Northeastern Brazil, Zootaxa 4258 (3), pp. 238-256 : 240-245
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Bothriurus delmari n. sp.
Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 B, 2–3, 5A–B
Type material. Male holotype from BRAZIL, State of Bahia: Morro do Chapéu (Parque Estadual do Morro do Chapéu , 11°29'19.2"S, 41°15'27.6"W), 21.I.2012, I.L.F. Magalhães, B.T. Faleiro, G.F.B., Pereira. col., deposited in IBSP 6548 GoogleMaps . Paratypes. Same data as holotype: 2♂ ( IBSP 6439 GoogleMaps ; CHNUFPI 1625 ) GoogleMaps and 3♀ ( IBSP 6439 GoogleMaps ; IBSP 6548 GoogleMaps ; CHNUFPI 1626 ) GoogleMaps .
Additional material examined. BRAZIL, State of Bahia: Morro do Chapéu (Parque Estadual Morro do Chapéu, 11°29'19.2"S, 41°15'27.6"W), 21.I.2012, I.L.F. Magalhães, B.T. Faleiro, G.F.B., Pereira. col., 1♂, 4♀ ( IBSP 6441 , IBSP 6549 ) GoogleMaps ; (Near Buraco do Possidônio, 978 m.a.s.l., 11°38'50.4"S, 41°16'9.9"W), 03.IX.2015, L.S. Carvalho & G. Santana, 1 immature ( CHNUFPI 1737 , Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 B) GoogleMaps .
Etymology. The specific name is a patronym in honor of Delmar Lopes Alvim, a geographer, theologian, sociologist and environmentalist that attended in the preparation of the Parque Estadual de Morro of Chapéu and develops socio-educational and environmental actions with local community.
Diagnosis. Bothriurus delmari n. sp. is closely related to B. asper by the presence of a longitudinal yellow stripe on tergites and hemispermatophore morphology with internal region of capsular basal lobe (b.l.), divided into a dorsal and ventral portions. However B. delmari n. sp. can be distinguished by the following characters: (1) hemispermatophore with smaller and more curved scoop-shaped front crest (f.c.; Figs. 3 View FIGURE 3 D, E, F); (2) distal lamina (L.) longer than the basal portion, and with dorsal part of the distal crest (d.c.) almost perpendicular in respect to the posterior margin of the L., wheareas B. asper has L. shorter than the basal portion and d.c. forms an acute angle; (3) more complex arrangement of the basal lobe capsule (b.l.) with asymmetric hemiespermatophores, wheareas B. asper has symmetrical hemiespermatophores lobes; (4) asymmetric hemiespermatophores lobes, with left hemiespermatophore curved in external portion of the b.l., “hat-shaped”, displaying external large spine that is more at the basis of this portion and one marked projection with very wide edge at the distal end of b.l., whereas internal portion is highly curved, hook-shaped ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 E); (5) right hemispermatophore with elongated conical external portion and internal portion curved as a hook ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 F). Both hemispermatophores have c.c. with complex design, differing from B. asper in which the symmetrical hemispermatophores have a conical external portion covered by various internal microspines and an internal portion slightly curved. The microspines are absent in Bothriurus delmari n. sp. and B. aguardente n. sp. which has only a large external spine). (6) VSM carinae of the metasomal segment V about half the segment length, and with notable intermediate granulation ( Figs. 2 View FIGURE 2 E, J), wheareas in B. asper and B. aguardente n. sp. the VSM carinae is short and conspicuous in the distal-third of the segment with few intermediate granules.
