Telothyria van der Wulp, 1890
van der Wulp, 1890: 44, [also 1890: 167]. Type species:
van der Wulp, 1890, by subsequent designation of Brauer & Bergenstamm (1891: 378 [also 1891: 74]).
Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891: 378 [also 1891: 74]. Type species:
Schiner, 1868 (preocc. by
Bigot, 1861), by subsequent designation of Brauer & Bergenstamm (1891: 378 [also 1891: 74]). Synonymy proposed by Aldrich 1929:7. [see below under
Fleming & Wood, nom. n.]
. Incorrect subsequent spelling of
Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 ( Aldrich 1929: 7, 33).
. Incorrect subsequent spelling of
van der Wulp, 1890 (Brauer & Bergenstamm 1893: 132 [also 1893: 44]).
Coquillett, 1902: 199. Type species:
van der Wulp, 1890 (=
Fabricius, 1805), by original designation. Syn. n.
Townsend, 1916: 627. Type species:
Coquillett, 1895, by original designation. Synonymy proposed by Wood and Zumbado 2010: 1412.
Curran, 1925: 8 (preocc. by
Coquillett, 1910). Type species:
Curran, 1925, by original designation. Synonymy proposed by Curran 1928: 112.
Curran, 1928: 112. Type species:
Curran, 1925, by monotypy. Syn. n.
Townsend, 1931: 332. Type species:
Townsend, 1931, by original designation. Syn. n.
Townsend, 1933: 527 (nomen novum for
Curran). Type species:
Curran, 1925, by designation of the same species for
Curran, 1925. [ Curran 1928 proposed the synonymy of
Curran, 1925 with
Coquillett, 1902. Despite this proposed synonymy Townsend 1933 proposed a replacement name for
Curran, erected on the basis of
Curran, 1925 which Townsend considered to be generically distinct from
; junior synonym of
Coquillett, 1902 [teste Curran 1928: 112]]. Syn. n.
Townsend, 1939: 451. Type species:
Townsend, 1939, by original designation. Syn. n.
Thompson, 1963: 486. Type species:
Thompson, 1963, by original designation. Syn. n.
Other species included in
Curran, 1925: 352 (
). Holotype male (AMNH), by original designation. Type locality: Brazil, Roraima, San Alberto. [Type locality cited in Curran (1928) as Honduras in error] Comb. n.
Giglio-Tos, 1893: 3 (
). Holotype female (MRSN), by original designation. Type locality: Mexico. Comb. n.
van der Wulp, 1890: 169 in key [1890: 182, description] (
). Lectotype male [not female as published, Townsend 1931: 91] (BMNH), by fixation of Townsend 1931: 91. Type locality: Mexico, Tabasco, Teapa.
Townsend, 1939: 451 (
). Syntypes, 2 males (USNM), by original designation. Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo, Juquía [cited in Guimarães 1971: 121 as Itaquaquecetuba]. Comb. n.
Curran, 1927: 12 (
). Holotype male (AMNH), by original designation. Type locality: Puerto Rico, San Juan. Comb. n.
Townsend, 1931: 333 (
). Holotype male (USNM), by original designation. Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo, Itaquaquecetuba Comb. n.
Thompson, 1963: 486 (
). Holotype female (CNC), by original designation. Type locality: Trinidad, Maracas Valley. Comb. n.
Curran, 1925: 9 (
). Holotype male (AMNH), by original designation. Type locality: Brazil, "Piedra Blanca" (as “Chapada”, in error according to Arnaud 1963: 126). Comb. n.
Thompson, 1963: 488 (
). Holotype male (CNC), by original designation. Type locality: Trinidad, St. Augustine. Comb. n.
Townsend, 1908: 101 (
). Holotype male [sex not given in original description, determined from holotype examination] (USNM), by original designation. Type locality: Mexico, Veracruz, San Rafael, Jicaltepec. Comb. n.
Curran, 1925: 8 (
). Lectotype male (AMNH), designated by Arnaud (1963). Type locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso, "Chapada" [probably in or near present-day Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Guimarães]. Comb. n.
van der Wulp, 1890: 171 (
). Holotype female (BMNH). Type locality: Mexico, Veracruz, Atoyac.
Fleming & Wood, nom. n. for
Schiner, 1868: 324 (
). Holotype male (NHMW). Type locality: Brazil. Junior primary homonym of
Bigot 1861. [
Schiner 1868 is a junior primary homonym of
Bigot, 1861 a valid name within the
. The authors hereby propose the replacement name
Schiner. The type material originally referenced by Schiner is conserved, with the specific epithet being selected in honor of Ignaz Rudolph Schiner.]
Coquillett, 1895: 105 (
). Lectotype male (USNM), by fixation of Townsend in Townsend 1939: 250 (mention of "Ht male" from Bucks and Delaware counties in USNM is regarded as a lectotype fixation). Type locality: USA, Pennsylvania, Bucks County.
Thompson, 1963: 484 (
). Syntypes males and females (1 male in CNC), by original designation. Type locality: Trinidad, Brazil (village name). Comb. n.
Fabricius, 1805: 281 (
). Holotype male (ZMUC), by original designation. Type locality: South America. Comb. n.
