Clivina castanea Westwood, 1837

Balkenohl, Michael, 2021, Belgian Journal of Entomology, Belgian Journal of Entomology 115, pp. 1-83 : 13-15

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.5645953


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Clivina castanea Westwood, 1837


Clivina castanea Westwood, 1837 View in CoL

( Figs 1 View Fig , 4 View Fig , 5 View Fig , 9 View Figs 9–15 , 16 View Fig , 36 View Fig , 56 View Fig , 76 View Fig , 84 View Fig , 103 View Fig )

Clivina castanea WESTWOOD, 1837: 128 View in CoL ; PUTZEYS 1863: 35, 1866: 131; ANDREWES, 1919: 179, 1926 A: 348, 1926 B: 377, 1928: 150, 1929 A: 304, 1929 B: 374, 1930 B: 112, 1931: 434; CSIKI, 1927: 499, 1933: 639; MATSUMURA, 1929: 137; KULT, 1951: 25; NAKANE, 1952: 2, 1953: 47, 1978: 5; DARLINGTON, 1962: 362; LORENZ, 1998: 131, 2005: 142; BALKENOHL, 2001: 14, 2017 C: 255; BOUSQUET, 2009: 41; ASTON, 2016: 215.

TYPE MATERIAL. • Holotype: ♀, with white, small, black printed labels and data: “ Phil Isla ” and back side handwritten with dark grey ink “42 22” / white, handwritten with black ink “ Clivina castanea Westw. Proc: Zool: Socy.” / white, circular, red bordered, black printed “Type H.T.” ( Fig. 9 View Figs 9–15 ) ( BMNH) .

REMARKS. The holotype is of immature stage. Right antennae from antennomere five onwards missing, right front leg with the two terminal tarsomeres missing, pronotum with crack, right elytron with crack and pin hole, coxa of right hind leg dislocated. Glued specimen (BMNH).

WESTWOOD (1837) did not mention if his description was based on one or more specimens. He reports, the specimen was collected “at Manilla”. PUTZEYS (1866, footnote p. 131) indicates “Manille. 1 ind. rapporté par M. Cuming.” Also ANDREWES (1919) did not mention on how many specimens the description of Westwood was based on. He mentioned, the specimen is small and immature which seems to be correct according to my observation of the holotype. Interestingly, there is a second historic conspecific female specimen available in BMNH with identical locality labelling as in the holotype: “Phil Isla” and back side handwritten with dark grey ink “42 22”, but without any other label. The specimen is mature. Left antennae from joint seven onwards missing, left front leg with tibia and tarsomeres missing, left intermediate leg with tibia and tarsomeres missing, left hind leg with third tarsomere onwards missing, right elytron with pin hole. This second specimen is regarded as another specimen seen by Westwood due to the following reasons: The locality label is identical, especially regarding paper type, size, colour, writing, and cutting. Also the handwriting and the level of grey of the handwriting in ink on the backside is identical with that of the holotype. The mounting pin is of the same type. Therefore, it is concluded this specimen belongs to a small series WESTWOOD (1837) saw during the description. The specimen is therefore regarded as paratype.

The footnote of PUTZEYS (1866, p. 131) is not correct. WESTWOOD (1837) described and reported the species, and the specimens were collected by M. Cumings.

It should be mentioned that PUTZEYS (1863) originally described a species under the name of C. castanea on the basis of two specimens from Sri Lanka and New Guinea. He renamed it later in C. westwoodi because he found the name castanea was preoccupied ( PUTZEYS, 1866). However, C. westwoodi Putzeys 1866 is a species belonging to a different species group. An explanatory summarization of this case is presented in DARLINGTON (1962).

Paratype: • 1 ♀, with labels and data: white, small, black printed Phil Isla and back side handwritten with dark grey ink 42 22 (see remarks / BMNH) .