Description. Male (holotype, IBSP 6548). Coloration. General color ranging from reddish yellow to reddish brown, with darker spots over the body and a single yellow longitudinal stripe across the tergites. Prosoma: carapace with diffuse darker spots on the anterior margin, median ocular tubercle and surrounding the lateral eyes. Although, exhibits clear pigmentation in posterior region of the lateral eyes and absence of spots in posterior median furrow and posterior marginal furrow regions; one pair of dark diagonal spots reaching from central median furrow region to the anterior margin of the carapace. Chelicerae: yellowish with reticular pattern of pigmentation on dorsal surface and dark spots in the anterior border and movable finger, reddish at the distal portion of fixed and movable finger teeth. Pedipalps: femur and patella reddish yellow with strong dark spots, except on the ventral side, where it is smooth and almost spotless; chela with soft longitudinal lines from the bottom to the fingers. Legs: yellowish, with prolateral dark spots. Coxosternal region, genital operculum and pectines entirely yellow and spotless. Mesosoma : tergites with two lateral reticulate dark bands (which occupying about 40% of the segment), separated in the median area of the segment by a yellow longitudinal median stripe. Sternites: yellowish with soft spots on the lateral margins of sternites V to VII. Metasoma: with a triangular-shaped spot dorsally, reticulate on anterior dorsal region of the segments I–IV, and a mild stain over DL carina, that joins with the spots of posterior and lateroventral region of each segment; segment V with reticulate pigmentation dorsal and laterally. Ventral surface with two longitudinal ventral lateral stripes in the form of "U”, separated in the posterior part of segments I–IV by a clear ventral median stripes; segment V with two ventral lateral stripes that join in the distal part of the segment, and also displays two dark ventral submedian stripes apart by one ventral median stripe with area depigmented. Telson: reddish brown, with one pair of bright bands ventrally and one pair on each side; aculeus dark red and dorsal surface of the vesicle with yellow spot corresponding to a single sexual gland.
Morphology. Total length: 23.7 mm (for detailed measurements, see Table 1 View TABLE 1 ). Carapace: tegument finely granular. Anterior margin of the carapace with a row of granules in males; with well marked lateral ocular, median posterior and posterior transverse furrows. Three pairs of subcontinuous lateral eyes, with the posterior eye being 20% smaller. One pair of median eyes separated by 0.8 mm from each other. Median ocular furrow well developed, more elevated than median eyes. Sternum: slit-like. Chelicerae: one subdistal tooth on movable finger. Pedipalps: with carinae and tegument finely granular and more evident in the integument of the femur. Femur tricarinate, dorsoexternal, dorsointernal and ventrointernal carinae well-marked in the proximal portion of the segment; dorsal and internal tegument with evident scattered granules, ventral side with fine granulation and smooth external surface smooth. Patella weakly granulated with weak ventrointernal and dorsointernal carinae, only the external surface is smooth. Chela robust, without carinae, only vestiges on fixed fingers. Almost smooth tegument, but shows some granules on the internal ventral medial region of fixed finger; strong conical apophysis in the internal face of the base of the movable finger, with a slight depression above the apophysis. Trichobothriotaxy: trichobothrial pattern increased neobothriotaxic type C, with one acessory trichobothrium in V series of chela: femur with 3 trichobothria (1 d; 1 i; 1 e); patella with 19 (2 d; 1 i; 13 e; 3 v); chela with 27 (17 in manus: 1 Dt, 1 Db, 1 Est, 5 Et, 1 Esb, 3 Eb, 5 V; 10 trichobothria in fixed finger); patella with trichobothria eb 4 not aligned with eb 3 - eb 5 and Esb forming a triangle with Eb 2 and Eb 3 in chela. Legs: with fine granules in prolateral side and absent in retrolateral side. Tibial spur absent and basitarsal spurs present. Basitarsi with spiniform macrosetae on prolateral and retrolateral side ( I: 2; II: 5 or 6; III and IV: 5); telotarsi with a ventromedian row of hyaline setae and pairs of ventrolateral spines on pro and retrolateral side: tarsus I: 1/1; II: 2/2, III and IV: 3/3. Tergites: I–VI with tegument finely granular. Four carinae in the posterior half of the segment VII: two paramedian and two lateral. Sternites: finely granular, without carinae; spiracles small and elliptic. Number of pectinal teeth: 22 – 22. Metasoma segments I–IV: DL carinae almost complete, present in the posterior half of the segments with posterior granules more developed; LSM and LI incomplete characterized by distal granules strongly developed and vestigial on anterior part of the segments I–IV; area between LSM and DL carinae with some fine and scattered granules on segments; VL and VSM absent. Metasomal segment V: dorsal surface almost smooth, vestigial DL carinae formed by well fine and scattered granules; LM absent; VL connected with oblique VSM carinae, together forming an arc ( VL + VSM) in distal third of the segment, VL exceeds slightly the arc; VM represented by scattered and abundant granule within the arc; surface anterior to the arc finely granular, with abundant granules. Chaetotaxy: ventral macrosetae of the metasoma as in Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 A. Telson: vesicle and aculeus elongated, with vesicle dorsoventrally compressed. Lateral and ventral surfaces with well-developed granules ( Figs. 2 View FIGURE 2 A, 3 B) and dorsal surface smooth. Hemispermatophore: L. elongated, straight in external side (posterior margin), slightly curved in medial portion of internal side (anterior margin); d.c. sharp and parallel to L. edge, divided by a transverse crest, with distal portion strongly curved, proximal portion almost straight and elongated; f.c. small, slightly elevated on the base of L., however has external dorsal extremity strongly curved, scoop-shaped; b.p. narrow and as elongated as L.; b.f. well marked, lobe region highly complex, occupying the distal third of the b.p.; b.l. complex divided into two parts: the external and internal portions. In addition, there is asymmetry between the left and right hemispermatophores characterized by morphological differences in b.l. external portion. External portion of the b.l. of the left hemispermatophore is curved, small sized, “hat”-shaped and exhibits external large spine that is more at the basis of this portion and a marked projection with very wide edge at the distal end; whereas external portion of the b.l. of the right hemispermatophore is conical-shaped and exhibits only a large spine in the basal part of this structure and one projection evident at the distal tip. The strongly curved internal portion of the b.l. of both hemispermatophores, left and right, are similarly hook-shaped; c.c. present and well developed, formed between the dorsal portion and external lobe (e.l.).