Fabricius, 1805: 301 (
). Holotype female (ZMUC). Type locality: South America. Syn. n.
van der Wulp, 1890: 95 (
). Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Mexico, North Yucatan, Temax.
van der Wulp, 1890: 169. by subsequent designation
Male. Head: frons narrow 1/10-1/8 of head width; 1-4 reclinate orbital setae; anteriormost reclinate orbital seta distinctly longer than uppermost frontal seta; ocellar setae most often absent, if present then these appearing short and underdeveloped, easily confused with vertical setulae arising behind anterior ocellus; eye bare, ventral margin below level of vibrissa; fronto-orbital plate ranging from shining silver or gold to brownish with a silver sheen; fronto-orbital plate with short black or blonde hairs interspersed among frontal setae; fronto-orbital plate with setae not extending below lower margin of pedicel; lower margin of face slightly lower than vibrissa almost not visible in profile; facial ridge bare in most species, the few exceptions possessing yellow almost inconspicuous hairs along margin; palpus either straight or with a slight club at apex, sparsely haired; arista ranging from bare to plumose, usually distinctly-thickened on basal 1/2, ranging in color from orange to dark brown-black. Thorax: gray to golden tomentose over a black to reddish-brown ground color; thorax covered in dense plumose blonde hairs or plumose hairs confined to lateral surfaces with disc of scutum covered in thin black hairs; prosternum bare; chaetotaxy: one proepimeral seta; one proepisternal seta; 4-5 postpronotal setae, basal setae arranged in a straight line; supra-alar setae 1-2:3; intra-alar setae 1-2:2-3; dorsocentral setae 3-4:3-4; acrostichal setae 3-4:3-4; katepisternum with 2-3 setae; meral setae usually absent in the traditional sense instead meral row replaced by a fan of long plumose hairs (Fig. 2 c). Scutellum with three pairs marginal setae; apical scutellar setae crossed apically, 1/8-1/10th as long as subapical scutellars; basal scutellar setae equal in length to subapical setae, often slightly shorter; subapical setae straight, ranging from divergent to convergent; ranging from gray to golden pollinose. Legs: ranging in ground color from yellow to dark reddish-brown; coxae covered in dense plumose blonde hairs. Wing: slightly longer than abdomen; translucent slightly hyaline; all veins bare, with 1-2 setula at base of vein R4+5; apical cell open at or just before the apex of wing; bend of vein M obtuse-angled. Abdomen: ground color ranging from a deep maroon, to different tonalities of yellow-orange with longitudinal middorsal brown markings; middorsal depression on syntergosternite 1+2 (ST1+2) reaching to hind margin of tergite; median marginal setae present only on tergite 4 (T4) and tergite 5 (T5) (one exception
sp. n., which lacks the marginal setae on tergite 4 (T4)); median discal setae absent on ST1+2-T4, occasionally present on T5; sex patch absent. Male terminalia: Sternite 5 with median cleft ranging from deeply excavated and smoothly V-shaped, to shallow and only slightly separated; margins either bare or covered in dense pollinosity; lateral lobes of sternite either sharply pointed, rounded apically or squared, sometimes with a small group of strong setulae along outer margins; basal section of sternite 5 subequal to slightly longer than length of apical lobes. Cerci in posterior view sharply pointed and triangular typically with a well defined basal shoulder separating upper lobe from apical section, ranging from slightly shorter to subequal in length of surstyli, fused along entire length; in lateral view, with a strong downward curve on apical 1/3, and several strong widely spaced setae along basal 2/3. Surstylus in lateral view, almost equilateral along its length, rounded at tip, sometimes slightly pinched at midpoint appearing digitiform, appearing fused with epandrium, when viewed dorsally straight and slender or with a slight sinusoidal curve, parallel at apices. Distiphallus either long and slender or short and stout, ranging from 1.5X to 2X as long as basiphallus and tubular, weakly tapering apically. Distiphallus, hinged at a strong acute angle with basiphallus, a synapomorphy of the
Female as in male except in the following aspects: head: bearing 2-3 pairs of proclinate orbital setae, as well as 2-3 pairs of reclinate inner orbital setae; one pair of outer vertical setae present; thorax: meron bearing either typical meral setae not plumose blonde hairs as in male (Fig. 2 d) or a mix of both plumose blonde hairs and regular setae (Fig. 2 e); legs: can display dimorphic coloration from males; abdomen: slightly more globose than males, coloration of the abdomen can be dimorphic between the sexes; female terminalia were not dissected, however external examination showed these to be unspecialized.
can be recognized most easily by the presence of long plumose hairs covering more than 50% of the thoracic surfaces, a trait that was historically used to unify the genera within the tribe. In males of the genus, and many of the females, the meral setae are also replaced with these plumose hairs. Characters of note within
are: prosternum bare; fronto-orbital plate haired; parafacial bare; arista ranging from plumose to bare; ocellar setae weakly developed or absent; eye bare; females of all species with two pairs of well-developed proclinate orbital setae, absent in males; first postsutural supra-alar seta poorly developed in length at most 0.5X second postsutural supra-alar; the three major setae of the postpronotum arranged in a straight line; most of the thorax covered in plumose blonde or coppery hairs (some species lack these setae dorsally) (Fig. 1
View Figure 1
); wings lacking costal spine. Abdomen with median marginal setae only on T4 and T5 (exception
sp. n.), and discal setae absent.
From southeastern USA west to Mexico and south to Brazil.
Within the ACG inventory
has been reared from two families of lepidopteran hosts throughout the diverse ecosystems of the research area,
. Guimarães (1977), suggested
sp. of the family
, however he failed to identify the species of
and as such casts a doubt on this potential host.
Based on our observations of the apomorphies shared by the species assigned to the tribe
, expressed as a result described herein, we propose the synonymy of all the genus-group names listed above within the tribe
. Most recently, it has been suggested that the
are a phylogenetically nested sub-clade within the
( Stireman et al. 2019); this evidence, is still the subject of discussion, as the reconstruction of the
is still unclear. So, for the sake of continuity, taking into account all the available evidence, and given the remarkable difference between
and other genera within the
, the authors have chosen to maintain the
as a monotypic tribe, until further examination is conducted to clarify its classification.