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL: • 1 ♂, PHILIPPINEN, Manila A. Heyne, Berlin-Wilm. / Clivina castanea Westw. det. Bänninger / C. castanea Westw. det. K. Kult 57 ( ETHZ) ; • 1 ♂, with labels and data: light brown, black printedand handwritten “Acc. No 9117 Lot Govt. Lab. Coll.” / Collected by W. Schultze ” / yellow, black printed “ Philippines ” ( MFNB) ; • 1 ♂, PHILIPPINES BOHOL, Dimiao Banban ii.1981 leg. Mittermann / Clivina castanea Westw. det. Alex. Dostal 1981 ( CADW) ; • 2 ♀♀, Mt. Makiling Luzon, Baker / Clivina castanea West. Coll. L. F. Baker 1927 / C. castanea Westw. det. K. Kult 57 ( ETHZ) ; • 1 ♂, Los Baños P. I., Baker / Clivina castanea Westw. Coll. L. F. Baker iv.1927, H.E. Andrewes det. / C. castanea Westw. det. K. Kult 57 ( ETHZ) ; • 1 spec., Manila Philipp. / ex coll. Jedlička Nat. Mus. Prague / Clivina castanea Wd H.E. Andrewes det. ( NHMP) .

DIAGNOSIS. Amedium sized species with smooth lateral margins of the pronotum and elytron, with isodiametric reticulation on interval eight of the elytron, and shape of lobes of the mentum like a skewed trapezium with slightly convex anterior margin, rounded antero-lateral angles, and with the median tooth as far projecting as the lobe. Asimilar combination of characters is present in C. agona and C. apexplana sp. nov. C. agona differs mainly by the distinct group of punctures laterally in the basal half of the pronotum and the much more triangular lobe of the mentum. C. apexplana sp. nov. differs mainly by the median tooth of the mentum which is much less projecting anteriorly than the lobes, and by the intervals of the elytra which are flattened at the apex.

REDESCRIPTION. Measurements. Holotype: Body length 7.57 mm, width 2.26 mm; ratio length/widthofpronotum 0.89; ratiolength/widthofelytra 1.84.

All material: Body length 7.57–8.22 mm (: = 7.81 mm *), width 2.26–2.55 mm (: = 2.36 mm *), ratiolength/widthofpronotum 0.89–0.93 (: 91*), ratiolength/widthofelytra 1.84– 1.89 (: = 1.87*); (*n = 9).

Colour: Glossy. Piceous. Intermediate and hind leg dark fuscous, antenna and tarsomere fuscous. The immature holotype is leoninous.

Head: Athird narrower than pronotum. Clypeus slightly excised anteriorly; wing prominent, as protruding as clypeus, separated from clypeus by distinct notch; supraantennal plate convex; clypeus, wing, and supraantennal plate reflexed margined. Supraantennal plate extended up to mid-eye level, separated from wing by sharp notches. Clypeus transverse, slightly convex, separated from frons by moderately deep furrow. Frons moderately convex, with slight pore at middle, with blunt lateral carina at posterior eye-level. Clypeus and frons smooth, with minute scattered punctures, separated from wing and supraantennal plate by deep moderately wide furrow continuing posteriorly as wide supraorbital furrow with two supraorbital setigerous punctures at posterior eye level. Neck constriction developed as small step, with row of small punctures. Eye hemispherical, projecting. Gena distinct, covering a quarter of eye in ventral view. Antenna just reaching posterior seta of pronotum, slightly flattened, antennomeres four to ten of moderate length (ratio L/W around 1.8). Labrum indistinctly convex anteriorly, with obtuse angle at middle, with isodiametric reticulation, seven setose. Mentum ( Fig. 36 View Fig ) with indistinct isodiametrically reticulated surface, with lobe concavely hollowed out, shape of lobe like a skewed trapezium with slightly convex anterior margin and slightly rounded anterior lateral angle and angled anterior medial angle, carinate laterally and anteriorly, with long carina at middle, median tooth wide, as protruding anteriorly as lobe, obtusely angled anteriorly (angle around 150°).

Pronotum ( Fig. 56 View Fig ): Disk distinctly convex in lateral and frontal view. Slightly wider than long. Reflexed lateral margin smooth, convex but nearly straight attenuating in anterior half, with nearly straight attenuating part in anterior half, widest in posterior third; anterior angle obtuse; posterior angle marked by distinct tooth, laterally projecting as far lateral margin in posterior third. Lateral channel stepped from disk, with indistinct reticulation. Median line narrow, linelike; anterior transverse line punctured, joining median line, just joining basal constriction. Surface smooth, with a few transverse wrinkles, with indistinct microscopic punctures, with isodiametric reticulation in basal quarter.

