Masumoto, Masami & Okajima, Shûji, 2017, Anaphothrips genus-group: key to world genera, with two new species and three new records from Japan (Thysanoptera, Thripidae), Zootaxa 4272 (2), pp. 201-220: 202

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Anaphothrips   genus-group

Generally, the members of this group have the pronotum with no long posteroangular setae or with just a single pair (rarely with two pairs), but no distinct synapomorphies for the group have been proposed, and other character states are variable. Moreover, unrelated genera in several Thripinae   genus-groups, such as Dichromothrips   , Pseudanaphothrips   , Thrips   and Trichromothrips   , have no long pronotal setae. Therefore, the position and number of long pronotal setae is of limited value in recognising phylogenetic relationships ( Mound & Palmer 1981). Several character states shared within this group appear to be plesiotypic, such as two pairs of anteocellar setae, metascutal median setae far from the anterior margin, and abdominal tergite IX of male with two pairs of short setae medially ( Mound & Palmer 1981; Mound & Masumoto 2009). The compound eyes of species in this group usually have six pigmented facets ventrolaterally. Nakahara (1988) reported several patterns of pigmented facet arrangement, and these patterns are often taxonomically useful. However, their arrangement has limited phylogenetic significance, because the number of pigmented facets often varies within a single genus or species (Bhatti 2003). In contrast, the condition of the metapre-episternum, usually slightly reduced and tapering at the apex, and with one seta when wings present, may be a synapomorphy for this group (see also, Mound & Masumoto 2009).

Until now, 38 genera have been discussed within Anaphothrips   genus-group ( Bhatti 1978; Masumoto & Okajima 2017; Minaei et al. 2014; Mound & Masumoto 2009). This total includes a presumably independent lineage from the New World comprising nine genera with species that share a unique sternal glandular structure: Ameranathrips, Apterothrips   , Baileyothrips   , Charassothrips, Desartathrips   , Enneothrips   , Pseudothrips   , Psydrothrips   and Xenothrips (De Borbon 2008; Mound & Masumoto 2009). A further New World genus, Apsilothrips and disjunction distribution between New World and Palaearctic Psilothrips   , may also be included in this genus-group because of having no long pronotal setae, six pigmented facets on the compound eye, and reduced metapre-episternum with one seta ( Bhatti & De Borbon 2008; O’Neill 1960; also see Minaei & Mound 2015).

In contrast, three further genera might be considered, but are here excluded from the Anaphothrips   genusgroup. Prosopothrips   includes nine species from Europe, South Africa and the New World; these are all apterae with no long setae on the pronotum, and are similar in body form to Aptinothrips   and Caprithrips   . However, Prosopothrips   is distinguished from members of Anaphothrips   genus-group by the strongly reticulate body surface and a large sculptured area around the spiracles on abdominal tergite VIII. Presumably related, because of the strongly reticulate body surface is the monobasic North American genus Prosopoanaphothrips ( Wilson 1975)   . Similarly, the nine European grass-living species that comprise the genus Limothrips   , a genus that used to be considered a member of Chirothripini   ( Jacot-Guillarmod 1971), all have a single pair of pronotal posteroangular setae, the metapre-episternum narrowing apically with a seta, and six pigmented facets on the compound eye. These species share with Helenothrips from West Africa the presence in females of a pair of short thorn-like setae on tergite X. Limothrips   species have sternopleural sutures on the metasternum, although Anaphothrips obscurus   , A. sudanensis   and Palmiothrips palmae   also often have a similar structure despite this being weak.  

As indicated in Table 1 and the key below, 40 genera are treated here as this group. However, as stated above, there is a lack of synapomorphies to diagnose this group, and it remains largely a matter of convenience. Moreover, Buckman et al. (2012) indicated that Aptinothrips   , Caprithrips   and Palmiothrips   are not closely related to Anaphothrips   based on molecular data. Further studies into phylogenetic relationships among the genera of this group, based on morphological and molecular data, are needed.