Female (Paratype, IBSP 6548). Color pattern as in male except sternites V to VII with more evident darker spots on the lateral margins, and the dorsal surface of the telson vesicle without spots. Total length: 25.9 mm (detailed measurements: Table 1 View TABLE 1 ). Morphologically differing from male by the inconspicuous and almost smooth granules in pedipalp femur with vestigial or absent carinae in this segment; by vestigial or absent granules row in anterior margin of the carapace and median ocular furrow of the carapace less developed; chela of the pedipalp less robust with longer fingers, smooth tegument and absent conical apophysis; tergites I–VI with tegument smooth and bright and sternites smooth with carinae absent; pectinal teeth number: 16–18 with smaller teeth than males; metasomal segment V with vestigial DL carinae and ventrally with evident strong granules and telson with globular oval vesicle, short aculeus, and less evident granulation.
Variation. Size. Total body length (including telson) in males, 23.7– 24 mm (n = 4); females 22.8 – 25.9 mm (n = 7). Number of pectinal teeth. Frequency in males, [n = 4, 20/20 (1), 21/21 (2), 22/22 (1)]; in females [n = 7, 16/ 17 (2), 16/18 (2), 17/17 (2), 17/18 (1)]. The immature specimen analyzed (CHNUFPI 1737), while alive, exhibited a rather darker coloration than the holotype and its tergites yellow patches were stronger on posterior half ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 B). After its fixation in alcohol, the yellow longitudinal stripe became more evident.
Distribution. Known only for the municipality of Morro do Chapéu, in the northern region of the Chapada Diamantina ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 E – F), one of the semiarid Caatinga ecoregions, in the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 ). The type-locality is a mixture of forested ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 E) and shrubby ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 F) Caatinga patches, with clayish soils. The immature specimen analyzed (CHNUFPI 1737) was collected within a forested patch ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 E), while the adult specimens were collected in Caatinga with rocky outcrops patches ( Magalhães et al. 2013: fig. 156).
|Measure||Bothriurus delmari n. sp.||Bothriurus aguardente n. sp.||Bothriurus asper|
|Male holotype||Female paratype||Male holotype||Males||Females|
|Carapace anterior width||2.1||2.4||2.1||1.6||2.3|
|Carapace posterior width||3.3||4.0||3.3||3.0||4.6|
|Metasoma segment I (length/width)||1.7/2.1||2.0/2.4||1.5/1.9||1.1/1.7||1.7/2.6|
|Metasoma segment II (length/width)||2.0/2.0||2.0/2.3||1.9/1.8||1.3/1.7||1.9/2.5|
|Metasoma segment III (length/width)||2.1/2.0||2.2/2.2||2.0/1.8||1.4/1.7||2.0/2.4|
|Metasoma segment IV (length/width)||2.7/2.0||2.7/2.2||2.5/1.7||1.8/1.6||2.4/2.4|
|Metasoma segment V (length/width)||4.0/2.0/||4.0/2.2||3.7/1.8||3.1/1.7||3.7/2.5|
|Pedipalp femur (length/width)||2.3/1.0||2.3/1.0||2.0/0.8||2.1/0.8||2.6/1.2|
|Pedipalp patella (length/width)||2.6/1.1||2.7/1.3||2.2/1.0||2.2/0.9||2.9/1.1|
|Pedipalp chela (length/width/height)||4.8/1.8/1.7||4.6/1.7/1.7||4.0/1.6/1.5||4.2/1.2/1.6||5.3/1.8/2.2|
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