Elytron ( Figs 4 View Fig , 5 View Fig ): Disk flattened in anterior half in lateral view, convex on frontal view. Nearly twice as long as wide, slightly dilated in apical half with maximum width behind middle. Reflexed lateral margin smooth. Scutellar striole distinct; setigerous tubercle at base of first stria, with small but distincttubercle at base of third interval. Striae moderately deep, punctuatestriate, one to three free at base, four to seven joining at humerus, one running up to apex, two ending free at apex, three and four, and five and six joining apically. Intervals equally and moderately convex, eights with short carina at humerus and longer carina apically. Third interval with four setigerous punctures, first situated at second stria near base, the other three approaching third stria. Surface of intervals glossy, interval eight with isodiametric reticulation, in few specimens traces if isodiametric reticulation on interval seven along stria seven.

Hind wings: Fully developed.

Lower surface: Proepisternum covered in lateral half with distinct isodiametric reticulation and with few fine not deep transverse wrinkles ( Fig. 76 View Fig ). Terminal sternite of abdomen at apex with flat transverse sulcus.

Legs: Legs covered with indistinct reticulation. Protibia with three spines of moderate length, not sulcate dorsally, movable spur regularly arcuate.

Male genitalia ( Fig. 84 View Fig ): Median lobe regularly slender in ventral view, moderately arcuate, apex with slender and slightly distorted spatula, ventral rim distinct, base with moderate apophysis, with no visible microtrichia on the surface. Endophallus strongly folded, with group of short and dense bristles apically. Ventral paramere widened, somewhat distorted, acuminated in apical quarter, apex pointed, at apex with two long setae and two shorter ones preapically. Dorsal paramere slightly and regularly arcuate, slender, at apex with two long and one shorter setae and one short seta preapically.

Female genitalia. Female coxostylus and laterotergite ( Fig. 103 View Fig ): Coxostylus moderately broad, distinctly curved, dorsally with five long to medium sized, one small and two distinctly elongated and robust nematiform setae in basal half, ventrally with two long and around ten smaller setae, with one minute SSOs. Laterotergite with eight setae basally and one isolated seta towards coxostylus.

VARIATION. Variation was observed in the isodiametric reticulation of interval eight which covers only half of the interval (in the HT) and extends to the whole interval in other specimens. In some specimens the reticulation at the base of the pronotum is laterally slightly extended anteriorly. The transverse furrow separating the clypeus from frons is less deep in the holotype.

DISTRIBUTION. Known from the Philippines with attributable records from the islands of Luzon and Bohol.


United Kingdom, London, The Natural History Museum [formerly British Museum (Natural History)]


Switzerland, Zurich, Erdgenoessische Technische Hochschule-Zentrum


Italy, Udine, Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale






Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule-Zentrum


Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale














Clivina castanea Westwood, 1837

Balkenohl, Michael 2021

Clivina castanea WESTWOOD, 1837: 128

ASTON P. 2016: 215
BOUSQUET Y. 2009: 41
LORENZ W. 2005: 142
BALKENOHL M. 2001: 14
LORENZ W. 1998: 131
NAKANE T. 1978: 5
DARLINGTON P. J. 1962: 362
NAKANE T. 1953: 47
NAKANE T. 1952: 2
KULT K. 1951: 25
CSIKI E. 1933: 639
ANDREWES H. E. 1931: 434
MATSUMURA S. 1929: 137
ANDREWES H. E. 1928: 150
CSIKI E. 1927: 499
ANDREWES H. E. 1919: 179
PUTZEYS J. A. A. H. 1866: 131
PUTZEYS J. A. A. H. 1863: 35
WESTWOOD J. O. 1837: 128
1926 A: 348
1926 B: 377
1929 A: 304
1929 B: 374
1930 B: 112
2017 C: 255
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